Windermere/Classical

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Classical Windermere
Created by IlL, Praimhín
Setting Verse:Tricin
Region Talma
Language family
Lakovic
  • Ashanic
    • Classical Windermere
Writing system Windermere script
ISO 639-3

Classical Windermere (CWdm, native name: băyrits Dămee /bəjrits dəˈmeʱ/; Modern Wdm.: fi cduay Dămea Ăfur [fi kduəj dəmeə ʔəvur]; Skellan: a brits Dymée Yfẃr /ə prits təˈmɛi əˈfur/ or /ə prits təˈme əˈfur/ 'Noble Windermere') was a standardized variety of Windermere spoken in the Imperial Windermere territories (Wen Dămee), based on the language of Windermere texts from ca. fT 0-500. A classical language of Talma, it lent many words to other Talman languages. A related language Tseer was used in other parts of the Windermere Empire, and as a result Windermere borrowed many Classical Tseer words.

CWdm allowed initial bd bg db dg gb gd.

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ng /ŋ/
Plosive voiced b /b~β/ d /d~ð/ g /g~ɣ/
tenuis p /p⁼/ t /t⁼/ c /k⁼/ ' /ʔ/
aspirated φ /pʰ/ θ /tʰ/ χ /kʰ/
Affricate ts /ts̪/ /ts̺~ʈʂ/
Fricative s /s̪/ ł /s̺~ʂ/ ș /ʃ/ h /h/
Resonant w /w/ r /r/ l /l/ y /j/

The glottal stop is not transcribed word-initially.

Vowels

Classical Windermere had six vowels a e i o u ü /a ɛ i o u ü/ (ü was central unlike in Modern Windermere). It also had breathy voiced vowels aa ee ii oo uu üü /aʱ ɛʱ iʱ oʱ uʱ üʱ/ which became ä ea ie oa ua üe in Middle Windermere.

Classical Windermere had more vowel contrasts in preinitial syllables: it had two reduced vowels, ă /ə/ and i /ɪ/, which merged to ă in Modern Windermere. This contrast is retained in Pradiul as palatalization.

Morphophonology

Sandhi

Classical Windermere had a complex sandhi system (somewhere between Biblical Hebrew and Sanskrit) which is no longer productive in Modern Windermere; most notably it affected plurals and verb forms, making them less predictable.

  • th + fric → fric + t
    • θs → st, as in sèf 'go' → *thsèfstèf 'to drive' (Modern binsteaf 'energy', sămteaf 'to energize')
    • θφ → φθ, e.g. tăfi 'laugh' → *tithfitifti 'to mock' (Classical and Modern Wdm. tăfi, tifti)
    • θχ → χθ e.g. Proto-Windermere àrθχarăchta 'to die'
    • thł, thș → łt, șt
  • ch + f, s, th, ł, ș → chw, ??? ??? ??? ??? ???
  • s + f, th, ch → sp, st, sc
  • rC, lC > Cr, Cl
  • ps pn png → sp fn fng
  • tp thp tsp kp chp → tw thw tsw cw chw; Proto-Windermere breathy vowel + tp tsp kp > dw tsw gw
  • tsc cts tsp pts sts ts > sc sc sp sp st st

Sandhi table

Initial
Consonant
Final Consonant
f p b m th t d n ch c g ng s ts ł ș h ' l r w y
f f p sp fn ft ft ft fn fch pc pc fng ps fts ftł f f' fl fr f fy
p f p sp fn ft ft ft fn pc pc pc fng ps fts ftł f p' pl pr p py
b f p sp fn fth ft ft fn fch pc pc fng ps fts ftł f p' bl br b by
m mf mp/mb mp/mb m mth mt/md mt/md mn mch mc/mg mc/mg mng ms mts mtł mh m' ml mr m my
th ft ft sp thm th t st thn cht cht cht thng st tst łt tłt șt th t' thl thr thw thy
t ft ft sp tm th t st tn cht cht cht tng st tst łt tłt șt th t' tl tr tw ty
d ft ft sp tm th t st tn cht cht cht tng st tst łt tłt șt th d' dl dr dw dy
n mp mp nf nm nth nt nt nn nch ngc ngc nng ns nts ntł nth n' l r nw ny
ch chp chp chp chm cht cht cht chn ch c c chng chs chts chł chtł chș cht ch' chl chr chw chy
g cp cp cp cm cht cht cht gn ch g c cng cs cts ctł cht g' gl gr gw gy
c
ng
s
ts
ł
ș
h
'
l
r
w
y

Grassmann's law

Grassmann's law was productive in Classical Windermere: when there were two aspirated consonants before a stressed vowel in a word, the first was deaspirated. e.g. *χăφol > căφol 'to turn'.

Morphology

Nouns

Plurals

Classical Windermere had many irregular plurals due to the effects of sandhi.

Examples:

Regular plurals:

  • cnul 'leaf' > nălcnul 'leaves'

Sandhi plurals:

  • drong 'kernel' > tăngrădong 'kernels'

Suppletive plurals:

  • croth 'person' > hingüs 'people'

Gender

Classical Windermere had grammatical gender, with masculine and feminine genders.

  • For "basic" words, nouns with breathy voice were feminine: tge /tge/ 'voice' was masculine, while trămaay /trəmaʱj/ 'rain' was feminine.
  • Exceptions were human nouns, for which the gender followed natural gender.
  • Words with certain affixes such as hăl- or să- were also feminine.

Verbs

Trigger infixes and certain aspects had become derivational in Classical Windermere, but not other aspects or tenses.

Gender

The feminine agreement prefix u- (from Proto-Lakovic *wa-) goes before TAM markers:

  • șroy 'pays' > ușroy
  • emșroy 'paid' > umșroy
  • șăyșroy 'pays again and again' > ușăyșroy
  • tășașroy 'pays gradually' > utășașroy

Aspect

Aspect inflection uses a combination of prefixes and reduplication.

Reduplicant uses 1st consonant (F) or last consonant (L)

  • imperfective/stative = unmarked
  • perfective = marked with em-
  • prospective = heφ- (closest equivalent of future tense)
  • momentane = bla-
  • progressive = ăL-
  • gnomic, habitual = marked with li-
  • iterative = FăL-
  • frequentative = eNFă-
  • inchoative/inceptive = osăL-
  • graduative = tăFa-

Pronouns

Pronouns were similar to later Windermere, but with feminine plural pronouns.

  • 1sg:
  • 2sg: łen (m), łes (f)
  • 3sg: in (m), is (f)
  • 1pl exclusive: tsa
  • 1pl inclusive: bang
  • 2pl: łinam (m), łisam (f)
  • 3pl: inam (m), isam (f)

Derivation

(Anything else?)

  • *θ-/θă- (causative; denominal verbs)
  • θu- = intensive
  • pi- (agentive; triggers voicing of following voiceless stops p t c to b d g)
    • da (know) -> pida 'sage' (Medieval păda, Modern pda)
    • tüθ (to grasp) -> pidüθ 'meaning, intention'
  • ha- (passive)

Breathy voice

Words with breathy voice alternations are explained by older which have lost their productivity:

  • feminine *-s for nouns, which often derives instruments from verbs: snar < *snär 'catch', snaar < *snär-s 'trap, snare', which survives in Modern Wdm as snär.
  • an infix *H for verbs?

Sample texts

"The Round Table", from the Imθumăytil

Doon ngiθ, dur id taχ χaaθ mi mogor lăyθeeθ. Emtăbiits Pida Brăwiid: "Măra łinam dunse? Mi-ăngnung căχθaaθ năθa emritsal doon: "Șrüχ te-stiw: mi tsum taχ mognas, thaf te-müüts θraaφ, liiw stăliw..." Łop emtăbiits Pida Brăwiid: "Ǎna mee ra mooχ, srüü hădeen do croθ năθa?" Emcă'aw id χaaθ ipăyφay, "Op cănga, Pida: șa-bang tsor pădiiχ φnărtaang, sach φăbeeng păχwădiiχ năθa ya-croθ năθa φi!"

Gloss

Doon ngiθ, dur id taχ χaaθ mi mogor lăyθeeθ. Emtăbiits Pida Brăwiid: "Măra łinam dunse?"

one time, sit NOM six child in circle VN.discuss. PFV-ask Master B.: "many what 2PL here?"

Once, six children were in a round table. Master Brăwiid asked them: "How many of you are here?"

Mi-ăngnung căχθaaθ năθa emritsal doon: "Șrüχ te-stiw: mi tsum taχ mognas, thaf te-müüts θraaφ, liiw stăliw..."

in-PROG-count PL-child other PFV-call one: 63 namely six individual, 15 pair, 20 group_of_3

While the others were still counting, one child replied: "Sixty-three: 6 individuals, 15 teams of two, 20 teams of 3, ..."

Łop embiits Pida Brăwiid: "Ǎna mee ra mooχ, srüü hădeen do croθ năθa?"

then PFV-ask Master B.: "then many what be_at, if enter one person other"

Now Master Brăwiid asked: "Well then, how many people will be there if another person enters?"

Emcă'aw id χaaθ ipăyφay, "Op cănga, Pida: șa-bang tsor pădiiχ φnărtaang, sach φăbeeng păχwădiiχ năθa ya-croθ năθa φi!"

PFV-answer NOM child nonchalantly "here, clear Master to-us all team previous, as_well_as <REFL>form PL-team other with-person other that"

The child nonchalantly responded: "It is plain, Master: here we have all of the old teams, as well as another set of teams with the new person!"