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Classical Windermere
Created by IlL, Praimhín
Setting Verse:Tricin
Region Talma
Language family
  • Ashanic
    • Classical Windermere
Writing system Windermere script
ISO 639-3

Classical Windermere (CWdm, native name: băyrits Dămee /bɔjrits dɔˈmeʱ/; Modern Wdm.: fi cduay Dămea Ăfur Bjeheondian [vi gduəj dəmeə ʔəvur]; Skellan: a brits Dymée Yfẃr /ə prits təˈmɛi əˈfur/ or /ə prits təˈme əˈfur/ 'Noble Windermere') was a standardized variety of Windermere spoken in the Imperial Windermere territories (Wen Dămee), based on the language of Windermere texts written from ca. fT -300 through fT 500. Alongside its relative Classical Tseer, Classical Windermere served as a lingua franca of learning, governance, law, and religion in premodern Talma and lent many words to other Talman languages. Later Classical Windermere borrowed many words from Classical Tseer.

Why ă more common than ı?


Classical Windermere is the language of Mărotłite sacred texts, such as the Imθumăytil, other Pidaic writings, and the oldest and most widespread complete edition of the Latlaseekh.

In Talma Classical Windermere has evolved into various Talman Windermere vernaculars, while Classical Windermere is still used as the liturgical language of Mărotłism.



Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ng /ŋ/
Plosive voiced b /b~β/ d /d~ð/ g /g~ɣ/
tenuis p /p⁼/ t /t⁼/ c /k⁼/ ' /ʔ/
aspirated φ /pʰ/ θ /tʰ/ χ /kʰ/
Affricate ts /ts̪/ /ts̺~ʈʂ/
Fricative s /s̪/ ł /s̺~ʂ/ ș /ʃ/ h /h/
Resonant w /w/ r /r/ l /l/ y /j/

The glottal stop is not transcribed word-initially.


Classical Windermere had six stressed vowels a e i o u ü /a e i o u ü/ (ü was central unlike in Modern Windermere). It also had breathy voiced vowels aa ee ii oo uu üü /aʱ eʱ iʱ oʱ uʱ üʱ/ which became ä ea ie oa ua üe in Middle Windermere.

Late Classical Windermere also had ö /ø/ in Tseer loans.

Classical Windermere had more vowel contrasts in minor syllables: it had two reduced vowels, ă /ɔ/ and ĭ /ə~ɪ/, which merged to ă /ə/ in Modern Windermere. ă comes from Proto-Ashanic unstressed *a, *o, *u, and ĭ comes from Proto-Ashanic unstressed *i, *ü, *e. This contrast is retained in Pradiul as palatalization.


CWdm allowed initial bd bg db dg gb gd.



Classical Windermere had a complex sandhi system (somewhere between Biblical Hebrew and Sanskrit) which is no longer productive in Modern Windermere; most notably it affected plurals and verb forms, making them less predictable.

  • th + fric → fric + t
    • θs → st, as in sèf 'go' → *thsèfsteeφ 'to drive' (Modern binsteaf 'energy', sămteaf 'to energize')
    • θφ → φθ, e.g. tăfi 'laugh' → *tithfitiφθi 'to mock' (Classical and Modern Wdm. tăfi, tifti)
    • θχ → χθ e.g. Proto-Windermere àrθχarăχθa 'to die'
    • thł, thș → łt, șt
  • ch + f, s, th, ł, ș → chw, ??? ??? ??? ??? ???
  • s + f, th, ch → sp, st, sc
  • rC, lC > Cr, Cl
  • ps pn png → sp fn fng
  • tp thp tsp kp chp → tw thw tsw cw chw; Proto-Windermere breathy vowel + tp tsp kp > dw tsw gw
  • tsc cts tsp pts sts ts > sc sc sp sp st st

Sandhi table

Final Consonant
f p b m th t d n ch c g ng s ts ł ș h ' l r w y
f f p sp fn ft ft ft fn fch pc pc fng ps fts ftł f f' fl fr f fy
p f p sp fn ft ft ft fn pc pc pc fng ps fts ftł f p' pl pr p py
b f p sp fn fth ft ft fn fch pc pc fng ps fts ftł f p' bl br b by
m mf mp/mb mp/mb m mth mt/md mt/md mn mch mc/mg mc/mg mng ms mts mtł mh m' ml mr m my
th ft ft sp thm th t st thn cht cht cht thng st tst łt tłt șt th t' thl thr thw thy
t ft ft sp tm th t st tn cht cht cht tng st tst łt tłt șt th t' tl tr tw ty
d ft ft sp tm th t st tn cht cht cht tng st tst łt tłt șt th d' dl dr dw dy
n mp mp nf nm nth nt nt nn nch ngc ngc nng ns nts ntł nth n' l r nw ny
ch chp chp chp chm cht cht cht chn ch c c chng chs chts chł chtł chș cht ch' chl chr chw chy
g cp cp cp cm cht cht cht gn ch g c cng cs cts ctł cht g' gl gr gw gy

Grassmann's law

Grassmann's law was productive in Classical Windermere: when there were two aspirated consonants before a stressed vowel in a word, the first was deaspirated. e.g. *χăφol > căφol 'to turn'.




There are two articles like in Modern Windermere, but with gender distinctions: the definite article fin (m sg), fis (f sg), fi (pl), from the distal demonstrative fi, and the specific article sen (m sg), ses (f sg), se (pl), from the proximal demonstrative se. Indefinite nonspecific nouns do not take an article.


Classical Windermere had many irregular plurals due to the effects of sandhi.


Regular reduplicated plurals:

  • cnul 'leaf' > nălcnul 'leaves'

Sandhi plurals:

  • drong 'kernel' > tăngrădong 'kernels'

Suppletive plurals:

  • croth 'person' > hĭngüs 'people'

Concatenative plurals (especially for longer words):

  • păltsif 'merchant' > impăltsif 'merchants'


Classical Windermere had grammatical gender, with masculine and feminine genders.

  • For "basic" words, nouns with breathy voice were generally feminine: φin tger /pʰin tger/ 'the voice' was masculine, while φis trămaay 'the rain' was feminine.
  • Exceptions were human nouns, for which the gender followed natural gender.
  • Words with certain affixes
    • Words with the nominalizer ăy were masculine.
    • Words with nominalizers hăl- or să- were feminine.


Trigger infixes and certain aspects had become derivational in Classical Windermere, but not other aspects or tenses.


The feminine agreement prefix u- goes before TAM markers. It becomes wă- before a single consonant that is not the glottal stop, and w- or u- replacing an initial glottal stop.

  • șroy 'pays' > ușroy
  • ămșroy 'paid' > umșroy
  • tășăyșroy 'pays in installments' > wătășăyșroy


Verbs have the following principal parts: present, imperfect, perfect, future I, and verbal noun, which are marked with reduplication, ablaut, and/or prefixes. This complex and irregular system is probably a relic of transitioning from Proto-Lakovic aspects to tenses.

  • Present: present or present progressive
  • Imperfect: Past incomplete or ongoing action; sometimes like the English pluperfect
  • Perfect: Past completed action
  • Future/Subjunctive I: future imperfective
  • Future/Subjunctive II: future perfective
  • Imperative: Present or Subjunctive II

The exact paradigm depends on the verb. For stative verbs like plang 'to stand', present and perfect forms are identical.


  • Present = Perfect: plang 'stands; (has) stood'; feminine uplang
  • Imperfect: plăplang 'was standing; had stood' (from PLak reduplication for iterative); feminine upınglang
  • Future: hepălang 'will stand' (from heφ- future tense marker + nominal grade pälŋ of root √pläŋ); feminine wepălang
  • Infinitive: pălang (from nominal grade *pälng)

Personal pronouns

Pronouns were similar to later Windermere, but with feminine plural pronouns, possessive pronouns, and inflected prepositions.

Independent pronouns

The independent pronouns were used as subjects and direct objects.

  • 1sg: rii
  • 2sg: łen (m), łes (f)
  • 3sg: in (m), is (f)
  • 1pl exclusive: tsa
  • 1pl inclusive: bang
  • 2pl: łĭnam (m), łĭsam (f)
  • 3pl: ĭnam (m), ĭsam (f)

Possessive prefixes

+V represents a voicing mutation on a following noun: /p t k/ > /b d g/.

  • 1sg: rĭ- +V
  • 2sg: hĭ- +V (m), hĭs- (f)
  • 3sg: ĭ- +V (m), ĭs- (f)
  • 1pl exclusive: tsă- +V
  • 1pl inclusive: su- +V (from a fossilized seew 'here')
  • 2pl: łăm-/łăn- (both m and f)
  • 3pl: năm-/năn- (m), săm-/săn- (f)


Classical Windermere had inflected prepositions, like Tigol and most modern Talmic languages and unlike Modern Windermere. Some prepositions had suppletive forms when inflected.

The regular pronominal affixes:

  • 1sg: -ir
  • 2sg: -eł (m), -łes (f)
  • 3sg: -in (m), -is (f)
  • 1pl.ex: -ats
  • -ang
  • 2pl: -łam (both genders)
  • 3pl: -nam (m), -sam (f)


  • mi 'in, at': mir, mił, miłes, min, mis, mits, ming, miłam, miłam, minam, misam
  • șa 'to, for': șar, șał, șăłes, șan, șas, șats, șang, șăłam, șăłam, șănam, șăsam
  • φa 'from': ăχir, ăχeł, ăχłes, ăχin, ăχis, ăχats, ăχang, ăχłam, ăχłam, ăχnam, ăχsam


(Anything else?)

  • *θ-/θă- (causative; denominal verbs)
  • θu- = intensive
  • pĭ- (agentive; triggers voicing of following voiceless stops p t c to b d g)
    • da (know) -> pĭda 'sage' (Medieval păda, Modern pda)
    • tüθ (to grasp) -> pĭdüθ 'meaning, intention'
  • ha- (passive)

Breathy voice

Words with breathy voice alternations are explained by older affixes which have lost their productivity:

  • feminine *-s for nouns, which often derives instruments from verbs: snar < *snär 'catch' (Modern Wdm. snar 'to know'), snaar < *snär-s 'trap, snare' (Modern Wdm. snär).
  • an infix *H for verbs?


like Modern Wdm.



The usual word order was VSO, unlike Modern Windermere's SVO.

Sample texts

"The Round Table", from the Imθumăytil

The following story is from the Imθumăytil, a major Talman religious text.

Ngiθ dur se taχ χaaθ mogor. Tăbiits φin Pĭda Brăwiid: "Măra łĭnam?" Mi-ăngnung căχθaaθ năθa emrĭtsal sen doon: Șrüχ te-stiw: taχ mognas, θaφ te-müüts θraaφ, liiw stăliw, θaφ te-müüts mălsaaχ, taχ mălüüts, doon tălaχ." Tăbiits φin Pĭda Brăwiid: "Ǎna mee ra, srüü hĭdeen croθ năθa?" Eφθooc φin χaaθ, "Op cănga, φin Pida: tsor pădiiχ φnărtaang, te ămsaχ păχwădiiχ năθa ya φin croθ φi!" Esngiim φin Pĭda Brăwiid șa φin χaaθ șa-ngil, "Ăruuy șa-χaaθ ses tsărüüng te sen θăpal φănaw φănaw."


Ngiθ dur se taχ χaaθ mogor. Tăbiits φin Pida Brăwiid: "Măra łinam?"

time sit.STAT SP six child circle. ask.PFV DEF.M Master B.: "how_many 2PL?"

Once, six children were in a round table. Master Brăwiid asked them: "How many of you are here?"

Mi-ăngnung căχθaaθ năθa emrĭtsal se doon: "Șrüχ te-stiw: taχ mognas, θaφ te-müüts θraaφ, liiw stăliw, θaφ te-müüts mălsaaχ, taχ mălüüts, doon tălaχ."

in-PROG-count other PFV-call SP.M one: 63: six individual, 15 pair, 20 triad, 15 tetrad, 6 pentad, 1 hexad

While the others were still counting, one child replied: "Sixty-three: 6 individuals, 15 teams of two, 20 teams of 3, 15 teams of 4, 6 teams of 5, and one team of 6."

Tăbiits φin Pida Brăwiid: "Ǎna mee ra, srüü hădeen croθ năθa?"

PFV-ask DEF.M Master B.: "then many what, if enter person other"

Now Master Brăwiid asked: "Well then, how many people will be there if another person enters?"

Emcă'aw φin χaaθ: "Op cănga, φin Pida: tsor pădiiχ φnărtaang, te ămsaχ păχwădiiχ năθa ya-croθ φi!"

PFV-answer DEF.M child "lo, clear DEF.M Master all team previous, and add PL-team other with-person that"

The child nonchalantly responded: "It is plain, Master: all of the old teams, as well as another set of teams with the new person!"

Esngiim φin Pĭda Brăwiid șa φin χaaθ șa-ngil: "Ăruuy tsărüüng te θăpar șa φin χaaθ se φănaw φănaw."

PFV-praise DEF.M Master B. to DEF.M child to-say, "exist wisdom and understanding to DEF.M child this true true"

Master Brăwied praised the child saying, "This child has wisdom and understanding indeed."


Early Classical poetry

Early Classical Windermere poetry, such as poetic parts of the Imθumăytil, was a form of rhymed prose. (cf. saj3 in the Qur'an)

Later Classical poetry

Classical Tseer poetry (which used both rhyme and meter) introduced meter to Windermere poetry. As in Tseer prosody, a meter was determined by the number of syllables per line and the placement of the caesura. The notation "m+n" denotes a meter of m syllables + caesura + n syllables.

Some meters were:

  • 4+4
  • 4+6
  • 5+5
  • 6+4
  • 4+7
  • 6+5
  • 6+6
  • 7+7


An average early Late-Classical philosophical poem:

Hay croθ φnărooχ / χĭrał mi-tliis,
Răwoł hĭspeel / tsor pĭχăngdiis.
Da hĭtsărüüng, / woch hogăsgiis,
Hĭdgun cămbey, / heneeb θăyφiis.

O fleeting man / swept by desire,
Your maw dissolves / all fine repast. (lit. your ear forgets all pĭχăngdiis, a type of joyful dance music)
Know your good sense / and light your fire;
Consume your food; / your life won't last.