User:IlL/Venetian Hebrew

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Venetian Hebrew/Lexicon

Venetian Hebrew/Swadesh list

Venetian Hebrew (ngiwrith /ˈɲiwriθ/) is a descendant of Hebrew spoken in Lõis's Northern Italy, Austria and Southern Germany. The phonology is similar to Allemañisch.

Numbers: 0-10: afs, ódh (m)/áth (f), hnay, hlusz, arbøng, homisz, szesz, szew, hmun, teszøng, ngaxør

11-20: ódh/áth ngaxør, hnay ngaxør, hlusz ngaxør, arbøng ngaxør, homisz ngaxør, szesz ngaxør, szew ngaxør, hmun ngaxør, teszøŋ ngaxør, ngaxre

40: stay ngaxre

60: hlusz ngaxre

...

120: merkø

14400: rúø

before: kkurm


Introduction

  • Swadesh list
  • bel-, ble- is a common prefix (conflation of ben- and ba3al-)
  • Ni bø løhabiw ngiwrith, khozuth ni bø lødhabir akh ttipøth ngiwrith.
    • I like Hebrew, but I only know a little bit of Hebrew.
  • tøthunith = Þiúsьk
  • volith = some Celtic language
  • Am yaging li... = May I...
  • szang sze... = when...
  • Many adverbs are from infinitive absolute
  • likkori = to die (lit. be called)

Phonology

Orthography

Consonants

/m pʰ b f w n tʰ t˭ d θ ð ts s z ʂ j ŋ kʰ k˭ g x h l r/ m p b f w n t tt d th dh ts s/x z sz y ng k kk g kh h l r

Allophonic palatalization occurs before /ɛ/, /i/ or /j/. /ŋ kʰ k˭ g x/ palatalize to alveolopalatals /ɲ tɕʰ tɕ˭ dʑ ɕ/.

Mutations

Words can undergo initial lenition, as in Irish and Tiberian Hebrew:

p- b- t- d- k- g- > f- w- th- dh- kh- Ø-

"Already lenited" consonants lenite as follows: f w th dh kh Ø > nf, nw, nth, ndh, nkh, n

Vowels

/a ɛ i ɔ u ə a: ɛ: i: ɔ: u: ə:/ = a e i o u ø á é í ó ú ǿ

Word-final /i/ is silent and palatalizes the preceding consonant.

Prosody

Stress

Stress is always penultimate.

Intonation

Phonotactics

Morphophonology

Morphology

Nouns and adjectives

Nouns are either masculine or feminine, and inflect for number. Adjectives agree with nouns in gender and number.

  • The regular feminine singular suffix is -ø or -th.
  • The regular masculine plural suffix is -i after consonants and -yø after vowels.
  • The regular feminine plural is -uth.
  • However, there are many irregular plurals, especially nouns derived from construct state constructions. e.g. benusz, blenusz = human

køfor, køfori (m) = village, villages

bagbøg, bagbøgi (m) = bottle, bottles

i, iyø (m) = island, islands

kkiszø, kkiszøyø (m) = squash, squashes

gøfø, gøfuth (f) = corpse, corpses

tagrith, tagriyuth (f) = incident, incidents

Pronouns

Venetian Hebrew has an auxiliary verb system similar to Colloquial Welsh. In addition, there is a T-V distinction: the 2nd person plural tem is also used as a polite pronoun.

Auxiliaries

Inflection of the present auxiliary
→ Person
↓ Truth value
1sg 2sg.m 2sg.f 3sg.m 3sg.f 1pl.in 2pl 3pl Non-pronominal
Affirmative ni to te u i nanu, onu, nu tem em re, r'
Interrogative am ni am to am te am u am i am nu am tem am em am
Negative eneni en to en te en u en i en nu en tem en em en
Inflection of the preterite auxiliary
→ Person
↓ Truth value
1sg 2sg.m 2sg.f 3sg.m 3sg.f 1pl.in 2pl 3pl
Affirmative si ni, si thi si tho si the so u sto i si nu si them su'm
Inflection of the future auxiliary
→ Person
↓ Truth value
1sg 2sg.m 2sg.f 3sg.m 3sg.f 1pl.in 2pl 3pl
Affirmative lekh ni tlekh to tlekh te lekh u tlekh i lekh nu tlekh tem lekh em
Inflection of the subjunctive auxiliary
→ Person
↓ Truth value
1sg 2sg.m 2sg.f 3sg.m 3sg.f 1pl.in 2pl 3pl
Affirmative és ni tás to tás te yás u tás i nás nu tásu tem yásu'm


Perfect: present copula + ár (negated: bli)

Syntax

Constituent order

The order is tense-subject-verb-object.

R'iszaz bø lékhul tapuhaz.
The man is eating the apple.
Re bethi ni bø dhe-rul kø liyothøn.
My house is as big as a whale.
Sto i lásuth halgbethø i bø rø-múhør.
She did her homework very late.

Noun phrase

The definite article is a clitic:

  • Singular: -az (after C) or -zu (after V)
  • Plural: -il

Examples:

  • hadhør = a room
  • hadhraz = the room
  • hadhri = rooms
  • hadhril = the rooms
  • hadhør grul = a big room
  • hadhør grulaz = the big room (< ha hadheor ha godhowl ha ze)
  • boti gruli = big houses
  • boti grulil = the big houses
  • tøpuaz r' iszaz bø lékhul u = The apple, the man eats it

There is no construct state, unlike in Biblical Hebrew. Genitives are expressed with concatentation: szem malkaz = the king's name.

To say "this X" or "that X", X-az fu and X-az szom (lit. "the X here" and "the X there") are used. To say "this" and "that", you say ze fu and ze szom (where the ze becomes ilø in the plural).

The abstract demonstrative is zuth.

Verb phrase

Isz li rangu "I'm hungry"

Sentence phrase

Dependent clauses

Example texts

UDHR, Article 1

Kku kol blenuszil ledhø kø wlehuri, hem szowi ngar kúdhaz ke skhøyuthil. Kku'm lehangnig bø thwønø ke matspøn, ke re ngalem léthnágh ódh lø hni bø nøszomø ahwø.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act toward one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Tower of Babel

  1. Bø khol ngulømaz tho áth sofø bø kkáth ledhabir ke uthøm miluthil lisztamisz.
  2. Wini ksze yu'm bø losangøth me mizroh, su'm litakkil bø miszoraz Szinngor ke lithyaszew szom.
  3. Ke su'm lemur: "Enø, bu tonu lásuth lwenuth ke léfuth em ettew." Ke su lwenuthil leszamisz lom em kø awnebniyø, ke hemør kø mald.
  4. Ke su'm lemur: "Enø, bu tonu lewnuth ngir ke mídøl bo i, yás ruszu u laging le szomay, ki nás nu lásuth lonu szem, klu nás nu lithpazir ngal pli kol ngulømaz!"
  5. Wini so Eluim lowu matø, sze yás u listakil ngiraz ke mídølaz sze yu blenuszil bø lewnuth.
  6. Ke so Eluim lemur: "Szang sze em ár hatholø lásuth zuth kø ódh ngom sze bø ledhabir áth sofø, lu yiye szum mikhszul ngal ma u ma sze yásu'm lithkawin lásuth!
  7. "Enø, bu tonu lekht matø ke løwalbil soføthom em, pen yásu'm láwin szuthif."
  8. Kokh so Eluim løfazir em, ke su'm lahdul lewnuth ngiraz.
  9. Ke mi sibøzu fu sze ngiraz bø kkáth szemaz "Bovil" -- szom so Eluim løwalbil sofø kol ngulømaz. Me szom so Eluim løfazir em ngal pni kol ngulømaz.

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