Verthanic

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Verthanic (hə taŋʷas vərθanak /hə ˈtaŋʷas vəɾˈθanak/; from *berxtolandākā, lit. Brightlandic) is a Celtic language spoken in Verthan (vərθan), located in North Africa. It was an important vehicle for transmitting A-Arabic loans to English. It is inspired by Lushootseed and Welsh.

xʷilid = cat (from Latin)

vārəy ðax = good morning

tl > θ, CeCe- -> CəCi- (kenetlom → čədiθ 'trend')

əyn, ðəw, trī, kʷətur, kʷiʔč, wəks, šəxt, uxt, daw, ðəč

bakʷ = son; hə makʷ = the son

bərk = daughter; hə mərk (no mut) = the daughter

Sdābt hə həysk viw id uðənč = The living fish swims in water

gemination → preglottalization

Chain shifts:

mm, mb > m > b > v

nn, nd > n > d > ð

ng > ŋ, g > x, gʷ > xʷ, w- > gʷ-, y- > dz-

e o > ə, ke ge → tʃə dʒə

vowels: i u ə a iː uː aː aj aw əj əw

Morphology

Nouns

nasal mutation of v > b > m, ð > d > n, x > ŋ

Genders: common (no mut) and neuter (nasal mut)

Plural: -s or -əs, no gender distinction

(from *sindos) is hən before vowels

Verbs

present tense: sdāb-u, sdāb-s, sdāb-t, sdāb-əbs, sdāb-sxʷi, sdāb-tər (1sg, 2sg, 3, 1pl, 2pl, imps)

past tense: get split-ergativity with past participle: sdāb-təw, sdāb-tis, sdāb-tit, sdāb-tibs, sdāb-taysxʷi, sdāb-taytər 'I swam, ...' (these forms agree with the subject but nouns take ergative marking with the ergative particle am from *ambi)

future tense (formed by reduplicating present): də-sdāb-u, də-sdāb-s, də-sdāb-t, də-sdāb-əbs, də-sdāb-sxʷi, də-sdāb-tər

the old 3rd person singular is used with both singular and plural (plurality is marked on the subject)

Conjugation classes:

  • verbs from o/e verbs: more irregularities here
    • sdāb-u, sdāb-s, sdāb-t, sdāb-əbs, sdāb-sxʷi, sdāb-tər
    • sdāb-təw, sdāb-tis, sdāb-tit, sdāb-tibs, sdāb-taysxʷi, sdāb-taytər
  • a-verbs (from PCel *-āti)
    • bāraw, bāras, bārat, bārabs, bārāsxʷi, bārātər 'to enlarge'
    • bāra-təw, bāra-tis, bāra-tit, bāra-tibs, bāra-taysxʷi, bāra-taytər
  • i-verbs (from PCel *-yeti, *-īti)
    • liʔkʷəw, liʔkʷis, liʔkʷit, liʔkʷibs, liʔkʷīsxʷi, liʔkʷītər 'to leave'
    • liʔkʷi-təw, liʔkʷi-tis, liʔkʷi-tit, liʔkʷi-tibs, liʔkʷi-taysxʷi, liʔkʷi-taytər