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Ancient Kihā́mmic

Consonants

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ
Plosive p b t d c ɟ k g
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ç x ʁ h
Affricate t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Approximant j w
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral app l ʎ

Vowels

Oral

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i iː u uː
Near-close ɪ ʊ
Close-mid o
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛ ɔː
Near-open
Open a aː ɑ

Nasal

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close ĩ ũ
Near-close
Close-mid õ
Mid ə̃
Open-mid
Near-open
Open ã

Awe

Awe: áa'owi [âːʔòwì] / English: Awe [ɑːweɪ̯]

Xokái pôpo hipóroor hiyaáhakoáárbái.
/ʃòkáì pōpò hìpóɾȍːɾ hìjǎːhàkòa̋ːɾbáì/
[ʃòkʷáì pōpò hìpóɾȍːɺ hìjǎːhàkʷòa̋ːɺbáì]
xokái pôpo hi-póro-or-Ø hi-yaá-hakoá-ár-bái
stick big I-use.PST.IMPF I-him-hit.PST.PF
I hit him with a big stick.

Black/dark, white/light, red, grue.

Bamenese

Bamenese
빠맨닥
Type
Analytic
Alignment
Nominative-accusative
Head direction
Initial Mixed Final
Primary word order
Verb-object-subject
Tonal
Yes
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
None

빠맨닥 [bā.mɛ̀n.tāk̚]

Bamȅn tak (bba.maen dag)

Phonology and orthography

Vowels: /ä/ ㅏ a, /e/ ㅔ e, /ɛ/ ㅐ ë, /i/ ㅣ i, /o/ ㅗ o, /ɔ/ ㅓ ö, /u/ ㅜ u, /y/ ㅡ ü.

Consonants: /b/ ㅃ b, /t͡ɕ/ ㅈ ch, /d/ ㄸ d, /ɟ/ ᄏ dj, /f/ ㅍ f, /g/ ㄲ g, /h/ ㅎ h, /d͡ʑ/ ᄍ j, /k/ ㄱ k, /l/ ㄹ l, /m/ ㅁ m, /n/ ᄂ n, /ŋ/ ᄋ ng, /p/ ㅂ p, /s/ ㅅ s, /ɧ/ ᄎ sz, /t/ ㄷ t, /c/ ᄐ tj, /z/ ㅆ z.

Before /i/:

  • /s/ and /z/ become [ɕː] and [ʑː] respectively
  • /c/ and /ɟ/ become [c͡ç] and [ɟ͡ʝ] respectively
  • /k/ and /g/ become [x] and [ɣ] respectively

Word final plosives have no audible release:

  • /p/ → [p̚], /b/ → [b̚], /t/ → [t̚], /d/ → [d̚]
  • /c/ → [c̚], /ɟ/ → [ɟ̚], /k/ → [k̚], /g/ → [g̚]

Minimal tone sandhi:

  • /á/ + /h/ + /à/ = [āː]
  • /à/ + /h/ + /á/ = [āː]
  • /ā/ + /h/ + /ā/ = [āː]

The North Wind and the Sun

깩태덧씨음태타할 powerful 홍쎞부라케홍심껃시허고뎁태음홍 winner 음슥닝뽀노슥 first 홍기다 traveller 자꾸씨갯.

Gȅk-tjȅ dős zi üm-tjȅ tjáhàl powerful hong zèf-pulà dje hong sím dős sihő-tjȅ kó tèp-tjȅ üm hong winner üm-zűk-ning bonò-zűk first hong kì ta traveller cha-gú zī kës.

Disputed regarding which was most powerful the North Wind and the Sun and agreed that declared to be winner should be can the of a traveller clothes remove which they.

The North Wind and the Sun disputed as to which was the most powerful and agreed that he should be declared the victor who could first strip a way-faring man of his clothes.

Donkey Beater

태음 쩓 쑤루 아 태깍 기홋앗 나상방 홋.

Tjȅ-üm jȍt zulu a tjȅ-gák kì-hos-as nasáng-páng hos.

[cɛ̀.ȳm d͡ʑɔ̀t̚ zū.lū ā cɛ̀.gák̚ xì.hōs.ās nā.sáŋ.páŋ hōs]

태음 쩓 쑤루 아 태깍 기홋앗 나상방 홋.

past-be man once and past-hit of-he-donkey every-day he.

There was once a man who beat his donkey every day.

Church Kihā́mmic

General information

The Church Kihā́mmic language (Church Kihā́mmic Latin: Lố ȟāčónôsô kihāmatī́zô tářak, pronounced [ˈlo çɑːˈt͡ʃɒnoso kɪhɑːmaˈtiːzo ˈtaʁak]) is used primarily as a liturgical language and has no official status in in Kihāmát, the language is kept alive, however, by the liturgical use and there are a few people who are brought up as native speakers, mainly by intensively religious parents. Church Kihā́mmic is an inflected fusional nominative-accusative language, has two numbers, three genders and twelve cases. The language belongs to the isolated Panlaffic language family, indigenous to Kihāmát's eight islands.

Phonology and orthography

See also: IPA for Church Kihā́mmic

As with all Panlaffic languages, Church Kihā́mmic can be written either in its native Panlaffic script or in the Standardised Romanised Panlaffic Alphabet. For ease of use the Romanised alphabet is used throughout this article.


Jukpë

Translation:The North Wind and the Sun/Jukpë

Ó únyáko újur nh ó útátí

Translation:The Universal Declaration of Human Rights/Jukpë

Ó ghithák ghihótek tha ó kaqón tha jíto

Ghingíng ghijikh tók

Náto náhót nátenaróyo brus upukpánatu nh upurekótu yétho upumhanëtu nha kaqón. Núnronmáyo tha upubrénatu nh upánghëtu nh should gerarútít tha upóchitu.

Kihā́mmic

Irregular verbs

1. sád: to be
Participles Present sámô Past tázamô
Singular
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indicative Present
Simple sói séi súi
Past
Imperfect táz tazā́ tazū́
Perfect atáz atazā́ atazū́
Pluperfect aiyatáz aiyatazā́ aiyatazū́
Future
Imperfect tróp tropā́ tropū́
Perfect atróp atropā́ atropū́
Conditional Present bansói banséi bansúi
Past banatáz banatazā́ banatazū́
Imperative sadố sadá sadû́
Plural
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indicative Present
Simple sóim séim súim
Past
Imperfect tázm tazā́m tazū́m
Perfect artázm artazā́m artazū́m
Pluperfect aiyartázm aiyartazā́m aiyartazū́m
Future
Imperfect trópm tropā́m tropū́m
Perfect artrópm artropā́m artropū́m
Conditional Present bansóim banséim bansúim
Past banartázm banartazā́m banartazū́m
Imperative sadmố sadmá sadmû́
2. ímat: to have
Participles Present ímamô Past hásamô
Singular
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indicative Present
Simple ímô imá ímī
Past
Imperfect hás hasā́ hasū́
Perfect ahás ahasā́ ahasū́
Pluperfect aiyahás aiyahasā́ aiyahasū́
Future
Imperfect hób hobā́ hobū́
Perfect ahób ahobā́ ahobū́
Conditional Present banímô banimá banímī
Past banahás banahasā́ banahasū́
Imperative imatố imatá imatû́
Plural
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indicative Present
Simple ímôm ímam ímīm
Past
Imperfect hásm hasā́m hasū́m
Perfect arhásm arhasā́m arhasū́m
Pluperfect aiyarhásm aiyarhasā́m aiyarhasū́m
Future
Imperfect hóbm hobā́m hobū́m
Perfect arhóbm arhobā́m arhobū́m
Conditional Present banímôm banímam banímīm
Past banarhásm banarhasā́m banarhasū́m
Imperative imatmố imatmá imatmû́
3. venád: to go
Participles Present venámô Past vṓzamô
Singular
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indicative Present
Simple džố džá džû́
Past
Imperfect vṓz vōzá vṓzû
Perfect avṓz avōzá avṓzû
Pluperfect aiyavṓz aiyavōzá aiyavṓzû
Future
Imperfect fót fotá fótû
Perfect afót afotá afótû
Conditional Present bandžố bandžá bandžû́
Past banavṓz banavōzá banavṓzû
Imperative džôtố džôtá džôtû́
Plural
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indicative Present
Simple džốm džám džû́m
Past
Imperfect vṓzm vōzám vṓzûm
Perfect arvṓzm arvōzám arvṓzûm
Pluperfect aiyarvṓzm aiyarvōzám aiyarvṓzûm
Future
Imperfect fótm fotám fótûm
Perfect arfótm arfotám arfótûm
Conditional Present bandžốm bandžám bandžû́m
Past banrvṓzm banarvōzám banarvṓzûm
Imperative džôtmố džôtmá džôtmû́
4. libád: to like
Participles Present libámô Past gkházamô
Singular
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indicative Present
Simple lóbō lóbā lóbū
Past
Imperfect gkház gkhazā́ gkhazū́
Perfect agkház agkhazā́ agkhazū́
Pluperfect aiyagkház aiyagkhazā́ aiyagkhazū́
Future
Imperfect lū́b lūbā́ lūbū́
Perfect alū́b alūbā́ alūbū́
Conditional Present banlóbō banlóbā banlóbū
Past banagkház banagkhazā́ banagkhazū́
Imperative libố libá libû́
Plural
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indicative Present
Simple lóbōm lóbām lóbūm
Past
Imperfect gkházm gkhazā́m gkhazū́m
Perfect argkházm argkhazā́m argkhazū́m
Pluperfect aiyargkházm aiyargkhazā́m aiyargkhazū́m
Future
Imperfect lū́bm lūbā́m lūbū́m
Perfect arlū́bm arlūbā́m arlūbū́m
Conditional Present banlóbōm banlóbām banlóbūm
Past banrgkházm banargkhazā́m banargkhazū́m
Imperative libmố libmá libmû́

Kunarek

Potential script with the idea being that the Kunarek people had no writing system until they started trading with people from Indo-China and so adapted those scripts to their own needs (or is that a silly idea?) then started to prefer a Cyrillic script (but still using the abugida) until the start of the 20th century when they ditched that for a Latin alphabet and still kept this script for decorative stuff and generally conservative uses (e.g. in folk religion). I couldn't be bothered to go to the effort of making it too pretty until I decide on what I want to do with it. I've decided to name it "aksa" (coming from the Khmer អក្សរខ្មែរ (aksor kmae)).

Kunarek łegu
Kunarek łegu.png
Aksa
Aksa.png
Ḣoko reḣ ḣatel ġask. "There is a bear outside the building."
Ḣoko reḣ ḣatel ġask.png
Table
Kunarek script table.png

Ostunese

  • The Ostunese language
    • La lingóe ottunhénse
    • /la liŋˈgoːɛ otuˈɲɛːnse/

Rugenian

Rugenian
Rüügernitsch
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-accusative
Head direction
Initial Mixed Final
Primary word order
Subject-verb-object
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Tlingit/Ubykhesque

Consonants

There are 73 phonemic consonants.

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Plain Lab. Pal. Plain Pal. Plain Lab. Pal. Plain Lab. Pal. Plain Lab. Plain Lab. Pal. Plain Lab. Pal.
Nasal m n
Plosive p b pʷ bʷ pʲ bʲ t d tʷ dʷ tʲ dʲ k g kʷ gʷ kʲ gʲ q ɢ qʷ ɢʷ qʲ ɢʲ
Aspirated plosive pʷʰ tʷʰ kʷʰ qʷʰ
Fricative f v fʲ vʲ s z sʷ zʷ sʲ zʲ ʃ ʒ ʃʷ ʒʷ ɕ ʑ ʂ ʐ ʂʷ ʐʷ x ɣ xʷ ɣʷ xʲ ɣʲ χ ʁ χʷ ʁʷ χʲ ʁʲ h
Affricate t͡s d͡z t͡sʷ d͡zʷ t͡sʲ d͡zʲ t͡ʃ d͡ʒ t͡ʃʷ d͡ʒʷ t͡ɕ d͡ʑ ʈ͡ʂ ɖ͡ʐ ʈ͡ʂʷ ɖ͡ʐʷ
Aspirated affricate t͡sʰ t͡sʷʰ t͡ʃʰ t͡ʃʷʰ ʈ͡ʂʰ ʈ͡ʂʷʰ
Approximant j w
Trill r
Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ ɬʷ ɮʷ ɬʲ ɮʲ
Lateral affricate t͡ɬ d͡ɮ t͡ɬʷ d͡ɮʷ t͡ɬʲ d͡ɮʲ
Aspirated lateral affricate t͡ɬʰ t͡ɬʷʰ
Lateral approximant l

Vowels

There are seven phonemic vowels which are nasalised when proceeded by nasal consonants.

  • /V/ + /N/ = [Ṽ]
  • /V/ + /Nʷ/ = [Ṽw]
  • /V/ + /Nʲ/ = [Ṽj]
  • /V/ + /N/ + /V/= [VNV]
  • /V/ + /Nʷ/ + /V/= [VNʷV]
  • /V/ + /Nʲ/ + /V/= [VNʲV]
  • /V/ + /N/ + /C/= [ṼC]
  • /V/ + /Nʷ/ + /C/= [ṼwC]
  • /V/ + /Nʲ/ + /C/= [ṼjC]
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close ɨ
Near-close ʊ
Close-mid o
Mid
Open-mid ɛ ɔː
Near-open ɐː
Open a

Vocab

English Tlingit/Ubykhesque IPA
language lčhik [t͡ɬʰɨk]
sea šwana [ʃʷana]
sky qhenyô [qʰɛnʲɔː]
nose henka [hɛ̃ka]
tree čâlke [t͡ʃɐːlkɛ]

Tsonatl

Tsonatl
Conāć lēha
Type
Polysynthetic
Alignment
Nominative-accusative
Head direction
Initial Mixed Final
Primary word order
Subject-verb-object
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
None
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

Possible future merger of Kunarek and Cuoxeh?

Consonants

Bilabial Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m /m/ n /n/
Plosive Central t /t/ d /c/ k /k/
Aspirated th /tʰ/ dh /cʰ/ kh /kʰ/
Ejective tt /tʼ/ dd /cʼ/ kk /kʼ/
Fricative s /s/, ś /ɬ/ /ʃ/ h /ç/ g /x/
Affricate Central c /t͡s/, ć /t͡ɬ/ ċ /t͡ʃ/
Aspirated ch /t͡sʰ/, ć /t͡ɬʰ/ ċh /t͡ʃʰ/
Ejective cc /t͡sʼ/, ćć /t͡ɬʼ/ ċċ /t͡ʃʼ/
Approximant l /l/ w /w/

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close i /ɪ/ ī /iː/ u /ʊ/ ū /uː/
Mid e /ɛ/ ē /eː/ o /ɔ/ ō /oː/
Open a /ɐ/ ā /aː/

Turkishesque

Consonants

Bilabial Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/
Plosive p /p/ b /b/ t /t/ d /d/ k /k/ g /g/ q /q/ ' /ʔ/
Fricative f /ɸ/ v /β/ s /s/ z /z/ ş /ʃ/ x /ɣ/ /χ/ h /h/
Affricate c /t͡s/ ç /t͡ʃ/ j /d͡ʒ/
Approximant l /l/ y /j/ ğ /w/
Trill r /r/ /ʀ/

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close i /i/ ü /y/ î /ɨː/ û /ʉː/ ÿ /ɯ/ u /u/
Mid e /e/ ö /ø/ ê, ô /əː/ o /o/
Open â /aː/ a /ɑ/

Zamoran

O Vento Bore e o Sol

O Vento Bore e o Sol dispodavam-lhes concernendo cui fui o maye forte e concordárom-lhes ca elhe cui poderá primáriozigo remóuer dum ambidador sous vestidos déve déclarado o vazanhador. O primáriozigo cui tentá fui o Vento Bore e, udando toda sua força, soflava, més cuanda soflava maye fortezigo maye o Ambidador agarrava sou mant aisto, finalezigo, sem espérant duma veitória, cézá e defezi o Sol de préénder o manto do Ambidador. Sevedanozigo, o Sol luci con todo soa calezedade. Encora ca o Ambidador sentí os rázios jugandos do Sol remóui, um apreso o alho, sous vestidos. Finalezigo, nuzo e concuiredo per a calor, bazava numo lhúme cui trobava en soa via. Persuaçom é melhor ca força.


O Geve do Herro

9 Dévem gevedar azí : noso pá cui estás no Ceu, ca santo e hôrado seze tou nom.

10 Ca tou Rénho venha, ca toa volondade seze faito na Terra como no Ceu.

11 Dá nove hozé noso pam dízigo.

12 É perdona nove nosos dévedos, como nós perdonamo nosos dévedoros.

13 É no laza ca nós cazamo na tentaçom, més délivera nove do malénho : proéste o Rénho é o tou, é a força e a glória. Amém !


A banda de colhoçom na lus

Ista léngua está uma véche colhocá na lus.

Graça a soa livelha de cualedade, crézeveledade e cabacedade de uzace, elha está votada de estar colhocada na lus.

Unnamed

Consonants

Dental Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal n /n/ ń /ɲ/
Plosive t /t/ /c/ k /k/ q /q/
Fricative s /s/ ś /ʃ/ ǵ /ç/ g /x/ x /χ/ h /h/
Affricate c /t͡s/ ć /t͡ʃ/
Approximant l /l/ y /j/ v /ɰ/

Vowels

High tone
Front Central
Close í /í/
Mid ó /ó/
Open á /ó/
Low tone
Front Central
Close i /ì/
Mid o /ò/
Open a /à/
Rising tone
Front Central
Close ī /ǐː/
Mid ō /ǒː/
Open ā /ǎː/
Falling tone
Front Central
Close î /îː/
Mid ô /ôː/
Open â /âː/

Phonology 240914

Consonants

Labial Lingual Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m /m/ /n̼ ~m̺/ n /n/ ny /ɲ/ ng /ŋ/
Plosive p /p/ b~d /b̺~d̼/ t /t/ c /c/ j /ɟ/ k /k/
Fricative s /s/ h /h/
Approx. r /r/ l /l/ y /j/ w /ɰ/
  • There are 16 consonant phonemes.
  • Labial consonants are bilabial.
  • Lingual consonants are linguolabial.
  • All consonants apart from /n̼, d̼/ may occur as geminates.
  • Geminate /ɲː, ŋː/ are written <nny, nng>.
  • For all other geminates the grapheme is doubled.
  • Of geminates, only plosives and /sː/ may occur word-initially.
  • All geminates are permitted word-medially.

Vowels

Front Back
Close i /i/ [ɯ]
Mid e /e/ o /o/
Open a /a/
  • There are short 4 vowel phonemes.
  • All vowels may be phonemically lengthened.
  • There are no diphthongs.
  • Long vowels are not permitted before geminate consonants.

Phonology 091014

Consonants

Labial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ rn /ɳ/ ny /ɲ/ ng /ŋ/
Plosive p /p/ t /t/ rt /ʈ/ j /c/ k /k/
Lateral l /l/ rl /ɭ/
Approximant y /j/ w /w/
Tap r /ɾ/ rr /ɽ/
  • There are 16 consonant phonemes.
  • All consonants apart from /ɾ, ɽ/ may occur as geminates.
  • Geminate /ɳː, ɲː, ŋː, ʈː, ɭː/ are written <rrn, nny, nng, rrt, rrl>.
  • For all other geminates the grapheme is doubled.
  • Only plosives may occur word-initially as geminates.
  • All geminates are permitted word-medially.

Vowels

Front Back
Close i /i/ u /u/
Close-mid e /e/ o /o/
Open-mid /ɛ/ /ɔ/
Open a /a/
  • There are 7 short vowel phonemes.
  • All vowels may be phonemically lengthened, this is indicated by a circumflex (^) over the appropriate vowel: î, û, ê, ô, ệ, ộ, â.
  • There are no diphthongs.
  • Long vowels are not permitted before geminate consonants.