Verse:Lõis/Corded Ware

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The Corded Ware languages in Lõis (temporary name) are a paleo-European (pre-Indo-European) language family spoken in much of Europe. The family's Urheimat is usually regarded to be somewhere in Central and Eastern Europe, where corded ware artifacts have been found. This article will document the Proto-Corded Ware language.

TODO: incorporate Greek substrate?

See also the Baden languages.


Kuttëpëy calkatërru þamexiþe qëpaynë ërawu? Ikwëntimfë saru þallëni walqësami. Eyeta punqisa tënsali arru iyessakacwipu mixtëcrripë. Uþþisu parrë wenkë tërrëmënë ikkartëxu nalkëfalë. Amantulë qarratkëþi faytunþupilë camëxaþë, þiyumpësa tumlekucë maqquþëne nëpiwa! Ispullefë hara fanhussë teyihu?


  • Stops: p t c k q /p t tʂ~c k q/
  • Fricatives: f þ s x h /f θ s ʂ~ɧ h/
  • Resonants: m n l rr r w y /m n l r ɹ w j/
  • Vowels: a e i u ë /ä e i u ə/


Proto-Corded Ware had no strong stress.


Only slightly less restrictive than Tamil; more restrictive than Latin

Proto-CW often added enunciative vowels to words ending in consonants, so for example *isqal 'child (nom.)' often became *isqallë.


  • SVO or SOV
  • Both prefixing and suffixing
  • cases and Suffixaufnahme; not Altaic
  • stem changes in nouns (like Uralic)
  • polypersonal verbs
  • aspect rather than tense
  • mood inflections for verbs


1st pers. *t, 2nd pers. *p


Corded Ware had suffixes for noun cases; however there was no separate accusative case.

Plurals were often (usually?) marked by stem change.

Declension of *isqal = child

  • nominative: isqal(lë), esqal(lë)
  • genitive: isqalef, esqalef
  • locative
  • adessive
  • ablative
  • allative
  • instrumental
  • comitative
  • essive
  • translative
  • vocative


Verbs had the following template:



  • fanhu-0 = '3sg called' (perfective)
  • fanhu-rra = '3sg often calls/used to call' (habitual)
  • fanhu-kë = '3sg is/was calling' (progressive)



  • tërrë-0-t = 'I stood'
  • tërrë-0-p = '2sg stood'
  • tërrë-0-0 = '3sg stood'
  • tërrë-0-ntë = 'we stood'
  • tërrë-0-mpë = '2pl stood'
  • tërrë-0-lë = 'they stood'

Object (for transitives)

  • të-fanhu-0 = '3sg called me'
  • pë-fanhu-0 = '3sg called 2sg'
  • në-fanhu-0 = '3sg called 3sg'
  • tul-fanhu-0 = '3sg called us'
  • pul-fanhu-0 = '3sg called 2pl'
  • nël-fanhu-0 = '3sg called them'