Indeyivroplu

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Indeyivroplu (indejivroplu / индэйивроплу 🔊) is a personal constructed language classifiable as both an engineered and auxiliary language, with the goals of reforming connections between the several branches of the Indo-European language family, and maintaining an absolute logic in structure. In aspiration of this, the vocabulary of Indeyivroplu is almost entirely a posteriori, rooted from the following languages: Persian, Spanish, German, Russian, Greek, Armenian, Albanian, and Welsh (one from each I.E. branch, in decreasing order of prevalence). There are however some words loaned from non-I.E. languages and even some fully unique root words.

The structure of Indeyivroplu is holistically a mixture between common Indo-European patterns and several inspirations received from other world languages. Indeyivroplu is a synthetic language, notable for its inflection based on part of speech and frequent agglutination, but lack of grammatical gender or cases.

Indeyivroplu
indejivroplu
индэйивроплу
Pronunciation[in.d̪ɛˌjiˈvɾɔ.pʰlu̞]
Created byPalachu
Date2017
SettingEastern Europe; fictional Earth
Indo-European
  • Indeyivroplu

Orthography

Letter-Latin Letter-Cyrillic IPA Equiv.
Aa Аа [a]
Bb Бб [b]
Dd Дд [d̪]
Ee Ээ [ɛ]
Ėė Ее [ɪ̞]
Ff Фф [f]
Gg Гг [g]
Ğğ Ғғ [ɣ]
Hh Ҳҳ [h]
Ii Ии [i]
Jj Йй [j]
Kk Кк [kʰ]
Ll Лл [l]
Mm Мм [m]
Nn Нн [n]
Ňň Ңң [ŋ]
Oo Оо [ɔ]
Pp Пп [pʰ]
Rr Рр [r],[ɾ]¬
Ss Сс [s]
Šš Шш [ʃ]
Tt Тт [t̪ʰ]
Uu Уу [u̞]
Vv Вв [v]
Xx Хх [χ]
Zz Зз [z]
Žž Жж [ʒ]

¬With two IPA values, use the first solely when letter comes first in syllable

Phonology

Indeyivroplu has a very close to perfectly phonemic orthography, where 1 grapheme always corresponds to 1 phoneme and vice versa. Morphophonology does not play any role, but the only minor deviation is with the 1 letter <r>, which is articulated as a trill when first in a syllable, and as a tap otherwise. Note that the 3 unvoiced plosives are always aspirated.

Consonants

Bilabial Labiodental Denti-alveolar Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Plosive pʰ b t̪ʰ d̪ kʰ g
Nasal m n ŋ
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ ɣ χ h
Approximant j
Tap ɾ
Trill r
Lateral Approx. l

Vowels

Indeyivroplu Vowel Formants Chart

Front <--> Central <--> Back
Close i
Near-Close
Close-Mid ɪ̞
Mid
Open-Mid ɛ ɔ
Near-Open
Open a

Prosody

When pronouncing words, the division between syllables in the case of a consonant cluster at a syllable boundary is done by equally splitting the consonants if an even cluster, or putting 1 more consonant in the 2nd syllable if an odd cluster. The only exception to this method is with glides (see "Phonotactics" below).

Stress

Word stress in Indeyivroplu falls by default on the ultimate syllable of the final stem, so never on the inflection except for verbs. This means: ultimate syllable for verbs and proper names; but penultimate for all other parts of speech (n./adj./adv./pron./conj./pre./intj.). An earlier syllable can be stressed instead, but only through the usage of an acute diacritic (á,é,e̋,í,ó,ú). There is also secondary stress in words with more than four syllables, falling on every third syllable before the primary stress.

  1. andir - [anˈd̪iɾ]
  2. mijonu - [miˈjɔ.nu̞]
  3. gutňohajr - [gu̞t̪ʰ.ŋɔˈhajɾ]
  4. nėfrėzohruti - [nɪ̞.fɾɪ̞ˌzɔˈhɾu̞.t̪ʰi]
  5. luskorzorkėgijoha - [lu̞s.kʰɔɾˌzɔɾ.kʰɪ̞.giˈjɔ.ha]
  6. atshúndatğramju - [at̪ʰˈshu̞n.d̪at̪ʰ.ɣɾa.mju̞]

Intonation

Stress in Indeyivroplu is realised as a dynamic accent, meaning loudness is the distinguishing factor as opposed to tonality.

Phonotactics

Indeyivroplu has quite a high level of freedom when it comes to phonotactics. There are three rules governing the scenarios where consonant clusters can break the Sonority Sequencing Principle:

  1. = A single syllable may contain multiple adjacent nasals, fricatives, or plosives, as long as two of the same phoneme (disregarding voicedness) don’t occur adjacently within the syllable.
  2. = The rhotic <r> placed directly after a nasal, fricative, or plosive when in the syllable coda will make those two consonants behave as a single unit together, but <r> cannot be followed by another consonant in that syllable.
  3. = Fricatives and stops are both regarded as if having the same priority ranking and therefore may be placed interchangeably in a cluster.

Additionally, there is a 4th phonotactic rule:

  1. = Word stems / morphemes must always end in a consonant. This exists to more clearly mark the start of an inflection in a word, since all inflections begin with a vowel.

Morphology

Inflection

Words in Indeyivroplu are inflected for parts of speech. In this manner, every word forms from a non-inflected stem which is given one of the following suffixes: -u (noun), -a (adjective), -i (adverb), -ė (conjunction), -e (preposition), -o (pronoun), -ui (interjection), -ir (infinitive verb).

  1. prend- = related to comprehension
    prendu = understanding (n.)
    prendir = to understand (inf. v.)
    prenda = understood (adj.)
    prendi = understandingly (adv.)
    prendui = OK / understood (intj.)
  2. loğ- = related to reason
    loğu = reason, logic (n.)
    loğė = because (conj.)
    loğe = because of (pre.)
    loğa = logical (adj.)
    loği = logically (adv.)
    loğir = reason (inf. v.)
  3. m- = related to 1st person
    mo = I, me (pron.)
    ma = my (adj.)

Verb Conjugation

Verbs in Indeyivroplu conjugate according to 3 persons, 2 numbers, 3 tenses, and 5 moods. To conjugate, use one of these suffixes:

Infinitive
-ir
Indicative
Past Pres. Futu.
1stP. sing. -arz -ar -arx
plu. -ajrz -ajr -ajrx
2ndP. sing. -urz -ur -urx
plu. -ujrz -ujr -ujrx
3rdP. sing. -ėrz -ėr -ėrx
plu. -ėjrz -ėjr -ėjrx
Imperative
1stP. sing. -ah
plu. -ajh
2ndP. sing. -uh
plu. -ujh
3rdP. sing. -ėh
plu. -ėjh
Subjunctive
-sj- + (indicative conjugation)
Conditional
-šp- + (indicative conjugation)
Interrogative
možhė- + (verb stem) + (conjugat.)

The subjunctive and conditional moods are related in that both deal with hypothetical situations, where conditional is dependent on subjunctive. For details refer to: Grammatical Mood.

The interrogative mood using the prefix možhė (colloquially možė) is used in all questions, unless they already include one of the question words that begin with tšė.

Syntax

Loanword Adaptation

Approximately 93% of all word stems in Indeyivroplu are from natural languages, and around 78% total are Indo-European. When loaning any word, research was done into its etymology in an effort to loan only the base morpheme, leading to them not always being immediately recognizable. Here are some examples:

  1. ips- is the word stem relating to "high/height", loaned from Greek ψηλός (psilós) "high", but made to reflect the more basic root ύψος (ípsos) "height".
  2. soň- is the word stem relating to "sleep", loaned from Spanish sueño "sleep" (n.), but made to reflect the more basic root soñar, even if in Spanish it changes meanings to "dream" (v.).


Indeyivroplu implores a strictly phonetic system for the adaptation of loanwords, rather than the more internationally common phonemic method. This means that the individual phones of the word in the root language are converted to their closest approximation in Indeyivroplu systematically, while its original spelling is disregarded.

  1. fxas.elu [fχas] meaning "France", loaned from French "France" [fʁɑ̃s]
  2. duaj.e [ˈd̪u̞.aj] meaning "through", loaned from German "durch" [dʊɐ̯ç]
  3. njeğ.u [ˈnjɛɣ] meaning "bird", loaned from Mandarin "鳥" [ni̯ɜʊ̯²¹⁴]
    Notice here that the 4th phonotactic rule comes into play, making final rounded back vowels convert to <ğ> (front vowels become <j>).

Agglutination

Indeyivroplu employs a frequent usage of agglutination. In the creation of the language, there was a preference towards forming new words using existing word stems rather than directly loaning the foreign word.

When making compound words there is no infix inserted, so morphemes are simply placed unedited after each other, with only the final morpheme being inflected.

  1. fligmuku ("bat") = flig.a + muk.u ("flying" + "rat")
  2. kajskorxonu ("laboratory") = kajs.u + kor.ir + xon.u ("trial" + "to work" + "house")
  3. abrelektrgodir ("lightning strike" (v.)) = abr.u + elektr.a + god.ir ("cloud" + "electric" + "to hit")


The only case where a single morpheme in a word is ever changed in form is for the 28 total "ghost-syllable" morphemes, named so because they consist of a syllable onset followed by -ë in all positions except word-finally, where disappears. They are: d, dj, fr, fsj, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, pr, s, sr, st, sj, šp, t, tr, tš, v, vj, xf, zd, zg, ž, žm.

  1. stė.ob.ronir "surf" versus on.sti "then" (as opposed to on.stė.i)
  2. .jek.hu "syllable" versus elin.lu "Greek" (as opposed to elin.lė.u)

Constituent Order

Indeyivroplu uses the order Subject-Verb-Object (SVO), and indirect objects come before direct objects. Adjectives and adverbs directly precede the noun or verb they modify, unless a subject pronoun is attached to the verb (only in 3rd person), in which case it will go between the adverb and verb. Also, prepositions must uninterruptedly connect their subject with the object. Outside of these rules, there is some flexibility allowed in word order, especially where there are consecutive words of the same part of speech.

"I will read all of your blue books."

  1. zjavazarx fsja ta sina girkju.
  2. zjavazarx ta fsja sina girkju.
  3. zjavazarx sina ta fsja girkju.
  4. zjavazarx ta sina fsja girkju.

"You drive to the office this evening because of the rain."

  1. loğe rigėňu etabėnti zromronkur eose kordafteru.
  2. etabėnti zromronkur eose kordafteru loğe rigėňu.
  3. ...

Vocabulary

Basics

  • hello = salomui [saˈlɔmu̞i]
  • good = guta [ˈgu̞t̪ʰa]
  • bad = nėguta [nɪ̞ˈgu̞t̪ʰa]
  • no = nui [nu̞i]
  • welcome = gutetgui [gu̞ˈt̪ʰɛt̪ʰgu̞i]
  • what = tšo [t̪ʰʃɔ]
  • correct = pšaja [ˈpʰʃaja]
  • happy = felisa [fɛˈlisa]
  • thank you = seposui [sɛˈpʰɔsu̞i]
  • see you later = eosnėfrui [ˈɛɔsnɪ̞fɾu̞i]
  • language = leňgu [ˈlɛŋgu̞]
  • conlang = penzleňgu [pʰɛnzˈlɛŋgu̞]
🔊Audio

Lists

Dolgopolsky list
English Indeyivroplu
me mo
two zjoğ
you to
what? tšui
tongue gjuxu
name nombru
eye tšešu
heart hetsu
tooth dandonu
not ni
fingernail nixu
louse vošu
teardrop slėzu
water obu
dead nėkjaňa
Colors
English Indeyivroplu
black švatsa
white sefida
gray hirta
red sorxa
pink sefidsorxa
purple porfora
blue sina
light blue sefidsina
cyan grinsina
green grina
yellow kitrfaba
orange oraňžfaba
brown marona
Numbers
numeral Indeyivroplu
0 nul
1 jek
2 zjoğ
3 trij
4 tšahor
5 pandž
6 šeš
7 sem
8 axt
9 enun
10 deš
11 dešjek
12 dešzjoğ
20 zjoğdeš
100 hundat
200 zjoğhundat
1000 dešhundat
10000 ėňaohr

Sample Translations

Text Excerpts

  • fsja umansėju nasėjr diňiteti vė drejti lijra vė hama. samhulėjr loğu vė isikdju onvė gutšpi ėnderxunti bratëonbi silėjr. 🔊
фсйа умансейу насейр диңитэти ве дрэйти лийра ве ҳама. самҳулейр лоғу ве исикдйу онве гутшпи ендэрхунти брате́онби силейр.
"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."
Source: Universal Declaration of Human Rights; Article 1


  • onvė tana zėmėlu tenėrz jeka leňgu, vė jeka lu. onvė zamonė sėjo jėzdėjrz deze áusru pasėndozi getėjrz rafšézafu metše Šinar-elu, onvė oneli bėnakėjrz. 🔊
онве тана земелу тэнерз йэка лэңгу, ве йэка лу. онве замоне сейо йездейрз дэзэ а́усру пасендози гэтейрз рафшэ́зафу мэтшэ Шинар-элу, онве онэли бенакейрз.
"And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech."
"And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there."
Source: King James Bible; The Tower of Babel


  • mezė gušakar vje mėjo sėjo tenėjrz mnoga poštgėmožju mezi nėjrz. onvė kėsjėjrz ustė ni djėšpajr loğe hėšpėjr dezuma. 🔊
мэзе гушакар вйэ мейо сейо тэнейрз многа поштгеможйу мэзи нейрз. онве кесйейрз усте ни дйешпайр лоғэ ҳешпейр дэзума.
"But I expect they had lots of chances, like us, of turning back, only they didn’t. And if they had, we shouldn’t know, because they’d have been forgotten."
Source: The Lord of the Rings - The Two Towers; Sam; pg. 719

Famous Quotes

  • lėšpur mo ustė dezumar. omuzkėšpur mo ustė metšumar. prėfigšpur mo ustė omuzar. 🔊
лешпур мо усте дэзумар. омузкешпур мо усте мэтшумар. префигшпур мо усте омузар.
"Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I remember. Involve me and I learn."
Source: Benjamin Franklin


  • frėzamondezumtorju hėjr losštrafa vėrazkir ho. 🔊
фрезамондэзумторйу ҳейр лосштрафа веразкир ҳо.
"Those who do not remember the past are condemned to repeat it."
Source: Jorge Santayana


  • ahamu hėr ni djėbuskistir. djėbuskvolu tenėr ha hastloğu. 🔊
аҳаму ҳер ни дйебускистир. дйебускволу тэнер ҳа ҳастлоғу.
"The important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing."
Source: Albert Einstein

Additional Details

Setting

The fictional region where Indeyivroplu is spoken would be located along parts of the northern shore of the Danube river in Romania by the Bulgarian border, and is called Tsaxikézaf (locally transliterated to Țahichezaf or Цахикезаф). This location was chosen because it is the geographic midpoint between the capitals of the home nations of Indeyivroplu's eight constituent languages.

Writing Conventions

  • Capitalization functions a bit differently from other languages using the Latin script, in that capitalization is only used at the start of proper names, thus the first word of an Indeyivroplu sentence will not necessarily be capitalized.
  • In the formal register, a hyphen (-) should be appended at the morpheme boundary of all proper names.
  • If typing diacritics is not supported, those 5 letters of the Latin script should be written as their base form plus an apostraphe ('). For Cyrillic, the 3 special letters can become their base form plus ь.
  • Note that affricates do not phonemically exist in Indeyivroplu, so their equivalents are always orthographically 2 letters.
  • In the specific case of an Indeyivroplu word being used as a proper noun (i.e. when translating titles of media to Indeyivroplu), the word is to be capitalized but a comma is appended instead of a hyphen.

Indeyivroplu Resources

Resources & Documents

Indeyivroplu words on Linguifex

Typing Diacritics

Latin:

  • ėğňšž / ĖĞŇŠŽ
    • áéëíóú / ÁÉËÍÓÚ

Cyrillic:

  • ғҳң / ҒҲҢ
    • а́э́е́и́о́у́ / А́Э́Е́И́О́У́