Verse:Lõis/English/Non-Azalic etyma

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A list of English words not inherited from Proto-Azalic. (with etymologies different from Earth etymologies)

Most Arabic loans in English instead come from an unrelated Camalic language.


  • dint as in by dint of from Togarmite dint 'judgment, sentence', from the root √d-(j)-n 'to opine, to judge'
  • main meaning 'high seas' from Togarmite mein 'water' (cognate to Hebrew מים máyim)
  • siren from Togarmite seiran 'alarm, smoke signal' from the root √s-(j)-r 'to call, to warn' (hypothetical cognate to Hebrew שר shar 'to sing').
  • weird from Togarmic wierd 'conspicuous' < OTog wėrēd, active participle of warād 'to appear, to descend'
  • fellow from OTog φallāh
  • sure, ensure, assure, insure from Togarmite yšur (related to Hebrew אישר ʔiššér 'to confirm' and אשר ʔăšer a relativizer originally meaning 'place')
  • ennui from Togarmite anúj 'angst', originally 'suffering' in Early Modern Togarmite but it fell out of use and was revived as a philosophical term meaning 'existential angst'; in turn borrowed from Old Xnánið ąnúy, inherited from Hebrew עינוי (hā-)ʕinnuy 'torment, torture' (root ʕ-n-y "poor, affliction", doublet of native Togarmite ȝanėþ 'to need')
  • elite from Aramaic עליתא ʕelitå "upper story"
  • keen meaning 'to wail, to lament' from Xnánið kín 'weeping, lament', from Hebrew קינה *kʼīnā 'lament'; a common synonym of 'mourn, lament' in Jewish English, influenced by the Hebrew
  • host (first used as a verb 'to provide hospitality') from Xnánið hóst 'hospitality, accommodation; things provided for such purpose' < Early Modern *hást (trap-bath) < Druidic Canaanite ħast "generosity, kindness" < Biblical Hebrew חסד 'grace' (TibH ħéseḋ)
  • dude from Xnánið túd 'bro', from Hebrew דוד *dōd 'beloved'

Scythian and Iranian

  • bad, from Late Middle Persian
  • shelter, from a Scythian language, ultimately from ḱel-trom
  • curry, from a Scythian language, ultimately from kʷer-ih₂


  • land, from Gaulish landā <- *lendʰ
  • island, from Norman isle and Gaulish landā
  • tread, trot; ultimately from Proto-Celtic *tregess "foot"


  • dance, from Padmanābha dannsa, from the root dann (rhythm; onomatopoetic)
  • wife from Padmanābha waeph (lady, Mrs.)
  • canola from L-Arabic
  • saga from L-Arabic sāgā