Verse:Lõis/English

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Verse:Lõis/English/Non-Azalic etyma
English
Inglish
Pronunciation /ˈɪŋglɪʃ/
Created by
Setting Verse:Lõis
Region Turkey, Armenia, Northern Levant, Iran
Language family
Indo-European
  • Azalic
    • L-Middle English
      • English
Writing system Latin script
ISO 639-3

English in the Lõis timeline is Indo-European and pretty much has exactly the same vocabulary and grammar as our English, but with a very different history and orthography. In particular, it is an Azalic language, not a Germanic one. Also missing are some loans from German and Modern Scandinavian such as schadenfreude and smörgåsbord. Words (even words directly inherited from PIE) may not have the same etymologies as in our English.

It is part of a sprachbund with Togarmite, Padmanābha and L-Persian.

Diachronics

PTTA to Middle TT-English

Middle TT-English to Modern TT-English

Orthography

English in Lõis has three writing systems: the Greek alphabet, the Hebrew abjad (always with vowel pointing) and the Latin alphabet.

Greek

Hebrew

Mainly used among Jews.

Consonants:

  • /m n ŋ/ = מ נ נג
  • /p t ts tʃ k Ø/ = פ ט צ צש ק א
  • /b d dʒ g/ = ב ד דש ג
  • /f θ s ʃ h/ = ף ת ס ש ה
  • /v ð z ʒ/ = ב' ד' ז זש
  • /w r l j/ = ו ר ל י

Vowels: Since English has more vowels than Tiberian Hebrew, some extra diacritics are used to distinguish vowels that are similar.

  • null vowel = none
  • commA = shva
  • TRAP (טְרַפ) = BATH = PALM = patach
  • DRESS (דרֶס) = segol
  • FACE (ףֵיס) = tsere + yud
  • KIT (קִט) = hiriq
  • FLEECE (ףלִיס) = happY = hiriq + yud
  • FOOT = STRUT = qubutz
  • GOOSE (גוּס) = shuruq + vav
  • GOAT (גוֹט) = cholam
  • LOT (לָט) = qamatz
  • THOUGHT (תָהט) = qamatz + he
  • PRICE (פרַיס) = patach + yud
  • MOUTH (מַות) = patah + vav
  • CHOICE (צשָיס) = qamatz + yud
  • NURSE (נְרס) = letteR = shva + resh
  • NEAR (נִיר) = hiriq + yud + resh
  • SQUARE (סקויר) = tsere + resh
  • START = patach + resh
  • NORTH = qamatz + resh
  • FORCE = cholam + resh
  • POOR = qubutz + resh
  • CURE = yud + qubutz + resh

Latin

uon, tô, thrê, phuor, phaiv, six, sevn, aiht, nyn, ten

O Captin! My Captin! ûr phiêrphul trip is dôn;
Ðe ship has weđrd evrih rac, đe prise uê suht is wun;
Ðe port is niêr, đe bels ih hiêr, đe pơpul al exsulting,
Huîl pholo eihs đe stedih kêl, đe vessl grim and dâring;
But O hart! hart! hart!
O đe blêding drops of red,
Huer on đe dec my captin lihs,
Phalen cold and diêd.


pelth₂óm > PPTA pheldă > phêld "field"

Accents

The "Sephardi-Estuary-Ashkenazi" continuum

The Lõisian standard English accent belongs in a continuum of accents, with a quasi-Sephardi Hebrew accent on one end and a quasi-Ashkenazi Hebrew accent on the other end. However, it's been influenced significantly by the nearby Philadelphian accent (spoken in the ancient city of Philadelphia).

Overview

Vowels
Feature Western ("Sephardi") L-Philadelphian L-Standard Eastern ("Ashkenazi")
KIT ɪ ɪ~ɪ̈ ɪ~ɪ̈ i
DRESS ɛ ɛ ɛ e
TRAP a~ɑ æ a a; o ("Poylish")
BATH (the BATH lexical set is same as RP) a~ɑ aː~æ: a; o ("Poylish")
LOT ɔ ɑ~ä ɔ~ɒ o
STRUT ʊ ʌ~ɤ ɜ̟~ɐ ɜ
FOOT ʊ ʊ ʊ̈~ɘ u
FLEECE iʝ + reinforcement before C; ɪj otherwise ɪj~iː iː; ej ("Poylish")
FACE eː~eɪ ɪj + reinforcement before C; ɛɪ otherwise ɛɪ eɪ; aɪ ("Poylish")
PRICE əɪ~ʌɪ + reinforcement before C; ɑɪ~ɒɪ otherwise ɑɪ aɪ; oɪ ("Poylish")
CHOICE oɪ~ʊɪ + reinforcement before C; oɪ otherwise ɔɪ~oɪ; ui ("Poylish")
MOUTH æʊ~ɛɔ æʊ
GOAT oː~oʊ əʊ~ə̟ʊ~eʊ, oʊ before [ɫ] ə̟ʊ~əʊ~əʏ~ʌʏ, ɔʊ~ɒʊ before [ɫ] ɔɪ~oɪ; a: ("Poylish")
GOOSE üw~yː, uː before [ɫ] üː, uː before [ɫ] uː; iː ("Poylish")
PALM ɑː ɑ~ä ɑː
THOUGHT ɑː oə(ɹ)~ʊə(ɹ) ɔː; uː ("Poylish")
NEAR iːɹ iə(ɹ)
SQUARE eːɹ eə(ɹ) ɛɚ
NURSE əːɹ əː(ɹ) ɚː əʀ
START ɑːɹ ɒː(ɹ) ɑɚ
NORTH ɑːɹ oə(ɹ)
FORCE oːɹ oə(ɹ) oɚ (oʊɚ~əʊɚ for Jewish speakers) ɔɪʀ~oɪʀ
POOR uːɹ oə(ɹ)
CURE juːɹ joə(ɹ)~jə(ɹ) juɚ~jɚː juʀ
commA ə ə(ɹ) ə ə
lettER əɹ ə(ɹ) ɚ əʀ
happY i iː~ɪj iː~ɪj i
Other phenomena
Feature Western L-Philadelphian L-Standard Eastern
Rhoticity Historical /r/ is always [ɹ] Non-rhotic with intrusive R Historical /r/ is always [ɹ] Historical /r/ is always [ʀ]
Dark L Always Always, often vocalizing Only when non-prevocalic Never
/θ ð/ Always [t̪ d̪] Often [t̪ d̪] [θ ð] [s̠ d]
/w/ [w] [w] [w] [v]
Aspiration of voiceless stops and t/d-tapping As in AmE As in AmE As in AmE Never

Western accent

This is the "Western English" accent. When Hebrew is read in this accent, it sounds like Israeli Hebrew with an American accent. It still has some non-Sephardi features, e.g. tsere = FACE = [eɪ] is distinct from segol = DRESS = [ɛ].

The intonation is stereotypical American/Valley Girl.

L-Philadelphian

This accent is spoken in the city of Philadelphia in Turkey (or as locals call it, "Flulfia"). It's basically a non-rhotic version of our Philly accent; r-intrusion is used, as in the New York accent.

A characteristic feature is reinforcement for certain vowels or diphthongs before consonants, which changes the pronunciation of the vowel:

  • The nucleus is shortened.
  • When the consonant is voiced, the offglide is lengthened: fame [fɪiːm]
  • When the consonant is voiceless, the consonant is lengthened: face [fɪjsː]

/θ ð/ are commonly [t̪ d̪].

L-Standard English

Often called the "Newton accent". Also a standard for English Hebrew.

A kind of "Transatlantic accent", inspired by Californian + Philly + Modern RP/Estuary. Rhotic in the GenAm sense.

Vowels
  • orange = [ɒɹɪndʒ~ɔɹɪndʒ]
  • Mary [mɛəɹi] ≈ merry [mɛɹi] ≠ marry [maɹi]
  • Mirror-nearer distinction
  • Hurry-furry distinction
  • No mergers before /l/
Consonants
  • L is light [l] before vowels and dark [ɫ] otherwise, as in RP.
    • wholly-holy split.
  • No glottal reinforcement before stops.
  • /p t k/ are unaspirated after stressed syllables as in AmE.
  • /d t/ has a tapped [ɾ] allophone in similar environments as in American English.
  • wine-whine merger optional.
  • /r/ may be [ʋ] between vowels.

Eastern accent

When L-English Jews read Hebrew in this accent, it sounds almost exactly like the Ashkenazi accent. Source of "oy vey" (from oh woe /øɪ vøɪ/)

This is not a specifically Jewish accent, and not all L-English Jews (or even all Ultra-Orthodox Jews) speak it; however, a sizeable community of Ultra-Orthodox Jews speaks this accent.

  • /w/ = [v]
  • /l/ is always light
  • /r/ = [ʀ~ʁ]
  • /s/ = Basque z
  • /θ/ = Basque s
  • /ð/ = [d]
  • Stops are unaspirated

[o:l hju:mən bijənz əʀ boʀən fʀi: ən i:kwəl ɪn digniti ən ʀaɪts. dei əʀ ɪndaʊd wid ʀi:zən ən konʃəns ən ʃʏd akt toʀds won ənʏdəʀ ɪn ə spiʀit əv bʀʏdəχʏd]

Exaggerated Poylish

A rhotic accent

Rhotic with R-colored vowels using uvular r

  • KIT = [ɪ],
  • DRESS = [ɛ] (but it gets raised before fricatives),
  • TRAP = [a] usually, /ɔ:/ before nasals
  • LOT merges with TRAP
  • THOUGHT = [uə]
  • GOAT = [oə]
  • FOOT = STRUT = [ɨ]
  • GOOSE = [y]
  • PRICE = [ei] before fricatives, [ae] otherwise
  • MOUTH = [ou] before fricatives, [ɑo] otherwise
  • FLEECE = Viby-i
  • FACE = [iɛ]
  • PALM = [a]

A pre-Grimm accent

Inspiration: Korean accent, British accents, New York accent

  • /f θ h hw/ = [pʰ tʰ h~x xw]
  • /p t k/ = unaspirated stops, often ejectives especially word-finally except after fricatives
  • /tʃ dʒ/ = [t͡ɕ d͡ʑ]
  • /v/ = [b~β]
  • /l/ = [l] (always clear L)
  • /r/ = [ɾ~ɹ]
  • /ð/ = [d~ð]
  • /ʃ/ = [sx~sʰ]
  • FLEECE = i:
  • FACE = e:
  • GOOSE = ü:
  • GOAT = o:~o̝:
  • PALM = BATH = a:
  • THOUGHT = NORTH = FORCE = ʌ:
  • CHOICE = oi
  • PRICE = aɪ
  • MOUTH = aʊ
  • KIT = i
  • DRESS = e
  • TRAP = ɛ
  • LOT = ʌ
  • FOOT/STRUT = u
  • NURSE = ɚ:
  • START = a:(ɹ)
  • SQUARE = e:ə(ɹ)
  • NEAR = i:ə(ɹ)
  • POOR = u:ə(ɹ)
  • CURE = ju:ə(ɹ)
  • lettER = commA = ə(ɹ)~ʌ̈(ɹ)

Yod-coalescence, with /tj dj θj sj/ = [t͡ɕ d͡ʑ t͡ɕʰ ɕ]

In broad accents: wu/wu:/wuə > u/u:/uə and ji/ji:/jiə > i/i:/iə; hence year/ear, yeast/east, swoon/soon are homophones

BATH [a:] occurs for L-Standard English /a/ usually where Korean commonly transcribes the English word as /a/. (The instances do not correspond to instances of BATH in RP.)

  • chance [t͡ɕa:ns]; but dance [dɛns], answer [ɛnsʌ̈]
  • plant [pla:ntʼ], Grant [gra:ntʼ]; but grant [grɛntʼ]
  • glass [gla:s], gas [ga:s]; but pass [pɛs], class [klɛs]
  • plastic [pla:stikʼ], last [la:st], master [ma:stʌ̈]
  • mask [ma:sk], flask [fla:sk]; but ask [ɛsk], task [tɛsk]
  • after [a:ftʌ̈], craft [kra:ft]
  • half [ha:pʰ]; but graph [grɛpʰ]
  • bath [ba:tʰ]; but math [mɛtʰ]

Medh Chêl accent

  • KIT = [i], FLEECE = [iː]
  • DRESS = [e̞], SQUARE = [e̞ː]
  • TRAP = [æ], [æː] in some words (with a split similar to bad-lad split)
  • LOT = [ɑ], PALM = START = [ɑː]
  • STRUT = [ɤ], THOUGHT = NORTH = FORCE = [oː]
  • NURSE = [ø̞ː]
  • FOOT = [u]
  • GOOSE = [yː]
  • GOAT = [ø̞y] / [ɶy]
  • FACE = [ɛi]
  • PRICE = [ɑɪ], MOUTH = [æo] (cultivated), [æø] (broad)
  • NEAR = [ie], POOR = [uo]

An "Old English" accent

  • CHOICE = œɪ
  • PRICE = ɑ:
  • MOUTH = æ:ɑ
  • PALM = æ:
  • FACE = æɪ
  • GOAT = e:o
  • THOUGHT = ɔ:
  • FLEECE = i:
  • GOOSE = u:
    • /ju:/ = y:
  • FERN = FIR = ør~yr (also MERRY and MIRROR)
  • FUR = ʊr (also HURRY)
  • FORCE = e:or~ø:r
  • NORTH = ɔ:r
  • NEAR = CURE = iur~y:r
  • POOR = u:r
  • SQUARE = e:r
  • TRAP = ɑ, æɑ before /l r/ (also START and MARRY)
  • DRESS = ɛ, eo~œ before /l/
  • KIT = ɪ, ɪʊ~ʏ before /l/
  • LOT = ɔ
  • FOOT = STRUT = ʊ