|Created by||IlL, Praimhín|
|Writing system||Windermere script|
Classical Windermere (CWdm, native name: băyrits Dămee /bəjrits dəˈmeʱ/; Modern Wdm.: fi cduay Dămea Ăfur [fi kduəj dəmeə ʔəvur]; Skellan: a brits Dymée Yfẃr /ə prits təˈmɛi əˈfur/ or /ə prits təˈme əˈfur/ 'Noble Windermere') was a standardized variety of Windermere spoken in the Imperial Windermere territories (Wen Dămee), based on the language of Windermere texts from ca. fT 0-500. A classical language of Talma, it lent many words to other Talman languages. A related language Tseer was used in other parts of the Windermere Empire, and as a result Windermere borrowed many Classical Tseer words.
- 1 Phonology
- 2 Morphophonology
- 3 Morphology
- 4 Sample texts
- 5 Poetry
|Nasal||m /m/||n /n/||ng /ŋ/|
|Plosive||voiced||b /b~β/||d /d~ð/||g /g~ɣ/|
|tenuis||p /p⁼/||t /t⁼/||c /k⁼/||' /ʔ/|
|aspirated||φ /pʰ/||θ /tʰ/||χ /kʰ/|
|Affricate||ts /ts̪/||tł /ts̺~ʈʂ/|
|Fricative||s /s̪/||ł /s̺~ʂ/||ș /ʃ/||h /h/|
|Resonant||w /w/||r /r/||l /l/||y /j/|
The glottal stop is not transcribed word-initially.
Classical Windermere had six stressed vowels a e i o u ü /a e i o u ü/ (ü was central unlike in Modern Windermere). It also had breathy voiced vowels aa ee ii oo uu üü /aʱ eʱ iʱ oʱ uʱ üʱ/ which became ä ea ie oa ua üe in Middle Windermere.
Classical Windermere had more vowel contrasts in minor syllables: it had two reduced vowels, ă /ɔ/ and ĭ /ə~ɪ/, which merged to ă /ə/ in Modern Windermere. ă comes from Proto-Ashanic unstressed *a, *o, *u, and ĭ comes from Proto-Ashanic unstressed *i, *ü, *e. This contrast is retained in Pradiul as palatalization.
CWdm allowed initial bd bg db dg gb gd.
Classical Windermere had a complex sandhi system (somewhere between Biblical Hebrew and Sanskrit) which is no longer productive in Modern Windermere; most notably it affected plurals and verb forms, making them less predictable.
- th + fric → fric + t
- θs → st, as in sèf 'go' → *thsèf → steeφ 'to drive' (Modern binsteaf 'energy', sămteaf 'to energize')
- θφ → φθ, e.g. tăfi 'laugh' → *tithfi → tiφθi 'to mock' (Classical and Modern Wdm. tăfi, tifti)
- θχ → χθ e.g. Proto-Windermere àrθχa → răχθa 'to die'
- thł, thș → łt, șt
- ch + f, s, th, ł, ș → chw, ??? ??? ??? ??? ???
- s + f, th, ch → sp, st, sc
- rC, lC > Cr, Cl
- ps pn png → sp fn fng
- tp thp tsp kp chp → tw thw tsw cw chw; Proto-Windermere breathy vowel + tp tsp kp > dw tsw gw
- tsc cts tsp pts sts ts > sc sc sp sp st st
Grassmann's law was productive in Classical Windermere: when there were two aspirated consonants before a stressed vowel in a word, the first was deaspirated. e.g. *χăφol > căφol 'to turn'.
Classical Windermere had many irregular plurals due to the effects of sandhi.
Regular reduplicated plurals:
- cnul 'leaf' > nălcnul 'leaves'
- drong 'kernel' > tăngrădong 'kernels'
- croth 'person' > hĭngüs 'people'
Concatenative plurals (especially for longer words):
- păltsif 'merchant' > impăltsif 'merchants'
Classical Windermere had grammatical gender, with masculine and feminine genders.
- For "basic" words, nouns with breathy voice were feminine: tge /tge/ 'voice' was masculine, while trămaay /trəmaʱj/ 'rain' was feminine.
- Exceptions were human nouns, for which the gender followed natural gender.
- Words with certain affixes
- Words with the nominalizer 〈ăy〉 were masculine.
- Words with nominalizers hăl- or să- were feminine.
Trigger infixes and certain aspects had become derivational in Classical Windermere, but not other aspects or tenses.
The feminine agreement prefix u- (wă- before a single consonant that is not the glottal stop; from Proto-Lakovic *ʔu-) goes before TAM markers:
- șroy 'pays' > ușroy
- emșroy 'paid' > umșroy
- tășăyșroy 'pays in installments' > wătășăyșroy
Verbs have the following principal parts: present, past, imperative and verbal noun, which are marked with reduplication, ablaut, and/or prefixes. The exact paradigm depends on the verb.
An example paradigm:
- Present: plang 'stands'; feminine uplang
- Past: plaang 'stood' (ablaut, from PLak *-H for perfective); feminine uplaang
- Future: hepălang 'will stand' (from heφ- future tense marker + nominal grade pälŋ of root √pläŋ); feminine wepalang
- Imperative/Subjunctive: plang 'stand! that X stand'; feminine uplang
- Verbal noun: pălang (from the nominal grade)
Pronouns were similar to later Windermere, but with feminine plural pronouns, possessive pronouns, and inflected prepositions.
The independent pronouns were used as subjects and direct objects.
- 1sg: rii
- 2sg: łen (m), łes (f)
- 3sg: in (m), is (f)
- 1pl exclusive: tsa
- 1pl inclusive: bang
- 2pl: łĭnam (m), łĭsam (f)
- 3pl: ĭnam (m), ĭsam (f)
Possessive pronouns preceded the noun, unlike genitive nouns.
- 1sg: rĭ
- 2sg: łĭn (m), łĭs (f)
- 3sg: ĭn (m), ĭs (f)
- 1pl exclusive: tsă
- 1pl inclusive: su (from a fossilized seew 'here')
- 2pl: łăm (both m and f)
- 3pl: năm (m), săm (f)
Classical Windermere had inflected prepositions, like Tigol and most modern Talmic languages and unlike Modern Windermere. Some prepositions had suppletive forms when inflected.
The regular pronominal affixes:
- 1sg: -ir
- 2sg: -eł (m), -łes (f)
- 3sg: -in (m), -is (f)
- 1pl.ex: -ats
- 1pl.in: -ang
- 2pl: -łam (both genders)
- 3pl: -nam (m), -sam (f)
- mi 'in, at': mir, mił, miłes, min, mis, mits, ming, miłam, miłam, minam, misam
- șa 'to, for': șar, șał, șăłes, șan, șas, șats, șang, șăłam, șăłam, șănam, șăsam
- φa 'from': ăχir, ăχeł, ăχłes, ăχin, ăχis, ăχats, ăχang, ăχłam, ăχłam, ăχnam, ăχsam
- *θ-/θă- (causative; denominal verbs)
- θu- = intensive
- pĭ- (agentive; triggers voicing of following voiceless stops p t c to b d g)
- da (know) -> pĭda 'sage' (Medieval păda, Modern pda)
- tüθ (to grasp) -> pĭdüθ 'meaning, intention'
- ha- (passive)
Words with breathy voice alternations are explained by older which have lost their productivity:
- feminine *-s for nouns, which often derives instruments from verbs: snar < *snär 'catch' (Modern Wdm. snar 'to know'), snaar < *snär-s 'trap, snare' (Modern Wdm. snär).
- an infix *〈H〉 for verbs?
Reduplicant uses 1st consonant (F) or last consonant (L)
- imperfective/stative = unmarked
- perfective = marked with em-
- prospective = heφ- (closest equivalent of future tense)
- momentane = bla-
- progressive = ăL-
- gnomic, habitual = marked with lĭ-
- iterative = FăL-
- frequentative = eNFă-
- inchoative/inceptive = osăL-
- graduative = tăFa-
"The Round Table", from the Imθumăytil
The following story is from the Imθumăytil, a major Talman religious text.
Ngiθ dur id taχ χaaθ mi mogor lăyθeeθ. Emtăbiits Pĭda Brăwiid: "Măra łinam dunse? Mi-ăngnung căχθaaθ năθa emritsal doon: "Șrüχ te-stiw: mi tsum taχ mognas, thaf te-müüts θraaφ, liiw stăliw..." Łop emtăbiits Pĭda Brăwiid: "Ǎna mee ra mooχ, srüü hădeen do croθ năθa?" Emcă'aw id χaaθ ĭpăyφay, "Op cănga, Pĭda: șa-bang tsor pădiiχ φnărtaang, sach φăbeeng păχwădiiχ năθa ya-croθ năθa φi!"
Ngiθ dur id taχ χaaθ mi mogor lăyθeeθ. Emtăbiits Pida Brăwiid: "Măra łinam dunse?"
one time, sit NOM six child in circle VN.discuss. PFV-ask Master B.: "many what 2PL here?"
Once, six children were in a round table. Master Brăwiid asked them: "How many of you are here?"
Mi-ăngnung căχθaaθ năθa emritsal doon: "Șrüχ te-stiw: mi tsum taχ mognas, thaf te-müüts θraaφ, liiw stăliw..."
in-PROG-count PL-child other PFV-call one: 63 namely six individual, 15 pair, 20 group_of_3
While the others were still counting, one child replied: "Sixty-three: 6 individuals, 15 teams of two, 20 teams of 3, ..."
Łop embiits Pida Brăwiid: "Ǎna mee ra mooχ, srüü hădeen do croθ năθa?"
then PFV-ask Master B.: "then many what be_at, if enter one person other"
Now Master Brăwiid asked: "Well then, how many people will be there if another person enters?"
Emcă'aw id χaaθ ipăyφay, "Op cănga, Pida: sey tsor pădiiχ φnărtaang, sach φăbeeng păχwădiiχ năθa ya-croθ năθa φi!"
PFV-answer NOM child nonchalantly "lo, clear Master here all team previous, as_well_as <REFL>form PL-team other with-person other that"
The child nonchalantly responded: "It is plain, Master: here we have all of the old teams, as well as another set of teams with the new person!"
Early Classical poetry
Early Classical Windermere poetry, such as poetic parts of the Imθumăytil, was a form of rhymed prose. (cf. saj3 in the Qur'an)
Later Classical poetry
Classical Tseer poetry (which used both rhyme and meter) introduced meter to Windermere poetry. As in Tseer prosody, a meter was determined by the number of syllables per line and the placement of the caesura. The notation "m+n" denotes a meter of m syllables + caesura + n syllables.
Some meters were:
An average early Late-Classical philosophical poem:
Hay croθ φnărooχ / χĭrał mi-tliis,
Răwoł łĭn speel / tsor pĭχăngdiis.
Da łĭn φăytür / mo hogăsgiis,
Łĭn șaan cămbey / te iing iθφiis.
O fleeting man / swept by desire, [lit. flying about in passion]
Your maw dissolves / all fine repast. [lit. Your ear forgets every pĭχăngdiis (a type of joyful dance music)]
Know your good sense / which lights the fire;
Your words should teach [lit. cause to be wise] / and build to last. [lit. make last]