Verse:Cubrite-verse/Hebrew

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A-Tiberian Hebrew is the same as ours but with ejectives for emphatics instead of pharyngealized consonants.

As in our timeline, Hebrew accents in the Unbegotten timeline can be divided into three major types:

  • Ashkenazi-type: segol, pataħ, and qamatz are all distinct; tav is lenited (e.g. Modern Standard, Gaelic)
  • Sephardi-type: segol != pataħ = qamatz; tav is not lenited (e.g. Vertlandic)
  • Babylonian-type: segol = pataħ != qamatz (e.g. Indian)

Standard

Hebrew in Lõis was first revived by English-speaking Jewish immigrants in the Holy Land. Most speakers in the Holy Land today use a simplified version of English Hebrew, with a Gaelic Hebrew touch.

  • Stressed vowels are slightly longer than unstressed syllables.
  • TibH /p t k/ are aspirated except after fricatives; voicing assimilation works like in English
  • "overuse" of glottal reinforcement relative to Vertlandic Hebrew: the Revived Hebrew phonemes /p t k ts/ are realized as [ʔp ʔt ʔk ʔts] after a vowel or /m n l/.
  • beth, kaf, pe, tav without dagesh are [v, x, f, s].
  • lamed is always clear [l]
  • vav is [v], like in Israeli Hebrew
  • A six-vowel system: /i e ɛ a ɔ o u/ = [i ɛ ɛ a ɔ ø u~ü]. /ø/ is lowered to [œ] before [χ].
  • resh freely varies between [ɹ], [ɻ] and [ɾ]
  • Shva is dropped using similar rules to Israeli Hebrew. If shva is pronounced as a vowel, it is pronounced as [ə].
  • Ayin not before a vowel (whether shva, chataf or final) behaves much like in Israeli Hebrew: /aʕ eʕ ɔʕ oʕ iʕ uʕ/ = [ɑ: ea oa~o øa ia ua]. Nasal realizations [ɑ̃ː ɛ̃ː ɔ̃ː œ̃ː iɑ̃~ẽː uɑ̃~õː] or pharyngeal realizations (pronouncing a pharyngeal ayin) may be present in proper and formal speech.
  • /h/-dropping does not occur word-initially or on the onset of a stressed syllable, except possibly in function words. The /h/ in the definite article /ha/ is not dropped phrase-initially.

The grammar is nearly identical to our Israeli Hebrew (using suffix conjugation = past, participle = present, prefix conjugation = future/imperative, l- + infinitive construct = infinitive), but different phonological simplifications are made than in Israeli Hebrew and there are calques from English not used in Israeli Hebrew, such as מה מעלה /ma ˈmaːlo/ = "what's up?"

  • The compensatory lengthening rule /a/ (patakh) to /o/ (qamatz), /i/ (khiriq) to /e/ (tzere), /u/ (qubbutz) to /ø/ (holam) is consistently observed before an underlying geminate /ʔ/ (aleph or ayin) and /r/ in morphologically geminate forms such as piʕel verbs.
    • In particular, the definite article is usually ha, but always ho before Revived phonemes /ʔ r/.
  • The /ʔu-/ allomorph for ו 'and' may be used hypercorrectly. In normative Hebrew this allomorph is only found before labials and C + shva where C != yud.

Vertlandic

Vertlandic Jews (called "Sephardim" in-universe) have the following features:

  • begadkefat acts on /b d k p/ → /v ð x f/
  • glottal reinforcement before tet, tsadi, and kuf
  • segol = ə, pataħ = QG = a, tsere = əy, ħolam = əw, ħiriq = i, QQ = shuruq = u

Sample (Dror Yikra)

Hebrew Standard Judeo-Gaelic Vertlandic

דְּרוֹר יִקְרָא לְבֵן עִם בַּת
וְיִנְצָרְכֶם כְּמוֹ בָבַת
נְעִים שִׁמְכֶם וְלֹא יֻשְׁבַּת
שְׁבוּ נוּחוּ בְּיוֹם שַׁבָּת

דְּרוֹשׁ נָוִי וְאוּלָמִי
וְאוֹת יֶשַׁע עֲשֵׂה עִמִּי
נְטַע שׂוֹרֵק בְּתוֹךְ כַּרְמִי
שְׁעֵה שַׁוְעַת בְּנֵי עַמִּי

דְּרוֹךְ פּוּרָה בְּתוֹךְ בָּצְרָה
וְגַם בָּבֶל אֲשֶׁר גָּבְרָה
נְתוֹץ צָרַי בְּאַף וְעֶבְרָה
שְׁמַע קוֹלִי בְּיוֹם אֶקְרָא

אֱלֹקים תֵּן בַּמִּדְבָּר הַר
הֲדַס שִׁטָּה בְּרוֹשׁ תִּדְהָר
וְלַמַּזְהִיר וְלַנִּזְהָר
שְׁלוֹמִים תֵּן כְּמֵי נָהָר

הֲדוֹךְ קָמַי חַי אֵל קַנָּא
בְּמוֹג לֵבָב וּבִמְגִנָּה
וְנַרְחִיב פֶּה וּנְמַלֶּאנָּה
לְשׁוֹנֵנוּ לְךָ רִנָּה

דְּעֵה חָכְמָה לְנַפְשֶׁךָ
וְהִיא כֶתֶר לְרֹאשֶׁךָ
נְצוֹר מִצְוַת קְדֹשֶׁךָ
שְׁמוֹר שַׁבָּת קָדְשֶׁךָ

[dɹœɹ jiʔˈkɹɔ ləˈvɛn (ʔ)im bas]
[vəjinʔtsɔɹˈχɛm kmø vɔˈvas]
[nəˈ(ʔ)im ʃimˈχɛm vəˈlø juʃˈbas]
[ʃvu nuˈχu bəˈjøm ʃaˈbɔs]

[dɹøʃ nɔˈvi və(ʔ)ulɔˈmi]
[vəˈ(ʔ)øs ˈjɛʃa (ʔ)aˈsɛ (ʔ)iˈmi]
[nəʔˈta søˈɹɛʔk bəˈsœχ kaɹˈmi]
[ʃəˈ(ʔ)e ʃavˈ(ʔ)as bnɛ (ʔ)aˈmi]

[dɹœχ pʊəˈɹɔ bəˈsɔx bɔʔtsˈɹɔ]
[vəˈgam bɔˈvɛl (ʔ)aˈʃɛɹ gɔvˈɹɔ]
[nəˈsøʔts tsɔˈɹaj bəˈ(ʔ)af və(ʔ)ɛvˈɹɔ]
[ʃma køˈli bəˈjøm (ʔ)ɛʔkˈɹɔ]

[ʔɛløʔˈkim tɛn bamidˈbɔɹ haɹ]
[haˈdas ʃiʔˈtɔ bəˈɹøʃ tidˈɦɔɹ]
[vəlamazˈɦiɹ vəlanizˈɦɔɹ]
[ʃløˈmim tɛn kəˈmɛ nɔˈhɔɹ]

[həˈdœχ kɔˈmaj χaj ʔɛl kaˈnɔ]
[bəˈmøg lɛˈvɔv uvimgiˈnɔ]
[vənaɹˈχiv pɛ unmaˈlɛnɔ]
[ləʃøˈnɛnu ləˈχɔ ɹiˈnɔ]

[dəˈ(ʔ)ɛ χoχˈmo lənafˈʃɛχo]
[vəˈhi ˈχɛsɛɹ ləɹøˈʃɛχo]
[nəʔˈtsœɹ miʔtsˈvas kdøˈʃɛχo]
[ʃmœɹ ʃaˈbos kodˈʃɛχo]

[dəˈɾuɾ jiˈkʰɹo ləˈveən ʔim bas]
[vəjintsoɾˈχem kʰəmu voˈvas]
[nəˈʔim ʃimˈχem wəˈlu jɨʃˈbas]
[ʃəˈvɨ nɨˈχɨ bəˈjum ʃaˈbos]

[dəˈɾuʃ noˈvi vəʔɨloˈmi]
[vəˈʔus ˈjeʃa ʔaˈseə ʔiˈmi]
[nəˈtʰa suˈɾeək bəˈsuχ kʰaɾˈmi]
[ʃəˈʔeə ʃavˈʔas bəneə ʔaˈmi]

[dəˈɾuχ pɨˈɾo bəˈsuχ botsˈɾo]
[vəˈɣam boˈveəl ʔaˈʃeɾ govˈɾo]
[nəˈsuts tsoˈɾaj bəˈʔaf vəʔevˈɾo]
[ʃəma kuˈli bəˈjum ʔekˈɾo]

[ʔeluˈkim teən bamidˈboɾ haɾ]
[haˈdas ʃiˈto bəɾuʃ tidˈɦoɾ]
[vəlamaʒˈɦiɾ vəlaniʒˈɦoɾ]
[ʃəluˈmim teən kʰəˈmeə noˈhoɾ]

[həˈduχ koˈmaj χaj ʔeəl kaˈno]
[bəˈmuɣ leəˈvov ɨvimɣiˈno]
[vənaɾˈχiv peə ɨnmaˈleno]
[ləʃuˈneənɨ ləˈχo ɾiˈno]

[dəˈʔeə χoχˈmo lənafˈʃeχo]
[vəˈhi ˈχeseɾ ləɾuˈʃeχo]
[nəˈtsuɾ mitsˈvas kəduˈʃexo]
[ʃəˈmuɾ ʃaˈbas kodˈʃexo]

[dəˈrəwr jiʔˈkra ləˈvəjn ʕim bat]
[wəjinʔtsurˈxəm kəməw vaˈvat]
[nəˈʕim ʃimˈxəm wəˈləw juʃˈbat]
[ʃəvu nuˈħu bəˈjəwm ʃabˈbat]

[dəˈrəwʃ naˈwi wəʔulaˈmi]
[wəˈʔəwt ˈjəʃaʕ ʕɐˈsəj ʕimˈmi]
[nəʔˈtaʕ səwˈrəjʔk bəˈtəwx karˈmi]
[ʃəˈʕəj ʃəwˈʕat bənəj ʕamˈmi]

[dəˈrəwx puˈra bəˈtəwx buʔtsˈra]
[wəˈgam baˈvəjl ʔaˈʃər gavˈra]
[nəˈtəwʔts tsaˈraj bəˈʔaf wɐʕɐvˈra]
[ʃəˈmɐʕ kəwˈli bəˈjəwm ʔəʔkˈra]

[ʔələwʔˈkim təjn bammiðˈbar har]
[haˈðas ʃiʔtˈta bərəwʃ tiðˈɦar]
[wəlammazˈɦir wəlannizˈɦar]
[ʃələwˈmim təjn kəˈməj naˈhar]

[həˈðəwx kaˈməj ħaj ʔəjl kanˈna]
[bəˈməwg ləjˈvav ʔuvimginˈna]
[wənarˈħiv pə ʔunmalˈlənna]
[ləʃəwˈnəjnu ləˈxa rinˈna]

[dəˈʕəj ħuxˈma lənafˈʃəxa]
[wəˈhi ˈxətər lərəwˈʃəxa]
[nəʔˈtsəwr miʔtsˈwat kəðəwˈʃəxa]
[ʃəˈməwɾ ʃabˈbat kuðˈʃəxa]