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Lutho-Ravennese Flag.png
Flag of the Luthic-speaking Ravenna
Created byLëtzelúcia
SettingAlternative history Italy
Native toRavenna; Ferrara and Bologna
Native speakers149,500 (2020)
Early forms
  • Gothic Luthic
    • Mediaeval Luthic
      • Late Mediaeval Luthic
Standard form
Standard Ravennese Luthic (Lûthica)
  • Upper Luthic (Altalûthica), Ferraresi Luthic (Lûthica Estense)
  • Standard Bolognese Luthic (Lûthica Bolognesa)
  • Paulistan Luthic (Lûthica Paülista)
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Italy (recognised by the Luthic Community of Ravenna)
Brazil (recognised in São Paulo)
Regulated byCouncil for the Luthic Language
Spoken Luthic status.png
The areas where Luthic (red and orange) is spoken.
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Luthic (/ˈluːθ.ɪk/ LOOTH-ik, less often /ˈlʌθ.ɪk/ LUTH-ik, also Luthish; endonym: Lûthica [ˈlu.ti.xɐ] or Rasda Lûthica [ˈraz.dɐ ˈlu.ti.xɐ]) is an Italic language that is spoken by the Luths, with strong East Germanic influence. Unlike other Romance languages, such as Portuguese, Spanish, Catalan, Occitan and French, Luthic has a large inherited vocabulary from East Germanic, instead of only proper names that survived in historical accounts, and loanwords. About 250,000 people speak Luthic worldwide.

Luthic is the result of a prolonged contact among members of both regions after the Gothic raids towards the Roman Empire began, together with the later West Germanic merchants’ travels to and from the Western Roman Empire. These connections, the interactions between the Papal States and the conquest by the Germanic dynasties of the Roman Empire slowly formed a creole as a lingua franca for mutual communication.

As a standard form of the Gotho-Romance language, Luthic has similarities with other Italo-Dalmatian languages, Western Romance languages and Sardinian. The status of Luthic as the regional language of Ravenna and the existence there of a regulatory body have removed Luthic, at least in part, from the domain of Standard Italian, its traditional Dachsprache. It is also related to the Florentine dialect spoken by the Italians in the Italian city of Florence and its immediate surroundings.

Luthic is an inflected fusional language, with four cases for nouns, pronouns, and adjectives (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative); three genders (masculine, feminine, neuter); and two numbers (singular, plural).


Chart of Romance languages based on structural and comparative criteria, not on socio-functional ones. FP: Franco-Provençal, IR: Istro-Romanian.

Luthic is an Indo-European language that belongs to the Gotho-Romance group of the Italic languages, however Luthic has great Germanic influence; where the Germanic languages are traditionally subdivided into three branches: North Germanic, East Germanic, and West Germanic. The first of these branches survives in modern Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Elfdalian, Faroese, and Icelandic, all of which are descended from Old Norse. The East Germanic languages are now extinct, and Gothic is the only language in this branch which survives in written texts; Luthic is the only surviving Indo-European language with extensive East Germanic derived vocabulary. The West Germanic languages, however, have undergone extensive dialectal subdivision and are now represented in modern languages such as English, German, Dutch, Yiddish, Afrikaans, and others.

Among the Romance languages, its classification has always been controversial, for example, it is one of the Italo-Dalmatian languages and most closely related to Istriot on the one hand and Tuscan-Italian on the other. Some authors include it among the Gallo-Italic languages, and according to others, it is not related to either one. Although both Ethnologue and Glottolog group Luthic into a new language group, the Gotho-Romance (opere citato) family is still somewhat dubious.

Luthic has been influenced by Italian, Frankish, Gothic and Langobardic since its first attestation, the great influence of these languages on the vocabulary and grammar of Modern Luthic is widely acknowledged. Most specialists in language contact do consider Luthic to be a true mixed language. Luthic is classified as a Romance langauge because it shares innovations with other Romance languages such as Italian, French and Spanish.

East Germanic cognates
Biblical Gothic Crimean Gothic¹ Luthic English
𐌰𐌷𐍄𐌰𐌿 (ahtau) /ˈax.tɔː/ athe /ˈa.te/ attau [ˈat.tɔ] eight
𐌱𐌰𐌿𐍂 (baur) /bɔr/
𐌱𐌰𐍂𐌽 (barn) /barn/
baar /bar/
*ba(a)rn /barn/?
baure [ˈbɔ.re]
barno [ˈ]
𐌱𐍂𐍉𐌸𐌰𐍂 (brōþar) /ˈbroː.θar/ bruder /'bru.der/ broþar [ˈbro.θɐr] brother
𐍅𐌰𐌹𐍂 (wair) /wɛr/ fers /fers/ vaere [ˈvɛ.re] were- (as in werewolf)
𐌷𐌰𐌽𐌳𐌿𐍃 (handus) /ˈhan.dus/ handa /ˈan.da/ handu [ˈan.du] (archaic, dialectal or obsolete) hand
𐌷𐌰𐌿𐌱𐌹𐌸 (haubiþ) /ˈhɔː.βiθ/ hoef (for *hoeft) /oft/ hauviþo [ˈɔ.βi.θo] (archaic, dialectal or obsolete) head
𐌵𐌹𐌼𐌰𐌽 (qiman) /ˈkʷ kommen /' qemare [kᶣeˈ] to come
𐌷𐌻𐌰𐌷𐌾𐌰𐌽 (hlahjan) /'hlax.jan/ lachen /'la.xen/ (/'la.ɣen/?) claire [ˈ] to laugh
𐌰𐌿𐌲𐍉 (augō) /ˈɔː.ɣoː/ oeghene /ˈo.ɣ augono [ˈɔ.ɣ] eye
¹ Discussions cover the different versions of Busbecq’s report, including scribal emendation and errors in printing and subsequent corrections. It seems that Busbecq’s understanding and documentation of Crimean Gothic were influenced by his Flemish background and possibly by German. He obtained his information from a Crimean Greek source who was knowledgeable in Crimean Gothic. The individual from Crimea who supplied the language information was either originally Greek or fluent in Crimean Gothic but more proficient in Greek than their own native language. In both cases, it’s likely that the pronunciation of Crimean Gothic words was influenced to some extent by the phonetics of the Greek language spoken in that area and time.


The Luthic philologist Aþalphonsu Silva divided the history of Luthic into a period from 500 AD to 1740 to be “Mediaeval Luthic”, which he subdivided into “Gothic Luthic” (500–1100), “Mediaeval Luthic” (1100–1600) and “late Mediaeval Luthic” (1600–1740).

An additional period was later created by Lucia Giamane, from c. 325 AD to 500 AD to be called “Proto-Luthic”, which she believes to be an Vulgar Latin ethnolect, spoken by the early Goths during its period of co-existence with the Roman Empire, no written records from such an early period survive, and if any ever existed, it was fully lost during the Gothic War (376–382) and during the Sack of Rome (410). Proto-Luthic ultimately is the result of the Romano-Germanic culture.

Europe in 305 AD

The term Romano-Germanic describes the conflation of Roman culture with that of various Germanic peoples in areas successively ruled by the Roman Empire and Germanic “barbarian monarchies”. These include the kingdoms of the Visigoths (in Hispania and Gallia Narbonensis), the Ostrogoths (in Italia, Sicilia, Raetia, Noricum, Pannonia, Dalmatia and Dacia), the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in Sub-Roman Britain, and finally the Franks who established the nucleus of the later “Holy Roman Empire” in Gallia Aquitania, Gallia Lugdunensis, Gallia Belgica, Germania Superior and Inferior, and parts of the previously unconquered Germania Magna. Additionally, minor Germanic tribes – the Vandals, the Suebi, the Burgundians, the Alemanni, and later the Lombards − also established their kingdoms in Roman territory in the West.

Romano-Germanic cultural contact begins as early as the first Roman accounts of the Germanic peoples. Roman influence is perceptible beyond the boundaries of the empire, in the Northern European Roman Iron Age of the first centuries AD. The nature of this cultural contact changes with the decline of the Roman Empire and the beginning Migration period in the wake of the crisis of the third century: the “barbarian” peoples of Germania Magna formerly known as mercenaries and traders now came as invaders and eventually as a new ruling elite, even in Italy itself, beginning with Odoacer’s rise to the rank of Dux Italiae in 476 AD.

The cultural syncretism was most pronounced in Francia. In West Francia, the nucleus of what was to become France, the Frankish language was eventually extinct, but not without leaving significant traces in the emerging Romance language. In East Francia on the other hand, the nucleus of what was to become the kingdom of Germany and ultimately German-speaking Europe, the syncretism was less pronounced since only its southernmost portion had ever been part of the Roman Empire, as Germania Superior: all territories on the right hand side of the Rhine remain Germanic-speaking. Those parts of the Germanic sphere extends along the left of the Rhine, including the Swiss plateau, the Alsace, the Rhineland and Flanders, are the parts where Romano-Germanic cultural contact remains most evident.

Early Germanic law reflects the coexistence of Roman and Germanic cultures during the Migration period in applying separate laws to Roman and Germanic individuals, notably the Lex Romana Visigothorum (506), the Lex Romana Curiensis and the Lex Romana Burgundionum. The separate cultures amalgamated after Christianisation, and by the Carolingian period the distinction of Roman vs. Germanic subjects had been replaced by the feudal system of the Three Estates of the Realm.

With a renewed close attention to the history and literature of ancient Rome in the 12th century, the mediaeval aristocracy saw itself mirrored in the accounts of ancient Roman nobility. Some made doubtful claims to direct descent from Roman aristocracy. In the 19th century, German, Luth and French mediaevalists worried about the origins of the great mediaeval families. Did the great families descend from the aristocracy of the Roman Empire or from the barbarian chieftains who invaded the Roman Empire between 400 and 600? Did the families originate in the Latin or Germanic world? Both, it seems. Mediaeval Western Europe was an amalgam of Roman and ‘Barbarian’ bloodlines. The cultural and genetic influence of the Visigoths, Franks, et al. is readily apparent in the socio-cultural and political framework of Mediaeval Europe. In spite of this, the legacy of Rome, both social-cultural and genetic pervaded every aspect of Mediaeval society – this was of course greatly assisted by the mediaeval Church.

The initial trouble for the later Roman Empire came from East Germanic speakers, with various tribal groups such as the Vandals and Burgundians traversing Europe. However, it was the Goths who notably contributed to the linguistic record of the East Germanic languages. Originating from the lower Vistula, they migrated to present-day Ukraine. Later, facing pressure from the Huns, they moved into the Balkans and eventually into Western Europe. Among them, the Visigoths settled in Spain, shaping its post-Roman state, while the Ostrogoths became custodians of the last Roman emperors in Italy. By the eighth century, linguistic assimilation into Romance-speaking populations had largely absorbed the Goths of Spain and Italy. Ulfilas, a prominent Christian missionary and later bishop of the Visigoths, translated the Bible into Gothic while they resided in the northeast Balkans, providing a significant linguistic record of Gothic and East Germanic. A small group of Ostrogoths left in Crimea resurfaced in the sixteenth century through a wordlist compiled by Ogier de Busbecq, the Holy Roman Emperor’s ambassador to the Sublime Porte. However, these Crimean Gothic speakers disappeared linguistically shortly after Busbecq documented their vocabulary.

Gothic Luthic

The earliest varieties of a Luthic language, collectively known as Gothic Luthic or “Gotho-Luthic”, evolved from the contact of Latin dialects and East Germanic languages. A considerable amount of East Germanic vocabulary was incorporated into Luthic over some five centuries. Approximately 1,200 uncompounded Luthic words are derived from Gothic and ultimately from Proto-Indo-European. Of these 1,200, 700 are nouns, 300 are verbs and 200 are adjectives. Luthic has also absorbed many loanwords, most of which were borrowed from West Germanic languages of the Early Middle Ages.

Only a few documents in Gothic Luthic have survived – not enough for a complete reconstruction of the language. Most Gothic Luthic-language sources are translations or glosses of other languages (namely, Greek and Latin), so foreign linguistic elements most certainly influenced the texts. Nevertheless, Gothic Luthic was probably very close to Gothic (it is known primarily from the Codex Argenteus, a 6th-century copy of a 4th-century Bible translation, and is the only East Germanic language with a sizeable text corpus). These are the primary sources:

  • Codex Luthicus (Ravenna), two parts: 87 leaves
It contains scattered passages from the New Testament (including parts of the gospels and the Epistles), from the Old Testament (Nehemiah), and some commentaries. The text likely had been somewhat modified by copyists. It was written using the Gothic alphabet, an alphabet used for writing the Gothic language. It was developed in the 4th century AD by Ulfilas (or *𐍅𐌿𐌻𐍆𐌹𐌻𐌰 (Wulfila)), a Gothic preacher of Cappadocian Greek descent, for the purpose of translating the Bible.
Detail of the Codex Luthicus, the word Luþiks is attested, referring to the Luths
  • Codex Ravennas (Ravenna), four parts: 140 leaves
A civil code enacted under Theodoric the Great. The code covered the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy, but mainly Ravenna, as Theodoric devoted most of his architectural attention to his capital, Ravenna. Codex Ravennas was also written using the Gothic alphabet. The text likely had been somewhat modified by copyists. Together with four leaves, fragments of Romans 11–15 (a Luthic–Latin diglot).

Mediaeval Luthic

The first sentence is:Luthica unsara rasda ist, e scolamos defendere unsarǫ raihtǫ di usare la rasda fremente, l’italiano nogca sarat l’unsara rasda fragca, car gli italiani non unse rispetanno.
English: “Luthic is our language, and we must defend our right to use it freely, Italian will never be our language, as the Italians don’t respect us”

In the mediaeval period, Luthic emerged as a separate language from Latin and Gothic. The main written language was Latin, and the few Luthic-language texts preserved from this period are written in the Latin alphabet. From the 7th to the 16th centuries, Mediaeval Luthic gradually transformed through language contact with Old Italian, Langobardic and Frankish. During the Carolingian Empire (773–774), Charles conquered the Lombards and thus included northern Italy in his sphere of influence. He renewed the Vatican donation and the promise to the papacy of continued Frankish protection. Frankish was very strong, until Louis’ eldest surviving son Lothair I became Emperor in name but de facto only the ruler of the Middle Frankish Kingdom.

After the fall of Middle Francia and the rise of Holy Roman Empire, Louis II conquered Bari in 871 led to poor relations with the Eastern Roman Empire, which led to a lesser degree of the Greek influence present in Luthic. At this time, Luthic eventually dropped the Gothic alphabet and adopted the Latin alphabet, that still lacked some letters present in the Gothic script, such as ⟨j⟩ and ⟨w⟩, and there was no ⟨v⟩ as distinct from ⟨u⟩. Through the 810s, Luthic eventually borrowed ⟨þ⟩ into its orthography, displacing ⟨θ⟩ and ⟨ψ⟩, that were used in free variation to represent the voiceless dental fricative /θ/, in fact, the modern Luthic orthography still lacks ⟨j⟩, ⟨k⟩ and ⟨w⟩ for those reasons, in some manuscripts, ⟨y⟩ is found representing the voiced labiodental fricative /v/ and the voiced bilabial fricative /β/, probably influenced by the Gothic letter ⟨𐍅⟩.

Late Mediaeval Luthic

Fraugiani e Narri hanno rasda fre.
“Lords and jesters have free speech.”

Giuseppe il Lûthicu, proverbs

Following the first Bible translation, the development of Luthic as a written language, as a language of religion, administration, and public discourse accelerated. In the second half of the 17th century, grammarians elaborated grammars of Luthic, first among them Þiudareicu Biagci’s 1657 Latin grammar De studio linguæ luthicæ. Late Mediaevel Luthic saw significant changes to its vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation and orthography. An eventual form of written Standard Luthic emerged c. 1730, and a large number of terms for abstract concepts were adopted directly from Mediaeval Latin (as adapted borrowings, rather than via the native form or Italian). What is known as Standard Ravennese Luthic began in the 1750s after the printing and wide distribution of prayer books and other kinds of liturgical books in Luthic, after the works of Þiudareicu and his essays about the Luthic language and its written form.

De Studio Linguæ Luthicæ

De Studio Linguæ Luthicæ, 1657, restored cover at the Luthic Community of Ravenna.

De Studio Linguæ Luthicæ (Luthic: Studia Rasdae Lûthicae [ˈstu.dja ˈraz.dɛ ˈlu.ti.xɛ]; English: On Study of the Luthic Language) often referred to as simply the Luthicæ (/lʌˈθiˌki, lʌθˈaɪˌki/ lu-THEE-KEE), is a book by Þiudareicu Biagci that expounds Luthic grammar. The Luthicæ is written in Latin (specifically Neo-Latin) and comprises two volumes, it was authorised, imprimatur, by Pope Alexander VII, then head of the Catholic Church on 1956, and was first published on 9 September 1657.

The Luthicæ is considered one of the most importants in the history of Luthic linguistics. In the first book, Þiudareicu discusses the relationship between Latin and the vernacular languages within Italy. His work made new innovations, as it included diglot lemmata, and it was also significant how Þiudareicu approached this theme (a not so common topic at that time), the Luthicæ and the general opinion of Þiudareicu was greatly influenced by Dante Alighieri, as he agreed with Dante, that languages were not something to be considered static, but something that evolves and need historical contextualisation.

Book 1, De grammatica

Book 1, subtitled De grammatica (On grammar) concerns fundamental grammar features present in Luthic and how it changed from Latin, Þiudareicu takes on historical evolution of language, although his opinion was greatly affected by the building of the Tower of Babel, his ideas were not so far off what we know nowadays, however, he classified Uralic languages as Indo-European languages. It opens a collection of examples and Luthic–Latin diglot lemmata.

Book 2, De orthographia

Book 2, subtitled De orthographia (On orthography), is an exposition of the many vernacular orthographies Luthic had, and eventual suggestions for a universal orthography, he took inspiration from rhetorical essays written in Occitan, such as manuals of grammar and writting for troubadour poetry in order to elaborate his orthography, he was also familar with encyclopaedic dictionaries that influenced his work. He also deals with literary genres, and defends that Luthic must be also used as a vernacular for song and verse, in order to displace other vernacular languages, such as Occitan, Sicilian and Italian.


The name of the Luths is hugely linked to the name of the Goths, itself one of the most discussed topics in Germanic philology. The autonym is attested as 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰 (gutþiuda) (the status of this word as a Gothic autonym prior to the Ostrogothic period is disputed) on the Gothic calendar (in the Codex Ambrosianus A): þize ana gutþiudai managaize marwtre jah friþareikeikeis. However, on the basis of parallel formations in Germanic (svíþjóð; angelþēod) and non-Germanic (Old Irish cruithen-tuath) indicates that it means “land of the Goths, Gothia”, instead of a more literal translation “Gothpeople”. The first element however may be also the same element attested on the Ring of Pietrossa ᚷᚢᛏᚨᚾᛁ (gutanī). Roman authors of late antiquity did not classify the Goths as Germani. While the Gutones, the Pomeranian precursors of the Goths, and the Vandili, the Silesian ancestors of the Vandals, were still considered part of Tacitean Germania, the later Goths, Vandals, and other East Germanic tribes were differentiated from the Germans and were referred to as Scythians, Goths, or some other special names. The sole exception are the Burgundians, who were considered German because they came to Gaul via Germania. In keeping with this classification, post-Tacitean Scandinavians were also no longer counted among the Germans, even though they were regarded as close relatives. The word for Luthic is first attested as 𐌻𐌿𐌸𐌹𐌺𐍃 (luþiks) on the Codex Luthicus, named after so. The name was probably first recorded via Greco-Roman writers, as *Lūthae, a formation similar to Getae, itself derived from *leuhtą. Ultimately meaning the lighters. 𐌻𐌿𐌸𐌹𐌺𐍃 is probably a corruption *leuhtą, *leuthą, *Lūthae, influenced by gothus, then reborrowed via a Germanic language, where *-th- > -þ-.

Geographical distribution

Ravèna Emilian, Ravêna Romagnol
Ravenna Italian, Ravenna Luthic
Flag of Ravenna
Motto: “Semper vigil, nunquam dormiens” Latin
“Aeve allerta, nogca dormindo” Luthic
“Always aware, never sleeping”
Location of Ravenna
Location of Ravenna
Location44°24′58″N 12°12′06″E
Official languagesLuthic, Emilian, Romagnol, Italian
Ethnic groupsLuths, Italians
DemonymRavennate, Ravennese
• Estimate
158,784 (1 January 2014)
CurrencyEuro ()
Time zoneCET
Calling code+39-544
Patron saintsSaint Apollinaris
Map of languages and dialect groups of Italy

Luthic is spoken mainly in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, where it is primarily spoken in Ravenna and its adjacent communes. Although Luthic is spoken almost exclusively in Emilia-Romagna, it has also been spoken outside of Italy. Luth and general Italian emigrant communities (the largest of which are to be found in the Americas) sometimes employ Luthic as their primary language. The largest concentrations of Luthic speakers are found in the provinces of Ravenna, Ferrara and Bologna (Metropolitan City of Bologna). The people of Ravenna live in tetraglossia, as Romagnol, Emilian and Italian are spoken in those provinces alongside Luthic.

According to a census by ISTAT (The Italian National Institute of Statistics), Luthic is spoken by an estimated 250,000 people, however only 149,500 are considered de facto natives, and approximately 50,000 are monolinguals.

Status and usage

As in most European countries, the minority languages are defined by legislation or constitutional documents and afforded some form of official support. In 1992, the Council of Europe adopted the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.

Luthic is regulated by the Council for the Luthic Language (Luthic: Gafaurdu faul·la Rasda Lûthica [ɡɐˈɸɔr.du fɔ.l‿lɐ ˈraz.dɐ ˈlu.ti.xɐ]) and the Luthic Community of Ravenna (Luthic: Gamaenescape Lûthica Ravennae [ɡɐˌmɛ.neˈska.ɸe ˈlu.ti.xɐ rɐˈβẽ.nɛ]). The existence of a regulatory body has removed Luthic, at least in part, from the domain of Standard Italian, its traditional Dachsprache, Luthic was considered an Italian dialect like many others until about World War II, but then it underwent ausbau.

Luthic geographical distribution in the commune of Ravenna

Diglossia and code-switching

Luthic is recognised as a minor language in Ravenna. Italy’s official language is Italian, as stated by the framework law no. 482/1999 and Trentino Alto-Adige’s special Statute, which is adopted with a constitutional law. Around the world there are an estimated 64 million native Italian speakers and another 21 million who use it as a second language. Italian is often natively spoken in a regional variety, not to be confused with Italy’s regional and minority languages; however, the establishment of a national education system led to a decrease in variation in the languages spoken across the country during the 20th century. Standardisation was further expanded in the 1950s and 1960s due to economic growth and the rise of mass media and television (the state broadcaster RAI helped set a standard Italian).

Code-switching between Luthic, Emilian dialects and Italian is frequent among Luthic speakers, in both informal and formal settings (such as on television).


Education in Italy is free and mandatory from ages six to sixteen, and consists of five stages: kindergarten (scuola dell’infanzia), primary school (scuola primaria), lower secondary school (scuola secondaria di primo grado), upper secondary school (scuola secondaria di secondo grado), and university (università). Although mostly in Italian, education is Luthic has been implemented in 2018 by Ravenna University. In 2018, the Italian secondary education was evaluated as below the OECD average. Italy scored below the OECD average in reading and science, and near OECD average in mathematics. Mean performance in Italy declined in reading and science, and remained stable in mathematics. Trento and Bolzano scored at an above the national average in reading. Compared to school children in other OECD countries, children in Italy missed out on a greater amount of learning due to absences and indiscipline in classrooms. A wide gap exists between northern schools, which perform near average, and schools in the South, that had much poorer results. The 2018 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study ranks children in Italy 16th for reading. Compared to school children in other OECD countries, children in Italy missed out on a greater amount of learning due to absences and indiscipline in classrooms.

Propaganda poster of Mussolini

Most of the Luths also speak Italian, this is commoner for Luth elders, and most of the Luth elders may speak only Italian because of the influence from the Fascist period, as the Fascist government endorsed a stringent education policy in Italy aiming at eliminating illiteracy, which was a serious problem in Italy at the time, as well as improving the allegiance of Italians to the state. The Fascist government’s first minister of education from 1922 to 1924 Giovanni Gentile recommended that education policy should focus on indoctrination of students into Fascism and to educate youth to respect and be obedient to authority. In 1929, education policy took a major step towards being completely taken over by the agenda of indoctrination.> In that year, the Fascist government took control of the authorization of all textbooks, all secondary school teachers were required to take an oath of loyalty to Fascism and children began to be taught that they owed the same loyalty to Fascism as they did to God. In 1933, all university teachers were required to be members of the National Fascist Party. From the 1930s to 1940s, Italy’s education focused on the history of Italy displaying Italy as a force of civilization during the Roman era, displaying the rebirth of Italian nationalism and the struggle for Italian independence and unity during the Risorgimento. In the late 1930s, the Fascist government copied Nazi Germany’s education system on the issue of physical fitness and began an agenda that demanded that Italians become physically healthy. Intellectual talent in Italy was rewarded and promoted by the Fascist government through the Royal Academy of Italy which was created in 1926 to promote and coordinate Italy’s intellectual activity.

Films and music

Most films and songs are in vernacular Italian, Luthic is seldom spoken in television and radio. Some educational shows hosted by the Luthic Community of Ravenna and Ravenna University are often in Standard Luthic. Italian folk music is an important part of the country’ musical heritage, and spans a diverse array of regional styles, instruments and dances. Instrumental and vocal classical music is an iconic part of Italian identity, spanning experimental art music and international fusions to symphonic music and opera. Italian music has been held up in high esteem in history and many pieces of Italian music are considered high art. More than other elements of Italian culture, music is generally eclectic, but unique from other nations’ music. The country’s historical contributions to music are also an important part of national pride. The relatively recent history of Italy includes the development of an opera tradition that has spread throughout the world; prior to the development of Italian identity or a unified Italian state, the Italian peninsula contributed to important innovations in music including the development of musical notation and Gregorian chant.

Similar to the Canzone Napoletana, Lae Canzoni Lûthicae, sometimes referred to as Luthic songs, became a formal institution in the 1990s as Luthic became more researched by Ravenna University, a generic term for a traditional form of music sung in the Luthic language, ordinarily for male and female voice singing solo. An important factor in defining what makes a Luthic song is the matter of language. All these songs are written and performed in the Luthic language. Although the music is sung by a few non-Luthic singers, it is difficult to sing correctly without knowledge of the Luthic continua, which is crucial in obtaining the correct inflection.

Written media

Luthic is mostly found as written media, However newspapers usually use Italian and reserve Luthic for sarcastic commentaries and caricatures. Headlines in Luthic are common. The letter to the editor section often includes entire paragraphs in Luthic. Many newspapers also regularly publish personal columns in Luthic. Most comedies are written in Luthic. Comic books are often written in Luthic instead of Italian. In novels and short stories, most of the Luth authors, write the dialogues in their Luthic dialects.

Luthic regarded as an Italian dialect

Luthic is classified as Vulnerable by the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger

Luthic lexicon is discrepant from those of other Romance languages, since most of the words present in Modern Luthic are ultimately of Germanic origin. The lexical differentiation was a big factor for the creation of an independent regulatory body. There were many attempts to assimilate Luthic into the Italian dialect continuum, as in recent centuries, the intermediate dialects between the major Romance languages have been moving toward extinction, as their speakers have switched to varieties closer to the more prestigious national standards. That has been most notable in France, owing to the French government’s refusal to recognise minority languages. For many decades since Italy’s unification, the attitude of the French government towards the ethnolinguistic minorities was copied by the Italian government. A movement called “Italianised Luthic Movement” (Luthic: Movimento Lûthicae Italianegiatae; Italian: Movimento per il Lutico Italianeggiato) tried to italianase Luthic’s vocabulary and reduce the inherited Germanic vocabulary, in order to assimilate Luthic as an Italian derived language; modern Luthic orthography was affected by this movement.

Almost all of the Romance languages spoken in Italy are native to the area in which they are spoken. Apart from Standard Italian, these languages are often referred to as dialetti “dialects”, both colloquially and in scholarly usage; however, the term may coexist with other labels like “minority languages” or “vernaculars” for some of them. Italian was first declared to be Italy's official language during the Fascist period, more specifically through the R.D.l., adopted on 15 October 1925, with the name of Sull'Obbligo della lingua italiana in tutti gli uffici giudiziari del Regno, salvo le eccezioni stabilite nei trattati internazionali per la città di Fiume. According to UNESCO's Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger, there are 31 endangered languages in Italy.

Standard Luthic

The basis of Standard Luthic was developed by the popular language spoken by the Ravennese people, whose was highly influenced by Gothic, together with other East Germanic substrate, such as Vandalic and Burgundian and other ancient West Germanic languages, mainly Frankish and Langobardic. Standard Luthic orthography was further influenced by Italian. Increasing mobility of the population and the dissemination of the language through mass media such as radio and television are leading to a gradual standardisation towards a “Standard Luthic” through the process of koineization.


Luthic has a shallow orthography, meaning very regular spelling with an almost one-to-one correspondence between letters and sounds. In linguistic terms, the writing system is close to being a phonemic orthography. The most important of the few exceptions are the following (see below for more details):

  • The letter ⟨c⟩ represents the sound /k/ at the end of words and before the letters ⟨a⟩, ⟨o⟩, and ⟨u⟩ but represents the sound /t͡ʃ/ before the letters ⟨e⟩ and ⟨i⟩.
  • The letter ⟨g⟩ represents the sound /ɡ/ at the end of words and before the letters ⟨a⟩, ⟨o⟩, and ⟨u⟩ but represents the sound /d͡ʒ/ before the letters ⟨e⟩ and ⟨i⟩. It also represents the sound /ŋ/ before ⟨c⟩, ⟨q⟩ or ⟨g⟩.
  • The cluster ⟨sc⟩ /sk/ before the letters ⟨e⟩ and ⟨i⟩ represents the sound /ʃ/, geminate if intervocalic.
  • The spellings ⟨ci⟩ and ⟨gi⟩ before another vowel represent only /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/ with no /i/ ~ /j/ sound.
    • Unless ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ precede stressed /i/ (pharmacia /fɐr.mɐˈtʃi.ɐ/ ‘pharmacy’, biologia /bjo.loˈdʒi.ɐ/ ‘biology’), these may be optionally spelt as ⟨cï⟩ and ⟨gï⟩ (pharmacïa, biologïa).
  • The letter ⟨h⟩ is always silent. It is used to form a digraph with ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ to represent /k/ or /ɡ/ before ⟨e⟩ or ⟨i⟩. It is also used with ⟨p⟩ to represent /ɸ/ and is found in some Greco-Roman words with ⟨t⟩ for /t/ for aesthetics only.
  • The spelling ⟨ch⟩ and ⟨gh⟩ always represent the sounds /k/ and /ɡ/.
  • The spelling ⟨gl⟩ and ⟨gn⟩ represent the palatals /ʎ/ and /ɲ/ retrospectively; always geminate if intervocalic.
    • If the clusters /ɡl/ and /ɡn/ are needed, they are spelt as ⟨ghl⟩ and ⟨ghn⟩ retrospectively.

The Luthic alphabet is considered to consist of 24 letters; ⟨j, k, w, x, y⟩ are excluded, and often avoided in loanwords, as tassi vs taxi, cenophobo vs xenofobo, geins vs jeans, Giorche vs York, Valsar vs Walsar.

  • The circumflex accent is used over vowels to indicate irregular stress.
    • The digraphs ⟨ae, au, ei⟩ are used to indicate /ɛ ɔ i/ retrospectively; /ɛ/ ⟨ae⟩ is in free variation with /e/ word terminally.
    • /e/ and /o/ are often lowered to /ɛ/ and /ɔ/ in VCC.
  • The diaeresis accent is used to distinguish from a digraph or a diphthong.
  • The letter ⟨s⟩ can symbolise voiced or voiceless consonants. ⟨s⟩ symbolises /s/ onset before a vowel, when clustered with a voiceless consonant (⟨p, f, c, q⟩), and when doubled (geminate); it symbolises /z/ when between vowels and when clustered with voiced consonants.
    • Similarly, the letter ⟨z⟩ can symbolise voiced or voiceless consonants. ⟨z⟩ symbolises /t͡s/ onset before a vowel, when clustered with a voiceless consonant (⟨p, f, c, q⟩), and when doubled (geminate); it symbolises /d͡z/ when between vowels (except in -zione suffixed nouns) and when clustered with voiced consonants. However, ⟨zz⟩ stands for both /tt͡s/ and /dd͡z/.
  • The letter ⟨þ⟩ can symbolise voiced or voiceless consonants. ⟨þ⟩ symbolises /θ/ in all cases, except when clustered with a voiced consonant, standing for /ð/.
Letter Name Historical name IPA Diacritics
Standard Luthic Alphabet
A, a a [ˈa] asga [ˈaz.ɡɐ] /ɐ/ or /a/ â
B, b bi [ˈbi] baerca [ˈbɛr.kɐ] /b/ or /β/
C, c ci [ˈt͡ʃi] cauno [ˈk̠ɔ.no] /k/, /t͡ʃ/ or /x/
D, d di [ˈdi] dagu [ˈda.ɣu] /d/
Ð, ð eððe [ˈɛð.ðe] /ð/
E, e e [ˈɛ] aeqqu [ˈɛk.kʷu] /e/ or /ɛ/ ê
F, f effe [ˈɛɸ.ɸe] faeu [ˈfɛ.u] /ɸ/ or /f/
G, g gi [ˈd͡ʒi] geva [ˈd͡ʒe.βɐ] /ɡ/, /d͡ʒ/, /ɣ/ or /ŋ/
H, h acca [ˈak.kɐ] haglu [ˈaʎ.ʎu]
I, i i [ˈi] eissu [ˈ] /i/ or /j/ ï
L, l elle [ˈɛl.le] lagu [ˈla.ɣu] /l/
M, m emme [ˈẽ.me] mannu [ˈmɐ̃.nu] /m/
N, n enne [ˈẽ.ne] nauþu [ˈnɔ.θu] /n/
O, o o [ˈɔ] oþalo [oˈθa.lo] /o/ or /ɔ/ ô
P, p pi [ˈpi] paerþa [ˈpɛr.θɐ] /p/ or /ɸ/
Q, q qoppa [ˈkʷɔp.pɐ] qaerþa [ˈkᶣɛr.θɐ] /kʷ/
R, r erre [ɛrˈre] raeða [ˈrɛ.ðɐ] /r/
S, s esse [ɛsˈse] sauila [ˈsɔj.lɐ] /s/ or /z/
T, t ti [ˈti] teivu [ˈti.βu] /t/ or /θ/
Þ, þ eþþe [ˈɛθ.θe] þaurnu [ˈθɔ] /θ/ or /ð/
U, u u [ˈu] uru [ˈ] /u/ or /w/ û, ü
V, v vi [ˈvi] vigna [ˈviɲ.ɲɐ] /β/ or /v/
Z, z zi [ˈt͡si] zetta [ˈt͡sɛt.tɐ] /t͡s/ or /d͡z/
A Luthic computer keyboard layout.

Luthic has geminate, or double, consonants, which are distinguished by length and intensity. Length is distinctive for all consonants except for /d͡z/, /ʎ/ and /ɲ/, which are always geminate when between vowels, and /z/, which is always single. Geminate plosive and affricates are realised as lengthened closures. Geminate fricatives, nasals, and /l/ are realised as lengthened continuants. When triggered by Gorgia Toscana, voiceless fricatives are always constrictive, but voiced fricatives are not very constrictive and often closer to approximants.


There is a maximum of 8 oral vowels, 5 nasal vowels, 2 semivowels and 31 consonants; though some varieties of the language have fewer phonemes. Gothic, Frankish, northern Suebi, Langobardic, Lepontic and Cisalpine Gaulish (Roman Gaul) influences were highly absorbed into the local Vulgar Latin dialect. An early form of Luthic was already spoken in the Ostrogothic Kingdom during Theodoric’s reign and by the year 600 Luthic had already become the vernacular of Ravenna. Luthic developed in the region of the former Ostrogothic capital of Ravenna, from Late Latin dialects and Vulgar Latin. As Theodoric emerged as the new ruler of Italy, he upheld a Roman legal administration and scholarly culture while promoting a major building program across Italy, his cultural and architectural attention to Ravenna led to a most conserved dialect, resulting in modern Luthic.


Vowel phonemes of Standard Luthic
Front Central Back
oral nasal oral nasal oral nasal
Close i ĩ u ũ
Close-mid e o õ
Open-mid ɛ ɐ ɐ̃ ɔ
Open a
Oral monophthongs of Standard Luthic
Nasal monophthongs of Standard Luthic

When the mid vowels /ε, ɔ/ precede a nasal, they become close [ẽ] rather than [ε̃] and [õ] rather than [ɔ̃].

  • /i/ is close front unrounded [i]. f1 =337 y f2 =2300; f1 =400 y f2 =2600 hz.
  • /ĩ/ is close front unrounded [ĩ]. f1 =337 y f2 =2300; f1 =400 y f2 =2600 hz.
  • /u/ is close back rounded [u]. f1 =350 y f1 =1185; f1 =400 y f2 =925 hz.
  • /ũ/ is close back rounded [ũ]. f1 =350 y f1 =1185; f1 =400 y f2 =925 hz.
  • /e/ is close-mid front unrounded [e]. f1 =475 hz y f2 =1700 hz.
  • /ẽ/ is close-mid front unrounded [ẽ]. f1 =475 hz y f2 =1700 hz.
  • /o/ is close-mid back rounded [o]. f1 =490 y f2 =1015; f1 =500 y f2=1075.
  • /õ/ is close-mid back rounded [õ]. f1 =490 y f2 =1015; f1 =500 y f2=1075.
  • /ɛ/ has been variously described as mid front unrounded [ɛ̝] and open-mid front unrounded [ɛ]. f1 =700 hz y f2 =1800 hz.
  • /ɔ/ is somewhat fronted open-mid back rounded [ɔ̟]. f1 =555 hz y f2 =1100; f1 =600 hz y f2 =1100 hz.
  • /ɐ/ is near-open central unrounded [ɐ]. f1 =700 y f2 =1300 hz; f1 =715 hz y f2 =1400 hz.
  • /ɐ̃/ is near-open central unrounded [ɐ̃]. f1 =700 y f2 =1300 hz; f1 =715 hz y f2 =1400 hz.
  • /a/ has been variously described as open front unrounded [a] and open central unrounded [ä]. f1 =700 y f2 =1350 hz; f1 =750 y f2 =1500 hz.

It has been registered that word-final /i, u/ are raised and end in a voiceless vowel: [ii̥, uu̥]. The voiceless vowels may sound almost like [ç] and [x] retrospectively, mainly around Lugo, it is also transcribed as [ii̥ᶜ̧, uu̥ˣ] or [iᶜ̧, uˣ]. In the same region, it is common to have interconsonantal laxed variants [i̽, u̽] and these laxed forms often have a schwa-like off-glide [i̽ə̯, u̽ə̯], that is further described as an extra short schwa-like off-glide [ə̯̆] ([i̽ə̯̆, u̽ə̯̆] or [i̽ᵊ, u̽ᵊ]). The status of [ɛ] and [ɔ] is up to debate, and it is often believed that the long vowel phonemes that were present in Gothic resulted in schwa-glides [ɛə̯̆, ɔə̯̆], or further fortified to a quasi-diphthong [ɛæ̯̆, ɔɒ̯̆] (henceforth only written ⟨[ɛ, ɔ]⟩ due to its questionable nature and for simplicity).

Diphthongs and triphthongs

/j/ /w/
Start point /a/ aj aw
/ɐ/ ɐj ɐw
/ɛ/ ɛj ɛw
/e/ ej ew
/i/ iw
/ɔ/ ɔj
/o/ oj ow
/u/ uj
/j/ /o/
Start point /j/ jɐj jɛj jɔj jwo
/w/ wɐj wɛj wɔj

It has also been registered that vowels may be rounded before /w/: [y, u, ø, o, œ, ɐ͗, ɔ, a͗], resulting in further lowered and retracted rounded vowels [ʏ, u̞, ø̞̈, o̞, æ̹̈, ɔ, ɒ, ɒ]. This mainly occurs where other Gallo-Italic languages are more predominant, such as Lombard and Piedmontese.


Consonant phonemes of Standard Luthic
Labial Dental/
Postalveolar Palatal Velar
plain labialized
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ (ŋʷ)
Plosive voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ ɡʷ
Fricative voiceless ɸ (f) s θ ʃ (x)
voiced β (v) z ð (ɣ)
Affricate voiceless t͡s t͡ʃ
voiceless d͡z d͡ʒ
Approximant semivowel j w
lateral l ʎ
Trill r
  • Nasals:
    • /n/ is laminal alveolar [n̻].
    • /ɲ/ is alveolo-palatal, always geminate when intervocalic.
    • /ŋ/ has a labio-velar allophone [ŋʷ] before labio-velar plosives.
    • /ŋ/ is pre-velar [ŋ˖] before [k̟, ɡ̟].
    • /ŋ/ is post-velar [ŋ˗] before [k̠, ɡ˗], it may also be described as an uvular [ɴ].
  • Fricatives:
    • /ɸ/ and /β/ are bilabial.
    • [f] and [v] are labiodental and only happens as an allophone of /ɸ/ and /β/ word-initially and postconsonantal.
    • /θ/ and /ð/ are laminal dentialveolar.
    • /s/ and /z/ are laminal alveolar [s̻, z̻].
    • /ʃ/ is strongly labialised palato-alveolar [ʃʷ].
    • /x/ and /ɣ/ are velar, and only found when triggered by Gorgia Toscana.
  • Approximants, trill and laterals:
    • /j/ and /w/ are always geminate when intervocalic.
    • /r/ is alveolar [r].
    • /l/ is laminal alveolar [l̻].
    • /ʎ/ is alveolo-palatal, always geminate when intervocalic.

Historical phonology

The phonological system of the Luthic language underwent many changes during the period of its existence. These included the palatalisation of velar consonants in many positions and subsequent lenitions. A number of phonological processes affected Luthic in the period before the earliest documentation. The processes took place chronologically in roughly the order described below (with uncertainty in ordering as noted).

Vowel system

The most sonorous elements of the syllable are vowels, which occupy the nuclear position. They are prototypical mora-bearing elements, with simple vowels monomoraic, and long vowels bimoraic. Latin vowels occurred with one of five qualities and one of two weights, that is short and long /i e a o u/. At first, weight was realised by means of longer or shorter duration, and any articulatory differences were negligible, with the short:long opposition stable. Subtle articulatory differences eventually grow and lead to the abandonment of length, and reanalysis of vocal contrast is shifted solely to quality rather than both quality and quantity; specifically, the manifestation of weight as length came to include differences in tongue height and tenseness, and quite early on, /ī, ū/ began to differ from /ĭ, ŭ/ articulatorily, as did /ē, ō/ from /ĕ, ŏ/. The long vowels were stable, but the short vowels came to be realised lower and laxer, with the result that /ĭ, ŭ/ opened to , ʊ]​, and /ĕ, ŏ/ opened to , ɔ]​. The result is the merger of Latin /ĭ, ŭ/ and /ē, ō/, since their contrast is now realised sufficiently be their distinct vowel quality, which would be easier to articulate and perceive than vowel duration.

Gotho-Romance vowel changes from Latin.
Vowels phoneme in Classical Latin
Front Central Back
Close i ĩː u ũː
Mid e ẽː o õː
Open ä äː ä̃ː
Vowels phoneme in Early Spoken Latin
Front Central Back
Close ɪ ĩː ʊ ũː
Mid ɛ ẽː ɔ õː
Open ä äː ä̃ː

Unstressed a resulted in a slightly raised a [ɐ]. In hiatus, unstressed front vowels become /j/, while unstressed back vowels become /w/. Unlike other Romance languages, the Luthic vowel system was not so affected by metaphony, such as /e/ raising to /i/ or /ɛ/ raising to /e/:

In addition to monophthongs, Luthic has diphthongs, which, however, are both phonemically and phonetically simply combinations of the other vowels. None of the diphthongs are, however, considered to have distinct phonemic status since their constituents do not behave differently from how they occur in isolation, unlike the diphthongs in other languages like English and German. Grammatical tradition distinguishes “falling” from “rising” diphthongs, but since rising diphthongs are composed of one semiconsonantal sound [j] or [w] and one vowel sound, they are not actually diphthongs. The practice of referring to them as “diphthongs” has been criticised by phoneticians like Alareicu Villavolfu.

Cluster smoothing

Clusters such as -p.t- -k.t- -x.t- are always smoothed to -t.t-.

This is also valid for other CC clusters with similar manner or place.

Absorption of nasals before fricatives

This is the source of such alterations as modern Standard Luthic fimfe [ˈfĩ.ɸe] “five”, monþu [ˈmõ.θu] “mouth” versus Gothic 𐍆𐌹𐌼𐍆 [ˈɸimɸ]id.”, 𐌼𐌿𐌽𐌸𐍃 [ˈmunθs]id.” and German fünf [fʏnf]id.”, Mund [mʊnt]id.”.


The diphthongs ⟨au⟩, ⟨ae⟩ and ⟨oe⟩ [au̯, ae̯, oe̯] were monophthongized (smoothed) to [ɔ, ɛ, e] by Gothic influence, as the Germanic diphthongs /ai̯/ and /au̯/ appear as digraphs written ⟨ai⟩ and ⟨au⟩ in Gothic. Researchers have disagreed over whether they were still pronounced as diphthongs /ai̯/ and /au̯/ in Ulfilas' time (4th century) or had become long open-mid vowels: /ɛː/ and /ɔː/: 𐌰𐌹𐌽𐍃 (ains) [ains] / [ɛːns] “one” (German eins, Icelandic einn), 𐌰𐌿𐌲𐍉 (augō) [auɣoː] / [ɔːɣoː] “eye” (German Auge, Icelandic auga). It is most likely that the latter view is correct, as it is indisputable that the digraphs ⟨ai⟩ and ⟨au⟩ represent the sounds /ɛː/ and /ɔː/ in some circumstances (see below), and ⟨aj⟩ and ⟨aw⟩ were available to unambiguously represent the sounds /ai̯/ and /au̯/. The digraph ⟨aw⟩ is in fact used to represent /au/ in foreign words (such as 𐍀𐌰𐍅𐌻𐌿𐍃 (Pawlus) “Paul”), and alternations between ⟨ai⟩/⟨aj⟩ and ⟨au⟩/⟨aw⟩ are scrupulously maintained in paradigms where both variants occur (e.g. 𐍄𐌰𐌿𐌾𐌰𐌽 (taujan) “to do” vs. past tense 𐍄𐌰𐍅𐌹𐌳𐌰 (tawida) “did”). Evidence from transcriptions of Gothic names into Latin suggests that the sound change had occurred very recently when Gothic spelling was standardised: Gothic names with Germanic au are rendered with au in Latin until the 4th century and o later on (Austrogoti > Ostrogoti).


Early evidence of palatalised pronunciations of /tj kj/ appears as early as the 2nd–3rd centuries AD in the form of spelling mistakes interchanging ⟨ti⟩ and ⟨ci⟩ before a following vowel, as in ⟨tribunitiae⟩ for tribūnīciae. This is assumed to reflect the fronting of Latin /k/ in this environment to [c ~ t͡sʲ]. Palatalisation of the velar consonants /k/ and /ɡ/ occurred in certain environments, mostly involving front vowels; additional palatalisation is also found in dental consonants /t/, /d/, /l/ and /n/, however, these are often not palatalised in word initial environment.

Labio-velars remain unpalatalised, except in monosyllabic environment:

In some cases, palatalisation occurs word initially, mainly if /kn/ is the initial cluster:

It may not happen if intervocalic:


The Gotho-Romance family suffered very few lenitions, but in most cases the stops /p t k/ are lenited to /b d ɡ/ if not in onset position, before or after a sonorant or in intervocalic position as a geminate. A similar process happens with /b/ that is lenited to /v ~ β/ in the same conditions. The unstressed labio-velar /kʷ/ delabialises before hard vowels, as in:

Luthic is further affected by the Gorgia Toscana effect, where every plosive is spirantised (or further approximated if voiced). Plosives, however, are not affected if:

  • Geminate.
  • Labialised.
  • Nearby another fricative.
  • Nearby a rhotic, a lateral or nasal.
  • Stressed and anlaut.

In every case, /j/ and /w/ are fortified to /d͡ʒ/ and /v ~ β/, except when triggered by hiatus collapse. The Germanic /xʷ ~ hʷ ~ ʍ/ is also fortified to /kʷ/ in every position; which can be further lenited to /k ~ t͡ʃ/ in the environments given above. The Germanic /h ~ x/ is fortified to /k/ before a rhotic or a lateral, as in:

Coda consonants with similar articulations often sandhi, triggering a kind of syntactic gemination, it also happens with oxytones:


In some rare cases, the consonants are fully deleted (elision), as in the verb havere, akin to Italian avere, which followed a very similar paradigm and evolution:

Vowels other than /ä/ are often syncopated in unstressed word-internal syllables, especially when in contact with liquid consonants:

A similar process happens when vowels (except /ä/) are interconsonantal between /m/ and /n/:


Luthic allows up to three consonants in syllable-initial position, though there are limitations. The syllable structure of Luthic is (C)(C)(C)(G)V(G)(C)(C). As with English, there exist many words that begin with three consonants. Luthic lacks bimoraic (diphthongs and long vowels), as the so-called diphthongs are composed of one semiconsonantal (glide) sound [j] or [w].

C₁ C₂ C₃
f ~ ɸ v ~ β p b t d k ɡ r j w
s p k r l
s f ~ ɸ t r
z b l
z d ɡ r
z m n v ~ β d͡ʒ r l
p b f ~ ɸ v ~ β k ɡ r l
ɡ n l
p t k d r
θ ð v ~ β r
t v ~ β
kʷ ɡʷ t͡s t͡ʃ d͡ʒ ʃ r ɲ l ʎ


As an onset, the cluster /s/ + voiceless consonant is inherently unstable. Phonetically, word-internal s+C normally syllabifies as [s.C]. A competing analysis accepts that while the syllabification /s.C/ is accurate historically, modern retreat of i-prosthesis before word initial /s/+C (e.g. miþ isforzȧ “with effort” has generally given way to miþ sforza) suggests that the structure is now underdetermined, with occurrence of /s.C/ or /.sC/ variable “according to the context and the idiosyncratic behaviour of the speakers.”


V₁ V₂ V₃
a ɐ e ɛ i [j] u [w]
o ɔ i [j]
i [j] e o
i [j] ɐ ɛ ɔ i [j]
i [j] u [w] o
u [w] ɐ ɛ ɔ i [j]
u [w] e o
u [w] i

The nucleus is the only mandatory part of a syllable and must be a vowel or a diphthong. In a falling diphthong the most common second elements are /i̯/ or /u̯/. Combinations of /j w/ with vowels are often labelled diphthongs, allowing for combinations of /j w/ with falling diphthongs to be called triphthongs. One view holds that it is more accurate to label /j w/ as consonants and /jV wV/ as consonant-vowel sequences rather than rising diphthongs. In that interpretation, Luthic has only falling diphthongs (phonemically at least, cf. synaeresis) and no triphthongs.

C₁ C₂
m n l r Cₓ

Luthic permits a small number of coda consonants. Outside of loanwords, the permitted consonants are:

  • The first element of any geminate.
  • A nasal consonant that is either /n/ (word-finally) or one that is homorganic to a following consonant.
  • /r/ and /l/.
  • /s/ (though not before fricatives).

Luthic is quasi-paroxytonic, meaning that most words receive stress on their penultimate (second-to-last) syllable. Monosyllabic words tend to lack stress in their only syllable, unless emphasised or accentuated. Enclitic and other unstressed personal pronouns do not affect stress patterns. Some monosyllabic words may have natural stress (even if not emphasised), but it is weaker than those in polysyllabic words.

Compound words have secondary stress on their penultimate syllable. Some suffixes also maintain the suffixed word secondary stress.

Secondary stress is however often omitted by Italian influence. Tetrasyllabic (and beyond) words may have a very weak secondary stress in the fourth-to-last syllable (i.e. two syllables before the main or primary stress).


Ravenna University’s arms

Luthic is a well-studied language, and multiple universities in Italy have departments devoted to Luthic or linguistics with active research projects on the language, mainly in Ravenna, such as the Linguistic Circle of Ravenna (Luthic: Creizzo Rasdavitascapetico Ravennae; Italian: Circolo Linguistico di Ravenna) at Ravenna University, and there are many dictionaries and technological resources on the language. The language council Gafaurdu faul·la Rasda Lûthica also publishes research on the language both nationally and internationally. Academic descriptions of the language are published both in Luthic, Italian and English. The most complete grammar is the Grammatica gli Lûthicae Rasdae (Grammar of the Luthic Language) by Alessandru Fiscar & Luca Vagnar, and it is written in Luthic and contains over 800 pages. Multiple corpora of Luthic language data are available. The Luthic Online Dictionary project provides a curated corpus of 35,000 words.


The Ravenna School of Linguistics evolved around Giuvanni Laggobardi and his developing theory of language in linguistic structuralism. Together with Soġnafreþo Rossi he founded the Circle of Linguistics of Ravenna in 1964, a group of linguists based on the model of the Prague Linguistic Circle. From 1970, Ravenna University offered courses in languages and philosophy but the students were unable to finish their studies without going to Accademia della Crusca for their final examinations.

  • Ravenna University Circle of Phonological Development (Luthic: Creizzo Sviluppi Phonologici gi’Accademia Ravenna) was developed in 1990, however very little research has been done on the earliest stages of phonological development in Luthic.
  • Ravenna University Circle of Theology (Luthic: Creizzo Theologiae gi’Accademia Ravenna) was developed in 2000 in association with the Ravenna Cathedral or Metropolitan Cathedral of the Resurrection of Our Lord Jesus Christ (Luthic: Cathedrale metropolitana deï Osstassi Unsari Signori Gesusi Christi; Italian: Cattedrale metropolitana della Risurrezione di Nostro Signore Gesù Cristo; Duomo di Ravenna).

Phonological development

Phonological development refers to how children learn to organize sounds into meaning or language (phonology) during their stages of growth.

Phoneme inventory and phonotactics

Word-final consonants are rarely produced during the early stages of word production. Consonants are usually found in word-initial position, or in intervocalic position. At 6 months, infants are also able to make use of prosodic features of the ambient language to break the speech stream they are exposed to into meaningful units, e.g., they are better able to distinguish sounds that occur in stressed vs. unstressed syllables. This means that at 6 months infants have some knowledge of the stress patterns in the speech they are exposed and they have learned that these patterns are meaningful.

10 months

Most consonants are word-initial only: They are voiced stops /d/, /b/ and the nasal /m/. A presence of voiceless stops is also found as /t/, /p/ and rarely /k/; who can be allphones of each other. A preference for a front place of articulation is present. Clicks are also present, although mostly for imitative suckling sounds, blowing a raspberry has also a common register between toddlers.

Babbling becomes distinct from previous, less structured vocal play. Initially, syllable structure is limited to CVCV, called reduplicated babbling. Consonant clusters are still absent. Children’s first ten words appear around month 12, and take CVCV format, such as mama “mother”, papa “father” and dada “give me!”.

21 months

More phones now appear: the nasal /n/, the voiceless fricative /t͡ʃ/, who can be an allphone of /t ~ d/; as voice is still not a distinctive feature, and the liquid /l/. The preference for front articulation is still present, triggering palatalisation.

24 months

Fricatives may appear: /f ~ v/ and /s/ (who can be further palatalised to /ʃ/), primarily at intervocalic position. Voice may become a distinctive feature at this stage. Onomatopoeiae are also produced, such as /aw aw/ for dog’s barking; /ow/, or preferably /aj/ for denoting pain. Production of trisyllabic words begins, such as C₁VC₂VC₃V. Consonant clusters are now present and are often subject to consonant harmony, such as -mb-, -nd- and -dr-; however voiced-voiceless clusters are still rare, such as -mp- and -tr-.

30 months

Approximately equal numbers of phones are now produced in word-initial and intervocalic position. Additions to the phonetic inventory are the voiced stop /ɡ/ and a few consonant clusters. Co-articulations are perceived, such as labio-velar plosives. Alveolars and bilabials are the two most common places of articulation. Labiodental and postalveolar production increases throughout development, while velar production decreases. Luthic lenitions also become evident, as more fricatives and approximants are produced. Children develop syllabic segmentation awareness earlier than phonemic segmentation awareness.

Word processes

These phonological processes may happen within a range of 3 to 6 years.

6 years

Children produce mostly adult-like segments. Their ability to produce complex sound sequences and multisyllabic words continues to improve throughout middle childhood.


Luthic’s link to other Indo-European languages

Luthic has right symmetry, as other VO languages (verb before object) like English.

Correlation VO language Examples
Adposition type prepositions of..., than..., on...
Order of noun and genitive noun before genitive father + of John
Order of adjective and standard of comparison adjective before standard taller + than Bob
Order of verb and adpositional phrase verb before adpositional phrase slept + on the floor
Order of verb and manner adverb verb before manner adverb ran + slowly
Order of copula and predicative copula before predicate is + a teacher
Order of auxiliary verb and content verb auxiliary before content verb want + to see Mary
Place of adverbial subordinator in clause clause-initial subordinators because + Bob has left
Order of noun and relative clause noun before relative clause movies + that we saw


The Atlas of Language Structures (WALS) is a large database of structural (phonological, grammatical, lexical) properties of languages gathered from descriptive materials (such as reference grammars) by a team of 55 authors.

Morphophonological WALS Features
WALS Luthic Italian¹ Romanian¹ English German Icelandic¹
Headed Mixed Mixed Mixed Mixed Mixed Mixed
Typology Analytic (partially) Analytic (partially) Analytic (partially) Analytic (partially) Analytic (partially) Analytic (partially)
Isochrony Syllable Syllable Stress Stress Stress Syllable
Pro-drop Yes Yes Yes No Mostly (colloquial) No
Consonant Inventories 1A Large Average Average Average Average Average
Vowel Quality Inventories 2A Large (7-14) Average (5-6) Large (7-14) Large (7-14) Large (7-14) Large (7-14)
Consonant-Vowel Ratio 3A Moderately high Average Average Low Low Low
Voicing in Plosives and Fricatives 4A In both plosives and fricatives In both plosives and fricatives In both plosives and fricatives In both plosives and fricatives In both plosives and fricatives In both plosives and fricatives
Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems 5A None missing in /p t k b d g/ None missing in /p t k b d g/ None missing in /p t k b d g/ None missing in /p t k b d g/ None missing in /p t k b d g/ None missing in /p t k b d g/
Uvular Consonants 6A Uvular continuants only None None None Uvular continuants only None
Glottalised Consonants 7A No glottalised consonants No glottalised consonants No glottalised consonants No glottalised consonants No glottalised consonants No glottalised consonants
Lateral Consonants 8A /l/, no obstruent laterals /l/, no obstruent laterals /l/, no obstruent laterals /l/, no obstruent laterals /l/, no obstruent laterals /l/, no obstruent laterals
The Velar Nasal 9A No initial velar nasal No velar nasal No velar nasal No initial velar nasal No initial velar nasal No initial velar nasal
Vowel Nasalisation 10A Contrast present Contrast absent Contrast absent Contrast absent Contrast absent Contrast absent
Front Rounded Vowels 11A None None None None High and mid High and mid
Syllable Structure 12A Complex Moderately complex Moderately complex Complex Complex Complex
Fixed Stress Locations 14A No fixed stress No fixed stress No fixed stress No fixed stress No fixed stress Initial
Weight-Sensitive Stress 15A Right-oriented: One of the last three Right-edge: Ultimate or penultimate Right-edge: Ultimate or penultimate Right-oriented: One of the last three Right-oriented: One of the last three Fixed stress (no weight-sensitivity)
Weight Factors in Weight-Sensitive Stress Systems 16A Lexical stress Lexical stress Lexical stress Long vowel or coda consonant Coda consonant No weight
Rhythm Types 17A Undetermined Undetermined Undetermined Trochaic Trochaic Trochaic
Absence of Common Consonants 18A All present All present All present All present All present All present
Presence of Uncommon Consonants 19A ‘Th’ sounds None None ‘Th’ sounds None ‘Th’ sounds
Fusion of Selected Inflectional Formatives 20A Exclusively concatenative Exclusively concatenative Exclusively concatenative Exclusively concatenative Exclusively concatenative Exclusively concatenative
Exponence of Tense-Aspect-Mood Inflection 21B TAM+agreement TAM+agreement TAM+agreement Monoexponential TAM Monoexponential TAM Monoexponential TAM
Inflectional Synthesis of the Verb 22A 4-5 categories per word 4-5 categories per word 4-5 categories per word 2-3 categories per word 2-3 categories per word 2-3 categories per word
Locus of Marking in the Clause 23A Double marking Double marking Double marking Dependent marking Dependent marking Dependent marking
Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases 24A Dependent marking Dependent marking Dependent marking Dependent marking Dependent marking Dependent marking
Locus of Marking: Whole-language Typology 25A Inconsistent or other Inconsistent or other Inconsistent or other Dependent-marking Dependent-marking Dependent-marking
Zero Marking of A and P Arguments 25B Non-zero marking Non-zero marking Non-zero marking Non-zero marking Non-zero marking Non-zero marking
Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology 26A Strongly suffixing Strongly suffixing Strongly suffixing Strongly suffixing Strongly suffixing Strongly suffixing
Reduplication 27A No productive reduplication No productive reduplication No productive reduplication No productive reduplication No productive reduplication No productive reduplication
Case Syncretism 28A Core and non-core Core and non-core Core and non-core Core cases only Core and non-core Core and non-core
Syncretism in Verbal Person/Number Marking 29A Syncretic Syncretic Syncretic Syncretic Syncretic Syncretic
¹ Some features and values are stipulated due to lack of resources.

Information rate

The concept of “information density” relates to how languages convey semantic information within the speech signal. Essentially, a language is considered dense if it uses fewer speech elements to convey a given amount of semantic meaning compared to a sparser language. Units such as features or articulatory gestures involve complex multidimensional patterns (such as gestural scores or feature matrices) that are unsuitable for computing average information density during speech communication. In contrast, each speech sample can be described in terms of discrete sequences of segments or syllables, which are potential candidates, although their exact significance and role in communication remain uncertain. Therefore, this study opts to utilise syllables for both methodological and theoretical reasons.

Assuming that for each text Tk, composed of σk(L) syllables in language L, the over-all semantic content Sk is equivalent from one language to another, the average quantity of information per syllable for Tk and for language L is calculated as in 1.

Equation 1.png

Since Sk is language-independent, it was eliminated by computing a normalised information density (ID) using Vietnamese (VI) as the benchmark. For each text Tk and language L, IDkL resulted from a pairwise comparison of the text lengths (in terms of syllables) in L and VI respectively.

Luthic Equation 2.png

Next, the average information density IDL (in terms of linguistic information per syllable) with reference to VI is defined as the mean of IDkL evaluated for the K texts.

Equation 3.png

Language IDL Syllabic rate Information rate
English 0.91 6.19 1.08
French 0.74 7.18 0.99
Italian 0.72 6.99 0.96
Spanish 0.63 7.82 0.98
German 0.79 5.67 0.90
Luthic 0.81 6.45 0.97
Vietnamese 1 (reference) 5.22 1 (reference)

Another factor is the syllabic complexity index, being measured in two ways: type and token.

  1. Type complexity: considers each unique syllable only once when calculating the average complexity.
  2. Token complexity: takes into account the frequency of occurrence of each unique syllable in the corpus by weighting the complexity accordingly.
Language Syllable inventory size Type complexity Token complexity
English 7,931 3.70 2.48
French 5,646 3.50 2.21
Italian 2,719 3.50 2.30
Spanish 1,593 3.30 2.40
German 4,207 3.70 2.68
Luthic 4,129 3.60 2.40

The Handbook of Luthic Linguistics, Culture and Religion

Aena lettura essenziale summa importanza, inu andarogiugga.
“An essential lecture, of the highest importance, without equivalents.”

Lucia Giamane

In 2012, a collaboration of the Circle of Linguistics, the Circle of Phonological Development and the Circle of Theology resulted in The Handbook of Luthic Linguistics, Culture and Religion (Luthic: Il Handobuoco Rasdavitascapeticae, Colturae e Religioni Lûthicae) initiated in 2005 by Lucia Giamane, designed to illuminate an area of knowledge that encompasses both general linguistics and specialised, philologically oriented linguistics as well as those fields of science that have developed in recent decades from the increasingly extensive research into the diverse phenomena of communicative action.


A mnemonic device (/nɪˈmɒnɪk/ nih-MON-ik) or memory device is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval in the human memory, often by associating the information with something that is easier to remember.

A Luthic mnemonic verse or mnemonic rhyme is a mnemonic device for teaching and remembering Luthic grammar. Such mnemonics have been considered by teachers to be an effective technique for schoolchildren to learn the complex rules of Luthic accidence and syntax. Mnemonics may be helpful in learning foreign languages, for example by transposing difficult foreign words with words in a language the learner knows already, also called “cognates” which are very common in Romance languages and other Germanic languages. A useful such technique is to find linkwords, words that have the same pronunciation in a known language as the target word, and associate them visually or auditorially with the target word; such tecniques have been applied into Luthic learning for children, Italian and other dialleti speakers.

A Luthic rhyme for remembering the masculine nominative singular, masculine accusative singular and neuter nominato-accusative singular is given by many teachers during school first years:

buonu: veglo vessare
buono: veglo stare
ac e buono? veglo mangiare!

Translated it into English as follows:

good: I want to be
in a good place: I want to be in
but what about a good food? I want to eat!

The Ravenna University Circle of Phonological Development also found out that mnemonics can be used in aiding children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders, patients with memory deficits that could be caused by head injuries, strokes, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis and other neurological conditions, however, in the case of stroke patients, the results did not reach statistical significance.


Luthic Grammar is the body of rules describing the properties of the Luthic language. Luthic words can be divided into the following lexical categories: articles, nouns, adjectives, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections.


Luthic grammar is almost typical of the grammar of Romance languages in general. Cases exist for personal pronouns (nominative, accusative, dative, genitive), and unlike other Romance languages (except Romanian), they also exist for nouns, but are often ignored in common speech, mainly because of the Italian influence, a language who lacks noun cases. There are three basic classes of nouns in Luthic, referred to as genders, masculine, feminine and neuter. Masculine nouns typically end in -u, with plural marked by -i, feminine nouns typically end in -a, with plural marked by -ae, and neuter nouns typically end in -o, with plural marked by -a. Some feminine nouns, together with masculine nouns, the so called u-stems may also typically end in -u, with the plural marked by -us, while neuter u-stems have the plural marked by -ua. A fifth category of nouns is unmarked for gender, ending in -e in the singular and -i in the plural; a variant of the unmarked declension is found ending in -r in the singular and -i in the plural, it lacks neuter nouns:


Definition Gender Singular nominative Plural nominative
Son Masculine Figlu Figli
Flower Feminine Blomna Blomnae
Fruit Neuter Acrano Acrana
Port Masculine Portu Portus
Hand Feminine Manu Manus
Wealth Neuter Faeu Faeua
Love Masculine Amore Amori
Art Feminine Crafte Crafti
Water Neuter Vadne Vadni
King Masculine Rege Regi
Heart Neuter Haertene Haerteni
Father Masculine Faðar Faðari
Mother Feminine Moðar Moðari

Declension paradigm in formal Standard Luthic:

Number Case o-stem m a-stem f o-stem n i-stem unm r-stem unm
Singular nom. dagu geva hauviþo crafte broþar
acc. dago geva hauviþo crafte broþare
dat. daga geva hauviþa crafti broþari
gen. dagi gevae hauviþi crafti broþari
Plural nom. dagi gevae hauviþa crafti broþari
acc. dagos gevas hauviþa craftes broþares
dat. dagom gevam hauviþom craftivo broþarivo
gen. dagoro gevaro hauviþoro craftem broþarem

The declension paradigm of u-stems nouns is simplier than other nouns, since the nominative is identical to the accusative.

Number Case u-stem m u-stem f u-stem n
Singular nom. portu manu faeu
acc. portu manu faeu
dat. portau manau faeau
gen. portaus manaus faeaus
Plural nom. portus manus faeua
acc. portus manus faeua
dat. portum manum faeum
gen. portivo manivo faeivo

A small class of quasi-irregular nouns is found, itself being a variant of the unmarked class. The nominative forms always are oxytones and hide their consonant stem -d-. These are often called d-stem:

Number Case d-stem unm d-stem unm d-stem unm
Singular nom. piê -tâ
acc. piede fede -tade
dat. piedi fedi -tadi
gen. piedi fedi -tadi
Plural nom. piedi fedi -tadi
acc. piedes fedes -tades
dat. piedivo fedivo -tadivo
gen. piedem fedem -tadem


Luthic, like Latin and Gothic, inherited the full set of Indo-European pronouns: personal pronouns (including reflexive pronouns for each of the three grammatical persons), possessive pronouns, both simple and compound demonstratives, relative pronouns, interrogatives and indefinite pronouns. Each follows a particular pattern of inflection (partially mirroring the noun declension), much like other Indo-European languages. Although Luthic inherited a paradigm extremely close to Gothic (and Common Germanic), the Italic influence is visible in the genitive and plural formations.

PIE Latin Gothic German Luthic
*u̯ei̯ nom, *n̥s acc nōs nom/acc 𐍅𐌴𐌹𐍃 nom, 𐌿𐌽𐍃 acc wir nom, uns acc vi nom, unse acc
Personal pronouns of Standard Luthic
Number Case 1st person 2st person 3rd person reflexive
masculine feminine neuter
Singular nom. ic þû is ia ata
acc. mic þuc inȯ ina ata sic
dat. mis þus ia ia ia sis
dat. meina þeina eis isae eis seina
Singular nom. vi gi eis isae ia
acc. unse isve eis isas ia sic
dat. unsis isvis eis eis eis sis
gen. unsara isvara eisôro eisâro eisôro seina

Pronouns often a clitic with imperative or after non-finite forms of verbs, being applied as enclitics.

Clitic pronouns
Number Case 1st person 2st person 3rd person reflexive
masculine feminine neuter
Singular acc. mi þi
lo la lo si
dat. mi þi
gli gle gli si
gen. ne ne ne ne
Plural acc. ci vi los las la si
dat. ci vi li li li si
gen. ne ne ne ne
¹ before voiceless fricatives
² before voiced fricatives or sonorants
Poetic variants
Number Case 1st person 2st person 3rd person reflexive
masculine feminine neuter
Singular nom. io þû is ia ata
acc. mi þi ino ina ata si
dat. mi þi ia ia ia si
dat. meina þeina eis isae eis seina
Singular nom. nôi vôi eis isae ia
acc. nôi vôi eis isas ia si
dat. ci vi eis eis eis si
gen. nosâra vosâra eisôro eisâro eisôro seina
  • These forms are also common in everday speech due to Italian influence. Nevertheless, both declension paradigmata are considered to be correct. Main differences are emphasised.

Some Luthic speakers may have T–V distinction (the contextual use of different pronouns that exists in some languages and serves to convey formality or familiarity).

Unequal authority Equal authority
Employer Costumer Parent Elder sibling
T↓V ↑V T↓V ↑V T↓↑V T↓↑V
Employee Waiter Child Younger sibling

The superior has choice on T–V while the subordinate has not; except if talking to one another, then both subordinates can choice. In Luthic, þû is only used as an informal pronoun. It is only addressed to persons that one knows well, like family members and friends. It is also most commonly used among peers as a sign of equality, especially among young people. In formal situations with strangers and acquaintances, vôi is used instead. The pronoun gi was used in formal situations; this was once the abundant usage, but it has completely fallen out of use. In the plural form, gi is a T pronoun.

Possessive pronouns of Standard Luthic
Number Case 1st person singular 2st person singular 3rd person singular
masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter
Singular nom. meinu meina meino þeinu þeina þeino seinu seina seina
acc. meino meina meino þeino þeina þeino seino seina seino
dat. meina meina meina þeina þeina þeina seina seina seina
gen. meini meinae meini þeini þeinae þeini seini seinae seini
Plural nom. meini meinae meina þeini þeinae þeina seini seinae seina
acc. meinos meinas meina þeinos þeinas þeina seinos seinas seina
dat. meinom meinam meinom þeinom þeinam þeinom seinom seinam seinom
gen. meinoro meinaro meinoro þeinoro þeinaro þeinoro seinoro seinaro seinoro
Possessive pronouns of Standard Luthic
Number Case 1st person plural 2st person plural 3rd person plural
masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter
Singular nom. unsar unsara unsaro isvar isvara isvaro seinu seina seino
acc. unsare unsara unsaro isvare isvara isvaro seino seina seino
dat. unsari unsara unsara isvari isvara isvara seina seina seina
gen. unsari unsarae unsari isvari isvarae isvari seini seinae seini
Plural nom. unsari unsarae unsara isvari isvarae isvara seini seinae seina
acc. unsares unsaras unsara isvares isvaras isvara seinos seinas seina
dat. unsarivo unsaram unsarom isvarivo isvaram isvarom seinom seinam seinom
gen. unsarem unsararo unsaroro isvarem isvararo isvaroro seinoro seinaro seinoro

The pronouns unsar, isvar have an irregular declension, being declined like an unmarked adjective in the masculine gender and marked in the other genders. Every possessive pronoun is declined like an o-stem adjective for masculine and neuter gender, while its feminine counterpart is declined as an a-stem adjective

Poetic variants
Number Case 1st person singular 2st person singular 3rd person singular
masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter
Singular nom. miu mia mio þuu¹ þua þuo suu² sua suo
acc. mio mia mio þuo þua þuo suo sua suo
dat. mia mia mia þua þua þua sua sua sua
gen. miei³ miae miei³ þui þuae þui sui suae sui
Plural nom. miei³ miae mia þui þuae þua sui suae sua
acc. mios mias mia þuos þuas þua suos suas sua
dat. miom miam miom þuom þuam þuom suom suam suom
gen. mioro miaro mioro þuoro þuaro þuoro suoro suaro suoro
¹ pronounced [ˈθu.u]
² pronounced [ˈsu.u]
³ pronounced [miˈi]
Poetic variants
Number Case 1st person plural 2st person plural 3rd person plural
masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter
Singular nom. nostru nostra nostro vostru vostra vostro suu sua suo
acc. nostro nostra nostro vostro vostra vostro suo sua suo
dat. nostra nostra nostra vostra vostra vostra sua sua sua
gen. nostri nostrae nostri vostri vostrae vostri sui suae sui
Plural nom. nostri nostrae nostra vostri vostrae vostra sui suae sua
acc. nostros nostras nostra vostros vostras vostra suos suas sua
dat. nostrom nostram nostrom vostrom vostram vostrom suom suam suom
gen. nostroro nostraro nostroro vostroro vostraro vostroro suoro suaro suoro

Interrogative and indefinite pronouns are indeclinable by case and number:

Interrogative pronouns of Standard Luthic
Interrogative pronouns Masculine Feminine Neuter
What ce ce ce
What (archaic or dialectical) che che che
Who qu qa qo
Whom ci ci ci
Which carge carge carge
Whose cogiu cogia cogio
Indefinite pronouns of Standard Luthic
Indefinite pronouns Masculine Feminine Neuter
Each casu casa caso
Every cargisu cargisa cargiso
Whoever/Whatever þecargisu þecargisa þecargiso

The relative pronoun ei is fully indeclinable, it is sometimes called “common relative particle”.

Luthic has a Proximal-Medial-Distal demonstrative system:

Demonstrative pronouns of Standard Luthic
Number Case Proximal Medial Distal
masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter
Singular nom. su sa þata este esta esto giaenu giaena giaeno
acc. þo þa þata este esta esto giaeno giaena giaeno
dat. þammo þisae þammo esti esta esta giaena giaena giaena
gen. þis þisae þis estis estae esti giaeni giaenae giaeni
Plural nom. þi þae þa esti estae esta giaeni giaenae giaena
acc. þos þas þa estes estas esta giaenos giaenas giaena
dat. þom þam þom estivo estam estom giaenom giaenam giaenom
gen. þisaro þisara þisaro estem estaro estoro giaenoro giaenaro giaenoro


Luthic articles are used similarly to the English articles, a and the. However, they are declined differently according to the number, gender and case of their nouns.

Number Case Indefinite Definite
masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter
Singular nom. aenu aena aeno il la lata, ata
acc. aeno aena aeno lo la lata, ata
dat. aena aena aena la la la
gen. aeni aenae aeni gli, i gli, i gli, i
Plural nom. aeni aenae aena gli, i lae la
acc. aenos aenas aena los las la
dat. aenom aenam aenom lom lam lom
gen. aenoro aenaro aenoro loro loro loro


In Luthic, an adjective can be placed before or after the noun. The unmarked placement for most adjectives is after the noun. Placing the adjective after the noun can alter its meaning or indicate restrictiveness of reference.

  • Aenu buocu rossu “a red book” (unmarked)
  • Aenu rossu buocu “a book that is red” (marked)

Adjectives are inflected for case, gender and number, the paradigmata are identical to the nominal paradigmata.

Number Case o-stem m a-stem f o-stem n i-stem unm r-stem unm
Singular nom. rossu rossa rosso felice polchar
acc. rosso rossa rosso felice polchare
dat. rossa rossa rossa felici polchari
gen. rossi rossae rossi felici polchari
Plural nom. rossi rossae rossa felici polchari
acc. rossos rossas rossa felices polchares
dat. rossom rossam rossom felicivo polcharivo
gen. rossoro rossaro rossoro felicem polcharem

Luthic has two grammatical constructions for expressing comparison: comparative and superlative. The suffixes -izo (the “comparative”) and -issimo (the “superlative”) are of Indo-European origin and are cognate with the Latin suffixes -ior and -issimus and Ancient Greek -ῑ́ων (-īōn) and -ῐστος (-istos). This system also contains a number of irregular forms, mainly because of suppletion.

Regular examples are:

  • rossu “red” > rossizu “redder”
  • rossu “red” > rossissimu “reddest”
  • polchar “beautiful” > polcharizu “more beautiful”
  • polchar “beautiful” > polcharissimu “most beautiful”

Irregular examples are:

  • buonu “good” > betizu “better”
  • buonu “good” > betissimu “best”
  • malu “bad” > vaersizu “worse”
  • malu “bad” > vaersissimu “worst”
Number Case o-stem m a-stem f o-stem n
Singular nom. -izu -iza -izo
acc. -izo -iza -izo
dat. -iza -iza -iza
gen. -izi -izae -izi
Plural nom. -izi -izae -iza
acc. -izos -izas -iza
dat. -izom -izam -izom
gen. -izoro -izaro -izoro
Number Case o-stem m a-stem f o-stem n
Singular nom. -issimu -issima -issimo
acc. -issimo -issima -issimo
dat. -issima -issima -issima
gen. -issimi -issimae -issimi
Plural nom. -issimi -issimae -issima
acc. -issimos -issimas -issima
dat. -issimom -issimam -issimom
gen. -issimoro -issimaro -issimoro


Standard Luthic numbers
# Cardinal Ordinal
Word Declension Word Declension
0 zephero o-stem adjective, singulare tantum zepherêsimo o-stem adjective
1 aenu o-stem adjective fromu o-stem adjetive
2 tvi o-stem adjective, plurale tantum anþar r-stem adjetive
3 þreis indeclinable þrigiane i-stem adjetive
4 fidvor indeclinable fidvorêsimu o-stem adjective
5 fimfe indeclinable fimfêsimu o-stem adjective
6 indeclinable sestu o-stem adjective
7 siu indeclinable siudu o-stem adjective
8 attau indeclinable attudu o-stem adjective
9 niu indeclinable niudu o-stem adjective
10 ziu indeclinable ziudu o-stem adjective
11 aellefe indeclinable aelleftu o-stem adjective
12 tvelefe indeclinable tveleftu o-stem adjective
13 þreiziu indeclinable þreiziudu o-stem adjective
14 fidvorziu indeclinable fidvorziudu o-stem adjective
15 fimfeziu indeclinable fimfeziudu o-stem adjective
16 seziu indeclinable seziudu o-stem adjective
17 setteziu indeclinable setteziudu o-stem adjective
18 tvedivinta indeclinable tvedivintêsimu o-stem adjective
19 aendivinta indeclinable aendivintêsimu o-stem adjective
20 vinta indeclinable vintêsimu o-stem adjective
28 tvediþreinta indeclinable tvediþreintêsimu o-stem adjective
29 aendiþreinta indeclinable aendiþreintêsimu o-stem adjective
30 þreinta indeclinable þreintêsimu o-stem adjective
38 tvedifidvorinta indeclinable tvedifidvorintêsimu o-stem adjective
39 aendifidvorinta indeclinable aendifidvorintêsimu o-stem adjective
40 fidvorinta indeclinable fidvorintêsimu o-stem adjective
50 fimfinta indeclinable fimfintêsimu o-stem adjective
60 sessanta indeclinable sessantêsimu o-stem adjective
70 siunta indeclinable siuntêsimu o-stem adjective
80 attanta indeclinable attantêsimu o-stem adjective
90 niunta indeclinable niuntêsimu o-stem adjective
98 tvedihondu o-stem adjective tvedihondêsimu o-stem adjective
99 aendihondu o-stem adjective aendihondêsimu o-stem adjective
100 hondu o-stem adjective hondêsimu o-stem adjective
Standard Luthic large numbers
# Cardinal Ordinal
Word Declension Word Declension
200 tvihondi α o-stem adjective, plurale tantum tvihondêsimu β o-stem adjective
500 fimfehondi γ o-stem adjective, plurale tantum fimfehondêsimu o-stem adjective
1 000 mille i-stem millêsimu o-stem adjective
2 000 tvimilli α i-stem adjective, plurale tantum tvimillêsimu β o-stem adjective
5 000 fimfemilli γ i-stem adjective, plurale tantum fimfemillêsimu o-stem adjective
10 000 ziumilli γ i-stem adjective, plurale tantum ziumillêsimu o-stem adjective
20 000 vintamilli γ i-stem adjective, plurale tantum vintamillêsimu o-stem adjective
50 000 fimfintamilli γ i-stem adjective, plurale tantum fimfintamillêsimu o-stem adjective
100 000 hondimilli α i-stem adjective, plurale tantum hondimillêsimu β o-stem adjective
200 000 tvihondimilli δ i-stem adjective, plurale tantum tvihondimillêsimu β o-stem adjective
500 000 fimfehondimilli ε i-stem adjective, plurale tantum fimfehondimillêsimu β o-stem adjective
106 millione i-stem adjective millionêsimu o-stem adjective
2 x 106 tvimillioni α i-stem adjective, plurale tantum tvimillionêsimu β o-stem adjective
109 milliarde i-stem adjective milliardêsimu o-stem adjective
1012 billione i-stem adjective billionêsimu o-stem adjective
1015 billiarde i-stem adjective billiardêsimu o-stem adjective
1019 trillione i-stem adjective trillionêsimu o-stem adjective
α Both elements are declinable, e.g. tvaehondae, tvahonda;
β Only the last element is declinable, e.g. tvihondêsima, tvihondêsimoro;
γ The first element is indeclinable;
δ All the three elements are declinable, e.g. tvarohondaromillem, tvoshondosmilles;
ε Only the two last elements are declinable, e.g. fimfehondommillivo.

Luthic uses the long scale, unlike English that uses the short scale instead. The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. Luthic has a verbal system similar to Italian, German, Dutch and French:

Short and long scale usage throughout the world
  Long scale
  Short scale
  Short scale with milliard instead of billion
  Both scales
  Other naming system
  No data
Luthic Italian German Dutch French English
106 millione milione Million miljoen million million
109 milliarde miliardo Milliarde miljard milliard billion
1012 billione bilione Billion biljoen billion trillion

Combinations of a decade and a unit are constructed in a regular way: the decade comes first followed by the unit. No spaces are written between them. Vowel collision triggers an interpunct. For example:

  • 28 vinta·attau (lit “twenty eight”)
  • 73 siuntaþreis (lit “seventy three”)
  • 82 attantatvi (lit “eighty two”)
  • 95 niuntafimfe (lit “ninety five”)

Combinations of a hundred and a lower number are expressed by just placing them together, with the hundred coming first.

  • 111 honduaellefe
  • 164 hondusessantafidvor
  • 225 tvihondivintafimfe
  • 788 siuhondi·attanta·attau

Combinations of a thousand and a lower number are expressed by placing them together, with the thousand coming first. A space is written between them.

  • 1 066 mille sessantasê
  • 9 011 niumilli aellefe
  • 61 500 sessanta·aenomilli fimfehondi
  • 123 456 hondivintaþreismilli fidvorhondifimfintasê

For millions and above, combinations with lower numbers are much the same as with the thousands.

  • 123 456 789 hondivintaþreis millioni fidvorhondifimfintasêhondi siuhondiniunta·attau
  • 10 987 654 321 ziu milliardi niuhondi·attantasiumillioni sehondifimfintafidvorhondi þreishondivinta·aenu

When alone, numbers are always in the masculine gender, however numbers always agree in gender and in case (if declinable) with the head noun. For example:

  • aenu vaere (“one man”)
  • aena qena (“one woman”)
  • aenu harge hondom vaerivo (“an army [composed] of hundred men”)
  • il meinu hareme hâþ tvashondas qenas (“my harem has two hundred women”)

Compound numbers have both elements declined (if possible):

tvihondi, tvaehondae, tvahonda
Number Case o-stem m a-stem f o-stem n
Plural nom. tvihondi tvaehondae tvahonda
acc. tvoshondos tvashondas tvahonda
dat. tvomhondom tvamhondam tvomhondom
gen. tvorohondoro tvarohondaro tvorohondoro


Luthic verbs have a high degree of inflection, the majority of which follows one of three common patterns of conjugation. Luthic conjugation is affected by voice, mood, person, tense, number, aspect and occasionally gender.

The four classes of verbs (conjugation’s patterns) are distinguished by the infinitive’s endings form of the verb:

  • 1st conjugation: -are (þagcare “to think”);
  • 2nd conjugation: -ere (credere “to believe”);
  • 3rd conjugation: -ore (holore “to accuse”);
  • 4th conjugation: -ire (dormire “to sleep”).

Additionally, Luthic has a number of verbs that do not follow predictable patterns in all conjugation classes, most markedly the present and the past. Often classified together as irregular verbs, their irregularities occur to different degrees, with forms of vessare “to be”, and somewhat less extremely, havere “to have”, the least predictable. Others, such as ganare “to go”, stare “to stay, to stand”, taugiare “to do, to make”, and numerous others, follow various degrees of regularity within paradigms, largely due to suppletion, historical sound change or analogical developments.


The present is used for:

  • Events happening in the present;
  • Habitual actions;
  • Current states of being and conditions;
  • Actions planned to occur in the future.
Active Indicative
þagcare credere holore dormire vessare havere ganare stare taugiare
ic þagco credo holo dormo im stô taugiȯ
þû þagcas credes holos dormis is hais gâs stais taugis
is þagcat credet holot dormit ist hâþ gâþ stâþ taugit
vi þagcamos credemos holomos dormimos ismos haemos gamos stamos taugiamos
gi þagcates credetes holotos dormites istes haetes gates states taugiates
eis þagcanno credonno holonno dormonno sonno hanno ganno stonno taugionno
Passive Indicative
þagcare credere holore dormire vessare havere ganare stare taugiare
ic þagcara credera holora dormira havara andara taugiara
þû þagcasa credesa holosa dormisa havasa andasa taugiasa
is þagcaða credeða holoða dormiða havaða andaða staða taugiaða
vi þagcanða credenða holonða dorminða havanða andanða taugianða
gi þagcanða credenða holonða dorminða havanða andanða taugianða
eis þagcanða credenða holonða dorminða havanða andanða stanða taugianða
Present subjunctive

Used for subordinate clauses of the present to express opinion, possibility, desire, or doubt. The Subjunctive is almost always preceded by the common relative particle.

Active Subjunctive
þagcare credere holore dormire vessare havere ganare stare taugiare
ic þagci creda hol dorma sia abbia vada stia taugia
þû þagcis credas holuas dormas sias abbias vadas stias taugias
is þagcit credat holuat dormat siaþ abbiat vadat stiaþ taugiat
vi þagciamos crediamos holuamos dormamos siamos abbiamos andiamos stiamos taugiaumos
gi þagciates crediates holuates dormates siates abbiates andiates stiates taugiautes
eis þagcinno credanno holanno dormanno sianno abbianno vadanno stianno taugianno
Passive Subjunctive
þagcare credere holore dormire vessare havere ganare stare taugiare
ic þagcira credara holuora dormara abbaera vadara taugiaura
þû þagcisa credasa holuasa dormasa abbaesa vadasa taugiausa
is þagciða credaða holuaða dormaða abbaeða vadaða stiaða taugiauða
vi þagcinða credianða holuonða dormanða abbaenða andianða taugiaunða
gi þagcinða credianða holuonða dormanða abbaenða andianða taugiaunða
eis þagcinða credianða holuonða dormanða abbaenða andianða stianða taugiaunða
Present conditional

Used for events that are dependent upon another event occurring. The conditional is also used for politely asking for something (as in English: “could I please have a glass of water?”)

Active Conditinal
þagcare credere holore dormire vessare havere ganare stare taugiare
ic þagceria crederia holoria dormiria saria haveria garia staria tavaria
þû þagcerias crederias holorias dormirias sarias haverias garias starias tavarias
is þagceriat crederiat holoriat dormiriat sariat haveriat gariat stariat taveriat
vi þagceriamos crederiamos holoriamos dormiriamos sariamos haveriamos gariamos stariamos tavariamos
gi þagceriates crederiates holoriates dormiriates sariates haveriates gariates stariates tavariates
eis þagcerianno crederianno holorianno dormirianno sarianno haverianno garianno starianno tavarianno
Passive Conditinal
þagcare credere holore dormire vessare havere ganare stare taugiare
ic þagceriara crederiara holoriara dormiriara haveriara gariara tavariara
þû þagceriasa crederiasa holoriasa dormiriasa haveriasa gariasa tavariasa
is þagceriaða crederiaða holoriaða dormiriaða haveriaða gariaða stariaða taveriaða
vi þagcerianða crederianða holorianða dormirianða haverianða garianða tavarianða
gi þagcerianða crederianða holorianða dormirianða haverianða garianða tavarianða
eis þagcerianða crederianða holorianða dormirianða haverianða garianða starianða tavarianða
  • vessare lacks a passive voice form;
  • stare passive voice form is only impersonal.

Present perfect

The present perfect is used for single actions or events (sa maurgina im ganatu a scuola “I went to school this morning”), or change in state (sic ist þvaersotu can ata iȧ hô rogiatu “he got angry when I told him that”), contrasting with the imperfect which is used for habits (eggiavo bicicletta a scuola alla maurgina “I used to go to school by bike every morning”), or repeated actions, not happening at a specific time (sic þvaersovat alla vece ei, giuveðar can ata ia rogiavat “he got angry every time someone told him that”).

Past participle

The past participle is used to form the compound pasts (e.g. hô tavito “I have done”). Regular verbs follow a predictable pattern, but there are many verbs with an irregular past participle.

  • 1st conjugation: -atu (þagcatu “thought”);
  • 2nd conjugation: -utu (credutu “believed”);
  • 3rd conjugation: -otu (holotu “accused”);
  • 4th conjugation: -itu (dormitu “slept”);
  • vessare and stare have both statu;
  • qemare (“to come”) has qemutu;
  • havere has havutu;
  • taugiare has tavitu.
-ato, -uto, -oto, -ito declension
Number Case o-stem m a-stem f o-stem n
Singular nom. -atu, -utu, -otu, -itu -ata, -uta, -ota, -ita -ato, -uto, -oto, -ito
acc. -ato, -uto, -oto, -ito -ata, -uta, -ota, -ita -ato, -uto, -oto, -ito
dat. -ata, -uta, -ota, -ita -ata, -uta, -ota, -ita -ata, -uta, -ota, -ita
gen. -ati, -uti, -oti, -iti -atae, -utae, -otae, -itae -ati, -uti, -oti, -iti
Plural nom. -ati, -uti, -oti, -iti -atae, -utae, -otae, -itae -ata, -uta, -ota, -ita
acc. -atos, -utos, -otos, -itos -atas, -utas, -otas, -itas -ata, -uta, -ota, -ita
dat. -atom, -utom, -otom, -itom -atam, -utam, -otam, -itam -atom, -utom, -otom, -itom
gen. -atoro, -utoro, -otoro, -itoro -ataro, -utaro, -otaro, -itaro -atoro, -utoro, -otoro, -itoro

Except with an immediately preceding third person pronominal direct object, the participle always ends in -u.

All transitive verbs and most intransitive verbs form the present perfect by combining the auxiliary verb havere “to have” in the present tense with the past participle of the transitive verb. A small number of intransitive verbs, namely vessare itself and verbs indicating motion (qemare “to come”, ganare “to go”, affargiare “to arrive”, etc.) use the auxiliary verb vessare instead of havere. The past participle in this agrees with gender and number of the subject. Passive forms always use havere.


The Imperfect fuses past tense with imperfective aspect and is used for:

  • Repeated or habitual actions in the past;
  • Ongoing actions in the past and ongoing actions in the past that are eventually interrupted;
  • States of being and conditions in the past, including weather, time, age.

The difference between imperfective and perfective aspects can be illustrated clearly with the verb vitare “to know”. The Italian imperfect expresses being in possession of knowledge in the past, while the perfective expresses the moment of acquiring the knowledge.

Imperfective: Vitavo la vera. “I knew the truth.” Perfective: Hô vitatu la vera. “I found out the truth.”

The Imperfect is, in most cases, formed by taking the stem along with the thematic vowel and adding -v- + the ending of the -are verbs in the present tense (with -amos instead of -iamos). There are no irregular conjugations in the Imperfect except for a few forms inherited from Gothic weak verbs, suppletion, and vessare, which uses the stem er- and -v- appears only in 1st and 2nd person plurals.

Active Indicative
þagcare credere holore dormire vessare havere ganare stare taugiare
ic þagcavo credevo holovo dormivo ero havaeðo eggiavo stavo taviðo
þû þagcavas credevas holovas dormivas eras havaeðas eggiavas stavas taviðas
is þagcavat credevat holovat dormivat erat havaeðat eggiavat stavat taviðat
vi þagcavamos credevamos holovamos dormivamos eravamos havaeðamos eggiavamos stavamos taviðamos
gi þagcavates credevates holovates dormivates eravates havaeðates eggiavates stavates taviðates
eis þagcavanno credevanno holovanno dormivanno eranno havaeðanno eggiavanno stavanno taviðanno
Passive Indicative
þagcare credere holore dormire vessare havere ganare stare taugiare
ic þagcavara credevara holovara dormivara havaeðara eggiavara taviðara
þû þagcavasa credevasa holovasa dormivasa havaeðasa eggiavasa taviðasa
is þagcavaða credevaða holovaða dormivaða havaeðaða eggiavaða stavaða taviðaða
vi þagcavanða credevanða holovanða dormivanða havaeðanða eggiavanða taviðanða
gi þagcavanða credevanða holovanða dormivanða havaeðanða eggiavanða taviðanða
eis þagcavanða credevanða holovanða dormivanða havaeðanða eggiavanða stavanða taviðanða
Subjunctive imperfect

Used for the subordinate clauses of the imperfect indicative or the conditional. For regular verbs, the subjunctive is formed by taking the infinitive and replacing -re with -ssi, -ssis, -ssit, -ssimos, -ssites, -ssero:

Active Subjunctive
þagcare credere holore dormire vessare havere ganare stare taugiare
ic þagcassi credessi holossi dormissi fossi havessi eggissi stessi tavissi
þû þagcassis credessis holossis dormissis fossis havessis eggissis stessis tavissis
is þagcassit credessit holossit dormissit fossit havessit eggissit stessit tavissit
vi þagcassimos credessimos holossimos dormissimos fossimos havessimos eggissimos stessimos tavissimos
gi þagcassites credessites holossites dormissites fossites havessites eggissites stessites tavissites
eis þagcassero credessero holossero dormissero fossero havessero eggissero stessero tavissero
Passive Subjunctive
þagcare credere holore dormire vessare havere ganare stare taugiare
ic þagcassira credessira holossira dormissira havessira eggissira tavissira
þû þagcassisa credessisa holossisa dormissisa havessisa eggissisa tavissisa
is þagcassiða credessiða holossiða dormissiða havessiða eggissiða stessiða tavissiða
vi þagcassinða credessinða holossinða dormissinða havessinða eggissinða tavissinða
gi þagcassinða credessinða holossinða dormissinða havessinða eggissinða tavissinða
eis þagcassinða credessinða holossinða dormissinða havessinða eggissinða stessinða tavissinða


The preterite (or perfect) has a function distinct from the present perfect. It is used for events which are distant from the present and no longer directly affect it (e.g. telling a story), whereas the present perfect is used for more recent events which may have a direct impact on the present.

Active Indicative
þagcare credere holore dormire vessare havere ganare stare taugiare
ic þagcai cred holoi dormei fui ebbi gai stetti tavi
þû þagcasti credesti holosti dormisti fosti havesti gasti stesti tavisti
is þagcaut credaet holaut dormeit fuiþ ebbet gauþ stettet tavit
vi þagcammos credemmos holommos dormimmos fomos havemmos gammos stemmos tavimmos
gi þagcastes credestes holostes dormistes fostes havestes gastes stestes tavistes
eis þagcaronno crederonno holoronno dormironno furonno ebbero garonno stettero tavironno
Passive Indicative
þagcare credere holore dormire vessare havere ganare stare taugiare
ic þagcaera credeira holoira dormeira ebbira gaira tavira
þû þagcasa credessa holossa dormissa havessa gassa tavessa
is þagcauða credaeða holauða dormeiða ebbeða gauða stetteða taveða
vi þagcamma credemma holomma dormimma havemma gamma tavemma
gi þagcamma credemma holomma dormimma havemma gamma tavemma
eis þagcamma credemma holomma dormimma havemma gamma stettemma tavemma
Subjunctive preterite

Used for subordinate clauses of the imperfect indicative or the conditional. The subjunctive preterite is formed the same as the present perfect, but with the auxiliary verb in the subjunctive present.

  • Active
  • abbia þagcatu;
  • sia qemutu;
  • sias affargiatu.
  • Passive
  • abbaera þagcatu;
  • abbaera qemutu;
  • abbaesa affargiatu.
Conditional preterite

Used for events that would, could or should have occurred or as a prospective past tense. The conditional preterite is formed the same as the present perfect, but with the auxiliary verb in the conditional.

  • Active
  • haveria dormitu;
  • saria venutu.
  • Passive
  • haveriara dormitu;
  • haveriara venutu.


The future tense is used for events that will happen in the future. It is formed by adding the forms of havere to the infinitive (with haemos and haetes contracted to -êmos and -êtes respectively). Sometimes the infinitive undergoes some changes:

  • It always loses its final -e;
  • Verbs in -are end in -er, not in -ar (stare however retains star-);
  • Most irregular verbs lose the vowel before the last r altogether (e.g. havr- for havere and andr- for ganare, suppletion from *andare). Clusters -mr-, -nr- and -lr- are simplified to -rr- (e.g. qerr- for qemare);
  • vessare has sar-.
Active Indicative
þagcare credere holore dormire vessare havere ganare stare taugiare
ic þagcerô crederô holorô dormirô sarô havrô andrô starô taugierô
þû þagcerais crederais holorais dormirais sarais havrais andrais starais taugierais
is þagcerât crederât holorât dormirât sarât havrât andrât starât taugierât
vi þagcerêmos crederêmos holorêmos dormirêmos sarêmos havrêmos andrêmos starêmos taugierêmos
gi þagcerêtes crederêtes holorêtes dormirêtes sarêtes havrêtes andrêtes starêtes taugierêtes
eis þagceranno crederanno holoranno dormiranno saranno havranno andranno staranno taugieranno
Passive Indicative
þagcare credere holore dormire vessare havere ganare stare taugiare
ic þagcerâra crederâra holorâra dormirâra havrâra andrâra taugierâra
þû þagcerâsa crederâsa holorâsa dormirâsa havrâsa andrâsa taugierâsa
is þagcerâða crederâða holorâða dormirâða havrâða andrâða starâða taugierâða
vi þagcerânða crederânða holorânða dormirânða havrânða andrânða taugierânða
gi þagcerânða crederânða holorânða dormirânða havrânða andrânða taugierânða
eis þagcerânða crederânða holorânða dormirânða havrânða andrânða starânða taugierânða
Future perfect

Used for events that will have happened when or before something else happens in the future. The future perfect is formed the same as the present perfect, but with the auxiliary verb in the future.

  • Active
  • havrô þagcatu;
  • sarais holotu.
  • Passive
  • havrâra þagcatu;
  • havrâsa holotu.


The imperative is used for giving commands. The imperative is formed by:

  • Removing the infinitive -re;
  • Adding -te for the plural;
  • The word becomes an oxytone in the singular, ending in digraphs for the second, third and fourth conjugation.
þagcare credere holore dormire vessare havere ganare stare taugiare
þû þagcâ credae holau dormei vessâ havae ganâ stâ taugiâ
gi þagcate credete holote dormite vessate havete ganate state taugiate
þagcare credere holore dormire vessare havere ganare stare taugiare
þû non þagcare non credere non holore non dormire non vessare non havere non ganare non stare non taugiare
gi non þagcarete non crederete non holorete non dormirete non vessarete non haverete non ganarete non starete non taugiarete

Nominal verb forms

Luthic verbs have three additional forms, known as nominal forms, because they can be used as nouns or adjectives, rather than as verbs.

  • The past participle has been discussed above;
  • The present participle is used as an adjective or a noun describing someone who is busy doing something. For example, rogiante means “talking” or “someone who is talking”:
  • Verbs in -are form the present participle by adding -ante to the stem;
  • Verbs in -ere and -ire form the present participle by adding -ente to the stem;
  • Verbs in -ore form the present participle by adding -onte to the stem.
  • The gerund is the adverbial form of the present participle, and has a very broad use. For example: rogiandu can translate to “talking, while talking, by talking, because of one’s talking, through talking…”:
  • The gerund is identical to the present participle, but with final -te replaced by -du;
  • Keep in mind that the gerund is an adverb, not an adjective, and so it does not agree in gender and number. The ending is always -u.

vessare, to be

Tense Forms
Infinitive vessare
Auxiliary verb vessare
Past participle
Number Case masculine feminine neuter
Singular nom. statu stata stato
acc. stato stata stato
dat. stata stata stata
gen. stati statae stati
Plural nom. stati statae stata
acc. statos statas stata
dat. statom statam statom
gen. statoro stataro statoro
Present participle vessante
Gerund vessandu
first singular
second singular
third singular
is, ia, ata
first plural
second plural
third plural
eis, isae, ia
Indicative Present im is ist ismos istes sonno
Present perfect im statu is statu ist statu ismos stati istes stati sonno stati
Imperfect ero eras erat eravamos eravates eranno
Preterite fui fosti fuiþ fostes fomos furonno
Future sarô sarais sarât sarêmos sarêtes saranno
Future perfect sarô statu sarais statu sarât statu sarêmos stati sarêtes stati saranno stati
Subjunctive Present sia sias siaþ siamos siates sianno
Imperfect fossi fossis fossit fossimos fossites fossero
Preterite sia statu sias statu siaþ statu siamos stati siates stati sianno stati
Conditional Present saria sarias sariat sariamos sariates sarianno
Preterite saria statu sarias statu sariat statu sariamos stati sariates stati sarianno stati
Imperative Positive   vessâ   vessate  
Negative   non vessare   non vessarete  

havere, to have

Tense Forms
Infinitive havere
Auxiliary verb havere
Past participle
Number Case masculine feminine neuter
Singular nom. havutu havuta havuto
acc. havuto havuta havuto
dat. havuta havuta havuta
gen. havuti havutae havuti
Plural nom. havuti havutae havuta
acc. havutos havutas havuta
dat. havutom havutam havutom
gen. havutoro havutaro havutoro
Present participle havente
Gerund havendu
first singular
second singular
third singular
is, ia, ata
first plural
second plural
third plural
eis, isae, ia
Indicative Present active hais hâþ haemos haetes hanno
Present passive havara havasa havaða havanða havanða havanða
Present perfect active hô havutu hais havutu hâþ havutu haemos havutu haetes havutu hanno havutu
Present perfect passive havara havutu havasa havutu havaða havutu havanða havutu havanða havutu havanða havutu
Imperfect active havaeðo havaeðas havaeðat havaeðamos havaeðates havaeðanno
Imperfect passive havaeðara havaeðasa havaeðaða havaeðanða havaeðanða havaeðanða
Preterite active ebbi havesti ebbet havemmos havestes ebbero
Preterite passive ebbira havessa ebbeða havemma havemma havemma
Future active havrô havrais havrât havrêmos havrêtes havranno
Future passive havrâra havrâsa havrâða havrânða havrânða havrânða
Future perfect active havrô havutu havrais havutu havrât havutu havrêmos havutu havrêtes havutu havranno havutu
Future perfect passive havrâra havutu havrâsa havutu havrâða havutu havrânða havutu havrânða havutu havrânða havutu
Subjunctive Present active abbia abbias abbiat abbiamos abbiates abbianno
Present passive abbaera abbaesa abbaeða abbaenða abbaenða abbaenða
Imperfect active havessi havessis havessit havessimos havessites havessero
Imperfect passive havessira havessisa havessiða havessinða havessinða havessinða
Preterite active abbia havutu abbias havutu abbiat havutu abbiamos havutu abbiates havutu abbianno havutu
Preterite passive abbaera havutu abbaesa havutu abbaeða havutu abbaenða havutu abbaenða havutu abbaenða havutu
Conditional Present active haveria haverias haveriat haveriamos haveriates haverianno
Present passive haveriara haveriasa haveriaða haverianða haverianða haverianða
Preterite active haveria havutu haverias havutu haveriat havutu haveriamos havutu haveriates havutu haverianno havutu
Preterite passive haveriara havutu haveriasa havutu haveriaða havutu haverianða havutu haverianða havutu haverianða havutu
Imperative Positive   havae   havete  
Negative   non havere   non haverete  


An adjective can be made into a modal adverb by adding -mente (from Latin “mente”, ablative of “mens” (mind), feminine noun) to the ending of the feminine singular form of the adjective. E.g. lenta “slow (feminine)” becomes lentamente “slowly”. Adjectives ending in -re or -le lose their e before adding -mente (facile “easy” becomes facilmente “easily”, particolare “particular” becomes particolarmente “particularly”). Other adjectives become adverbs by adding -e. E.g. solu (alone) becomes sole (only).

These adverbs can also be derived from the absolute superlative form of adjectives, e.g. lentissimamente (“very slowly").

There is also a plethora of temporal, local, modal and interrogative adverbs, mostly derived from Latin.


Luthic has a closed class of basic prepositions, to which a number of adverbs can be added that also double as prepositions.

In modern Luthic, all the basic prepositions have to be combined with an article placed next to them. Prepositions normally require the article before the following noun in a similar way as the English language does. However Latin’s (and to extension, Gothic) lack of articles influenced several cases of prepositions used without article in Luthic. The prepositions tra and fra are interchangeable, and often chosen on the basis of euphony.

Mandatory contractions
Luthic English Preposition + article
m. sg. f. sg. n. sg. l’ m. pl. f. pl. n. pl.
di of, from da da da dal’ dom dam dom
du to gia gia gia gi’ giom giam giom
a to, at al·lo al·la al·lata all’ al·los al·las al·la
da from, by, since dal·la dal·la dal·la dall’ dal·lom dal·lam dal·lom
in in nal·lo nal·la nal·lata nall’ nal·los nal·las nal·la
ana into, on, onto agno agna agnata an’ agnos agnas agna
su + ACC on, about sul·lo sul·la sul·lata sull’ sul·los sul·las sul·la
su + DAT on, about sul·la sul·la sul·la sull’ sul·lom sul·lam sul·lom
Optional contractions
Luthic English Preposition + article
m. sg. f. sg. n. sg. l’ m. pl. f. pl. n. pl.
miþ with miþ·þa miþ·þa miþ·þa miþþ’ miþ·þom miþ·þam miþ·þom
inu without in·na in·na in·na inn’ in·nom in·nam in·nom
faur for, through faul·lo faul·la faul·lata faull’ faul·los faul·las faul·la
tra between, among tral·la tral·la tral·la trall’ tral·lom tral·lam tral·lom
fra between, among fral·la fral·la fral·la frall’ fral·lom fral·lam fral·lom
Preconsonantal apocopated forms
Luthic English Preposition + article
du to gi
a to, at al
da from, by, since dal
in in nal
ana into, on, onto gna
su + ACC/DAT on, about sul


Most of the Luthic monosyllabic conjunctions and prepositions have preconsonantal and prevocalic variations.

  • e and ed
  • au and aud
  • a and ab
  • a and ad

Intervocalic conjunctions are often reduced, these reductions are however not mandatory:

  • e, ed but ·d if intervocalic
  • ac but ·c if intervocalic


  • Ic e þû (I and you)
  • Ic ed is (I and he)
  • Þû·d ic (You and I)
  • Is ed ic (He and I)
  • Ic au þû? (I or you?)
  • Ic aud is? (I or he?)
  • Þû·d ic? (You or I?)
  • Is aud ic? (He or I?)

Romance copula

Main article: Romance copula

As a Romance language, Luthic shares the complexities of the copula in Romance languages when to its counterparts in other languages. A copula is a word that links the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement). Whereas English has one main copula verb (and some languages like Russian mostly express the copula implicitly) some Romance languages have more complex forms.

Vessare generally focuses on the essence of the subject, and specifically on qualities that include:

  1. Nationality
  2. Possession
  3. Physical and personality traits
  4. Material
  5. Origin

Stare generally focuses on the condition of the subject, and specifically on qualities that include:

  1. Physical condition
  2. Feelings, emotions, and states of mind
  3. Appearance

Vessare is the main copula. Stare refers to state rather than essence, but more narrowly than in Spanish. Vessare is used for almost all cases in which English uses “to be”. It therefore makes sense to concentrate on the few uses of stare.

  • Stare means “to be”, “to be feeling”, or “to appear”.
  • Stare is used to form continuous forms of tenses.
  • Stare’s past participle statu has replaced that of vessare, and so statu is used for “been” in all senses.
  • Stare is occasionally “to be located.” This is very common for both transient and durable location.

Sentence structure

Luthic is an OV (Object-Verb) language. Additionally, Luthic, like all Germanic languages except English, uses V2 word order, though only in independent clauses. In dependent clauses, the finite verb is placed last.

Declarative sentences use V2 (verb in the second position) word order: the finite verb is preceded by one and only one constituent (unlike in English, this doesn’t need to be the subject). The subject is usually omitted when it is a pronoun – distinctive verb conjugations make it redundant. Subject pronouns are considered emphatic when used at all.

(Ic) drigco la vadne.
ic drigc-o l-a vadn-e
I.NOM drink-PRS.1SG the-ACC.SG.F water-ACC.SG
“I drink water (lit. I drink the water).”

La vadne drigco (ic).
l-a vadn-a drigc-o ic
the-ACC.SG.F water-ACC.SG drink-PRS.1SG I.NOM
“The water I drink.”

Non-finite verbs as well as separable particles are placed at the end of the sentence:

La meina frigionda ist al·la festa anaqemandu.
l-a mein-a frigiond-a ist al=l-a fest-a ana=qem-andu
the-ACC.SG.F my-ACC.SG.F friend-ACC.SG.F is at=the-DAT.SG.F party-DAT.SG on=come-GER
“My friend is arriving (lit. is on-coming) at the party.”

La meina frigionda qemaut al·la festa ana.
l-a mein-a frigion-a qem-aut al=l-a fest-a ana
the-ACC.SG.F my-ACC.SG.F friend-ACC.SG.F come-PRF.3SG at=the-DAT.SG.F party-DAT.SG on
“My friend arrived (lit. on-came) at the party.”

An inversion is used to emphasise an adverbial phrase, a predicative, an object, or an inner verbal phrase in a sentence. The subject phrase, at the beginning of an indicative unstressed sentence, is moved directly behind the conjugated verb, and the component to be emphasised is moved to the beginning of the sentence. The conjugated verb is always the second sentence element in indicative statements.

Example 1:

Fliugat snele. “(It) flies fast.” – not emphasised;
Snele fliugat. “Fast (it) flies.” – emphasised, i.e. “Fast is how it flies.”

Example 2:

Is liuvaleicu. “(You) are adorable.” – not emphasised;
Liuvaleicu is. “Adorable (you) are.” – emphasised, i.e. “Adorable is what you are.”

Interrogative and command sentences use the V1 (verb-first) word order: the finite verb occupies the first position in the sentence. However, wh question sentences use the V2 word order. The pronoun subject is never omitted in those cases. Questions are formed by a rising intonation at the end of the sentence (in written form, a question mark).

Fliugas þû snele?
fliug-as þû snel-e
fly-PRS.2SG you.SG fast-ADVR
“Do you fly fast?”

Ce taugis þû?
ce taugis þû
what do-PRS.2SG you-SG
“What are you doing?”

Taugiâ þû svasve rogio!
taugi-â þû svasve rogi-o
do-IMP.2SG you.SG as say-PRS.1SG
“Do as I say!”

Relative and subordinate clauses maintain the same word order.

Intonation of Luthic relative clauses

Galauvo ei, sariat beteze si þata tavissimos gestradage.
galauv-o ei sari-at betez-e si þata ta-vi-ssimos gestradag-e
think-PRS.1SG that be-CND.PRS.3SG better-ADVR if it.ACC.SG do-IMPF-CND.1PL tomorrow-ADVR
“I think that it would be better if we did it tomorrow.”

Galauvas þû ei, sariat beteze si þata tavissimos gestradage?
galauv-as þû ei sari-at betez-e si þata ta-vi-ssimos gestradag-e
think-PRS.2SG you.SG that be-CND.PRS.3SG better-ADVR if it.ACC.SG do-IMPF-CND.1PL tomorrow-ADVR
“Do you think that it would be better if we did it tomorrow?”

Case usage

Luthic case usage is very similar to Gothic, itself who calqued Ancient Greek grammar.

  • Nominative: (Ic) im lûthicu. “I am Luthic”
  • Accusative: (Ic) spraco lo lûthico. “I speak Luthic”
  • Dative: (Ic) laso lo lûthico þus. “I teach Luthic to you”
  • Genitive: La rasda lûthicoro þiudesca non ist. “The language of the Luths is not Germanic”

  • Ablato-locatival accusative:
  • Extent of space: (Is) qaervaut þreis chilometros. “He walked three kilometres”
  • Duration of time: (Is) non beidaut aeno dago. “He didn’t wait for one day”
  • Place when: Þo staþo. “In/on this place”
  • Sometimes prepositional: Naþ·þo staþo. “id.
  • Time when: Giaeno vintru. “In/at/during that winter”
  • Within which: Leizelas horas (is) scolat sveltare. “Within a few hours he shall die”
  • Sometimes prepositional (dative is used instead): Dentro di leizelam horam (is) scolat sveltare. “Within a few hours he shall die”

  • Dative:
  • Purpose: Mannesci non ovila, ac gôðana taugianda. “Humans are not made for evil, but for good”
  • Action for: Þus scolo helfare los frigiondos þeinos. “I must help your friends for you”
  • Purpose for action for: Qenam naseini im. “I am the (cause of) salvation for women”
  • Action against: La þeina frescapi scolo gadauþare þuc. “Against/in opposition to your freedom I shall kill you”
  • Purpose for action against: Manni dauþam im. “I am the (cause of) death for men” (affects negatively)
  • Concerning: Ce þû mis scolas taugiare? “What will you do for me? (expressing the speaker being especially interested in what the other is doing for him or her)”

  • Instrumento-dative:
  • Instrument: (Ic) reizo penno. “I write with a pen”
  • Means: (Ic) saeqo augonivo. “I see with the eyes”
  • Impersonal agent: Is gadauþada coltella velvi. “He was killed by the knife of the robber”
  • Manner: (Ic) fregio þuc managa fregiaþþa. “I love you with many affection”
  • Prepositional if with no adjective: (Ic) fregio þuc miþ fregiaþþa. “I love you with affection”
  • Accompaniment: (Ic) scoli qemare frigiondom. “I shall come with friends”
  • Sometimes prepositional: (Ic) scolo qemare miþ frigiondom. “id.
  • Degree of difference: (Is) alþezo aenom giarivo. “He is older by a few years”
  • Quality: Aeno vaere summa honesta. “A man of highest honesty”

  • Ablato-dative:
  • Separation: (Ic) sculo cofare l’ovelo þus. “I shall keep the evil away from you”
  • Motion away (prepositional): Giofa Ravenna du America furonno. “They went from Ravenna to America”
  • Personal agent (prepositional): Roma a lom Gôthicom qesciada. “Rome is destroyed by the Goths”
  • Comparison (adjectival): Qenam scauneza. “More beautiful than women”
  • Cause: (Ic) greto ira ed agi. “I cry with anger and fear” (marks the reason)
  • Instrumento-genitive:
  • Material: La celecna staenae. “The tower made of stone”
  • Author/creator: Þa celecna taveða manum meinara. “This tower was built by my hands”
  • Behaviour: Molle vadni. “Soft like water”
  • Often displaced by the relative adverb: Molle svasve vadne. “Soft like water”

Example text

Schleicher’s fable in Standard Luthic:

La pecora e gl’aeqqi
Aena pecora ei, stavat inu volla, saecaut somos aeqqos: aeno eisôro tiravat aeno pesante carro, aeno anþero baeravat aeno mêchelo carico ed aeno anþero transportavat aeno manno snele. La pecora roðit all’aeqqos: “Mic plagget ata haertene saecandu ce il mannu trattat l’aeqqos”. Gl’aeqqi roðironno: “Ascoltâ, pecora: faur unse ist penosu saecare ei, il mannu, l’unsar signore, sic taugit aena veste la volla pecorae, mentre lae pecorae ristonno inu volla”. Dopo ascoltauða þata, la pecora agro fliugat.
aen-a pecor-a ei st-avat inu voll-a saec-aut som-os aeqq-os aen-o eis-ôro tir-av-at aen-o pesant-e carr-o aen-o anþer-o baer-av-at aen-o mêchel-o caric-o ed aen-o anþer-o transport-av-at aen-o mann-o snel-e l-a pecor-a roð-it al-l=aeqq-os mic plagg-et ata haerten-e saec-andu ce il mann-u tratt-at l=aeqq-os gl=aeqq-i roð-ironno ascolt-â pecor-a faur uns-e ist penos-u saec-are ei il mann-o l=unsar signor-e sic taug-it aen-a vest-e l-a voll-a pecor-ae mentre l-ae pecor-ae rist-onno inu voll-a dopo ascolt-au-ða þata l-a pecor-a agr-o fliug-at
a-NOM.F.SG sheep-NOM.SG that be-IMPF.3SG without wool-DAT.SG see-PRF.3SG some-ACC.M.PL horse-ACC.PL one-ACC.M.SG they-GEN.M.PL pull-IMPF.3SG wagon-ACC.SG one-ACC.M.SG other-ACC.SG bring-IMPF.3SG a-ACC.M.SG big-ACC.M.SG load-ACC.SG and one-ACC.M.SG other-ACC.SG carry-IMPF.3SG a-ACC.M.SG man-ACC.SG fast-ADVR the-NOM.F.SG sheep-NOM.SG say-PRF.3SG to=the-ACC.M.PL horse-ACC.PL I.ACC.SG pain-PRS.3SG the-ACC.N.SG heart-ACC.SG see-GRD how the-NOM.M.SG man-NOM.SG manage-PRS.3SG the-ACC.M.PL=horse-ACC.PL the-NOM.M.PL=horse-NOM.PL say-PRF.3PL hear-IMP.2SG sheep-NOM.SG for us.ACC.PL be-PRS.3SG pitiful see-INF that the-NOM.M.SG man-NOM.SG the-NOM.M.SG=our-NOM.M.SG lord-NOM.SG do-PRS.3R.SG a-ACC.F.SG garnment-ACC.SG the-DAT.F.SG wool-DAT.SG sheep-GEN.SG whereas the-NOM.F.PL sheep-NOM.PL remain-PRS.3PL without wool-DAT.SG after hear-IMPF.PASS.3SG that.ACC.N.SG the-NOM.F.SG sheep-NOM.SG field-ACC.SG flee-PRS.3SG


Geographical distribution.

Luthic has many sociolects, whose differ in phonology and grammar; Standard Ravennese Luthic is the only form who declines noun by cases, other informal sociolects are way closer to other Romance languages in grammar (restrict register). Whereas sociolect refers to a variation in language between different social groups, dialect is a language variation based upon a geographical location, and Luthic has a small geographical area.

Upper Luthic

A major dialect is found nearby Ferrara, who was first mentioned when it was conquered by Germanic tribe the Lombards in 753 CE, and the Byzantine Empire lost its rule over the city. It was gifted to the Holy See by the Franks in either 754 or 756 CE, and was led by the Bishops of Ravenna. Benedictine and Cistercian monasteries started reclaiming Podeltan lands in the 9th century. This contact with West Germanic languages, and the lesser presence of East Germanic influence (unlike Ravenna) modelled some sound changes in discrepancy when compared to Standard Ravennese Luthic. This dialect is often called Ferraresi Luthic (Lûthica Estense) or Upper Luthic (Altalûthica).

  • Bilabial and labiodental merging: /ɸ/ and /β/ are merged with /f/ and /v/, a common feature among Luthic dialects.
  • Thorn fortition: /θ/ and /ð/ are fortified to /t/ and /d/ in every position:
  • Vowel fracture: Luthic strong vowels become diphthongs, ⟨ae⟩ /ɛ/ > ⟨ai⟩ /ɐj/, ⟨au⟩ /ɔ/ > ⟨au⟩ /aw/, ⟨ei⟩ /i/ > ⟨ei⟩ /ɐj/:
  • The feminine plural form is always realised as /e/.
  • Monophthongisation: Luthic diphthong /ju/ is monophthongised to /y/:
  • Loss of untressed final vowels and terminal devoicing: Every unstressed vowel is dropped, except in plurals and monosyllabic words; terminal consonants are devoiced (except if sonorants):
  • Deaffrication: Affricates are lenited to fricatives:
  • Loss of stress: Stress is fully lost, together with Gorgia Toscana:
  • Degemination: Lack of gemination as a distinctive feature:
  • Loss of coarticulations:

Sample text and comparison

  • Orthographic version in Standard Ravennese Luthic

Faðar unsar, þû hemeno,
Veiða lata namno þeino;
La þiuðanagarda þeina qemit;
Lo veglano þeino taugiat;
Svasve hemeno ed ana aerþa.
Il claefu qotidianu unsar gevâ unse oggi,
Ed afletâ las unsaras colpas,
Svasve afletamos þos ei, colpanno unsis;
E non letare unse in tentazione
Ac frieau unse da mala.
Faur þuc ist þiuðanagarda,
E la forza, la volþa,
Faur saecla saecloro. Amen.

  • Orthographic version in Upper Luthic

Fadar unsar, tû in emen
Veit lat namn tein
La teudanadagart tein qemit
Lo veglan tein taugiat;
Sva in emen et an aert.
Il claif qotidian unsar gevâ uns ogi
Et afletâ le unsere colpe
Sva afletamos esti ei, colpan unsis
E non letar unse in tentazion
Ac friau unse di il mal.
Faur tuc ist la teudanagart,
E la forza, la glori
Faur la saicla di la saicla. Amen.

  • Standard Ravennese Luthic narrow transcription

[ˈfa.ðɐr ˈũ.sɐr | ˈθu eˈ
ˈvi.ðɐ lɐ.θɐ ˈ ˈθ
lɐ θjuˌða.nɐˈɡar.dɐ ˈθi.nɐ ˈkᶣe.miθ
lo veʎˈʎ ˈθ ˈtɔ.d͡ʒɐθ
zvɐ.zve eˈ e.ð‿ɐ.nɐ ˈɛr.θɐ
il ˈklɛ.ɸu kʷo.θiˈ ˈũ.sɐr d͡ʒeˈβa ũ.se ˈɔd.d͡ʒi
e.ð‿ɐ.ɸleˈta lɐs ˈũ.sɐ.rɐs ˈk̠ol.pɐs
zvɐ.zve ɐ.ɸleˈθ‿θos ˈi | k̠olˈpɐ̃.no ũ.sis
e non leˈ ũ.se in ten.tɐtˈt͡
ɐ.f‿frjeˈɔ ũ.se da ˈ
fɔr θux ist θjuˌða.nɐˈɡar.da
e la ˈfɔr.t͡sa | la ˈvol.θa
fɔr ˈsɛ.klɐ ˈsɛ ‖ ˈ]

  • Upper Luthic narrow transcription

[fɐ.dɐɾ ũ.sɐɾ | tu in
vɐjt lɐt nɐmn tɐjn
lɐ ty.dɐ.nɐ.ɡɐɾt tɐjn k̟
lo ve.ʎɐn tɐjn tɐw.ʒɐt
zvɐ in e.t‿ɐn ɐjɾt
il klɐjf ko.ti.djɐn ũ.sɐɾ ʒ ũs ɔ.ʒi
e.t‿ɐ.fleˈta le ũ.sɐ.ɾe
zvɐ ɐ.fle.tɐ.mos es.ti i | kol.pɐn ũ.sis
e non le.tɐɾ ũs in ten.tɐ.sjon
ɐk fɾjɔ ũs di il mɐl
fɔɾ tuk ist lɐ ty.dɐ.nɐ.ɡɐɾt
e lɐ fɔrs | lɐ ɡlɔ.ɾi
fɔɾ lɐ sɐj.klɐ di lɐ sɐj.klɐ ‖ ɐ.men]

Although general grammar remains very similar, prepositions become more frequent due to a lack of cases. Some sociolects may also lack the neuter gender, fully merging it with the masculine or the feminine (via the plural form). There are also many ethnolects influenced by regional languages, such as the Lutho-Emilian ethnolect, who has its grammar and vocabulary largely affected and influenced by the Emilian dialects. The orthography may also be affected, since Upper Luthic lacks a regulatory body:

  • ⟨gi⟩ or ⟨j⟩ for /ʒ/: Standard Ravennese Luthic giâ [ˈd͡ʒa], Upper Luthic gia or ja [ʒɐ];
  • ⟨gl⟩ or ⟨lh⟩ for /ʎ/: Standard Ravennese Luthic gli [ʎi], Upper Luthic gli or lhi [ʎi];
  • ⟨gn⟩ or ⟨nh⟩ for /ɲ/: Standard Ravennese Luthic signore [siɲˈɲ], Upper Luthic signor or sinhor [si.ɲoɾ];
  • ⟨eu⟩, ⟨y⟩ or ⟨ü⟩ for /y/: Standard Ravennese Luthic niu [nju], Upper Luthic neu, ny or [ny];
  • Disagreement on voiceless terminal consonant spelling: Standard Ravennese Luthic ac [ɐx], Upper Luthic ac or ag [ɐk]; Standard Ravennese Luthic garda [ˈɡar.dɐ], Upper Luthic gart or gard [ɡɐɾt].

Another problem with Upper Luthic lacking a regulatory body is the lack of official statistics:

  • Unknown amount of native speakers;
  • Unknown status as an endangered language;
  • Lack of resources.

Upper Luthic phonology

Estimate vowels of Upper Luthic
Front Central Back
oral nasal oral nasal oral nasal
Close i ĩ u ũ
Close-mid e o õ
Open-mid ɛ ɐ ɐ̃ ɔ
Estimate consonants of Upper Luthic
Labial Dental/
Postalveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ
voiced v z ʒ
Approximant semivowel j w
lateral l ʎ
Flap ɾ
Trill ʀ
  • /k/ and /ɡ/ are described as pre-velar [k̟] and [ɡ̟] to palatal [c] and [ɟ] before /i, e, ɛ, j/;
  • /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ are not labialised and are in free variation with [ʂ] and [ʐ];
  • /ʀ/ is in free variation with [r];
  • /ʎ/ may be described as a fricative [ʎ̝].

Upper Luthic morphology

Nominal declension
Number o-stem m a-stem f o-stem n i-stem unm r-stem unm d-stem unm
Singular dac (< dagu) gef (< geva) auvit (< hauviþo) craft (< crafte) brotar (< broþar) piet (< pied-)
Plural dagi geve auvita crafti brotari piedi

In general, Upper Luthic has similar, and simpler, nominal declension paradigmata. For u-stems nouns, they are fully merged with o-stems.

Verbal conjugation
Tense Forms
Infinitive aver
Auxiliary verb aver
Past participle
Number masculine feminine neuter
Singular avut avuta avut
Plural avuti avute avuta
Present participle avent
Gerund avent
first singular
second singular
third singular
is, ia, at
first plural
second plural
third plural
eis, ise, ia
Indicative Present active o ais at aimos aites an
Present passive avar avas avat avant avant avant
Present perfect active o avut ais avut at avut aimos avut aites avut an avut
Present perfect passive avar avut avas avut avat avut avant avut avant avut avant avut
Imperfect active avait avaitas avaitat avaitamos avaitates avaitan
Imperfect passive avaitar avaitas avaitat avaitant avaitant avaitant
Preterite active ep avest ebbet avemmos avestes ebber
Preterite passive ebbira aves ebbet avem avem avem
Future active avro avrais avrat avremos avretes avran
Future passive avrar avras avrat avrant avrant avrant
Future perfect active avro avut avrais avut avrat avut avremos avut avrêtes avut avran avut
Future perfect passive avrar avut avras avut avrat avut avrant avut avrant avut avrant avut
Subjunctive Present active abbi abbias abbiat abbiamos abbiates abbian
Present passive abbair abbais abbait abbaint abbaint abbaint
Imperfect active avessi avessis avessit avessimos avessites avesser
Imperfect passive avessir avessis avessit avessint avessint avessint
Preterite active abbi avut abbias avut abbiat avut abbiamos avut abbiates avut abbian avut
Preterite passive abbair avut abbais avut abbait avut abbaint avut abbaint avut abbaint avut
Conditional Present active averi averias averiat averiamos averiates averian
Present passive averiar averias averiat averiant averiant averiant
Preterite active averi avut averias avut averiat avut averiamos avut averiates avut averian avut
Preterite passive averiar avut averias avut averiat avut averiant avut averiant avut averiant avut
Imperative Positive   ave   avet  
Negative   non aver   non averet  

Some verbal forms are speculation (by applying and following the common sound changes), as they are not attested.

Standard Bolognese Luthic

"… I say, then, that perhaps those are not wrong who claim that the Bolognese speak a more beautiful language than most, especially since they take many features of their own speech from that of the people who live around them, in Imola, Ferrara and Modena I believe that everybody does this with respect to his own neighbours.... So the above-mentioned citizens of Bologna take a soft, yielding quality from those of Imola, and from the people of Ferrara and Modena, on the other hand, a certain abruptness which is more typical of the Lombards.... If, then, the Bolognese take from all sides, as I have said, it seems reasonable to suggest that their language, tempered by the combination of opposites mentioned above, should achieve a praiseworthy degree of elegance; and this, in my opinion, is beyond doubt true."
(Dante Alighieri, De vulgari eloquentia - Liber I, xv, 2-5)

Although very similar to Standard Ravennese Luthic, there is noticeable influence from the regional Bolognese dialects, dialects of Emilian, one of the Gallo-Italic languages of the Romance family:

Furthermore, Standard Bolognese Luthic is affected by apophony:

Raising-type metaphony
Unaffected Mutated
/ˈ “I put” /ˈmit.tis/ “you put”
/ˈ “this (neut.)” /ˈis.tu/ “this (masc.)”
/moˈdɛs.tɐ/ “modest (fem.)” /moˈdes.tu/ “modest (masc.)”
/ˈspo.zɐ/ “wife” /ˈspu.zu/ “husband”
/ˈmɔ.reθ/ “he dies” /ˈmo.ris/ “you die”
/ˈmɔ.ʃɐ/ “depressed (fem.)” /ˈmo.ʃu/ “depressed (masc.)”

Standard Bolognese Luthic phonology

Standard Bolognese Luthic is almost identical to Standard Ravennese Luthic, itself being very similar to the phonology of Emilian Bolognese dialects.

Vowel phonemes of Standard Bolognese Luthic
Front Central Back
oral nasal oral nasal oral nasal
Close i ĩ u ũ
Close-mid e o õ
Open-mid ɛ ɐ ɐ̃ ɔ
Open a
Consonant phonemes of Standard Bolognese Luthic
Labial Dental/
Postalveolar Palatal Velar
plain labialized
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ (ŋʷ)
Plosive voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ ɡʷ
Fricative voiceless f s θ ʃ (x)
voiced v z
Affricate voiceless (p͡f) t͡s (t͡θ)
voiceless d͡z
Approximant semivowel j w
lateral l ʎ
Gorgia Toscana (ʋ) (ð̞) (ɣ˕)
Trill r

Voiceless continuants /f, s, θ, x/ are always constrictive [f, s, θ, x], but voiced continuants /v, ð, j, ɣ/ are not very constrictive and are often closer to approximants [ʋ, ð̠˕, j, ɣ˕] than fricatives [v, ð̠, ʝ, ɣ]. Voiceless fricatives are often fortified to affricates after alveolar consonants, such as /n l ɾ/, or general nasals:

Paulistan Luthic

Paulistan Luthic
Lútico (paulista)
Pronunciation[ˈlu.t͡ʃi.ku (pawˈlis.tɐ)]
Created byLëtzelúcia
Native speakers5,000 (2022)
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Brazil (recognised in São Paulo)
Regulated byCouncil for the Luthic Language (partially)

Italian migration to Brazil initiated in 1875, when Brazil began to promote to the country in order to increase its population, creating rural “colonies” for Italians and other Europeans to migrate to, as in between 1880 and 1920, more than one million Italians have immigrated to Brazil. Among all Italians who immigrated to Brazil, 70% went to the State of São Paulo. In consequence, São Paulo has more people with Italian ancestry than any region of Italy itself. Despite the poverty and even semi-slavery conditions faced by many Italians in Brazil, most of the population achieved some personal success and changed their lower-class situation.

Brazil remained neutral at the start of World War II in September 1939, however, German U-boats sank six Brazilian ships in the Atlantic, resulting on Brazil declaring war on Germany and Italy on 22 August 1942. The Brazilians forces fought mainly within Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna regions.

The Brazilian contact with Emilia-Romagna and the Italian immigration to Brazil resulted in a Brazilian dialect of Luthic spoken in São Paulo, known as Paulistan Luthic (endonym: Lútico paulista [ˈlu.t͡ʃi.ku pawˈlis.tɐ]; Standard Ravennese Luthic: Lûthica Paülista [ˈlu.ti.xɐ pɐwˈlis.tɐ]). Paulistan Luthic is heavily influenced by the Paulistano dialect of Portuguese (Portuguese pronunciation: [paw.lisˈtɐ̃.nu]), as the accent is dominant in Brazilian mass media and is often associated with “standard” Brazilian Portuguese.

Characteristics of Paulistan Luthic

Main phonological differences:

  • e-prosthesis: In word-initially /sC/ clusters, e-prosthesis is triggered: Standard Ravennese Luthic stare > Paulistan Luthic estare.
  • degemination: Paulistan Luthic lacks geminate consonants: Standard Ravennese Luthic soffiare [soɸˈɸ] > Paulistan Luthic [soˈ]
  • thorn stopping and voicing: A similar process that happened with southern German dialects, the High German consonant shift: Standard Ravennese Luthic þû > Paulistan Luthic du
  • edh stopping: /ð/ is fortified to /d/ in every position: Standard Ravennese Luthic faðar > Paulistan Luthic fadre
  • r-metathesis: r-stem nouns ending in -ar are always reanalised as -re: Standard Ravennese Luthic broþar > Paulistan Luthic brodre
  • /t, d/ palatalisation before /i, ĩ, j/: In most of Portuguese varieties spoken in Brazil, the variable palatalisation of alveolar stops turns consonants /t, d/ into affricates [t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ], this highly affected Paulistan Luthic: Standard Ravennese Luthic Lûthica [ˈlu.ti.xɐ], di [di] > Paulistan Luthic Lútica [ˈlu.t͡ʃi.kɐ], di [d͡ʒi]
  • rhotic: The trill consonant /r/ is fully displaced by a tap consonant /ɾ/, of which may be also described as an approximant /ɹ/ pre-consonantal: Standard Ravennese Luthic rasda [ˈraz.dɐ], barca [ˈbar.kɐ] > Paulistan Luthic rasda [ˈɾaz.dɐ], barca [ˈbaɹ.kɐ]. Due to Paulistano influence, word-initial rhotics are often realised as /ʁ/ ~ /h/, resulting in rasda [ˈʁaz.dɐ] ~ [ˈhaz.dɐ], a great example is Standard Ravennese Luthic rapportu [rɐpˈpɔr.tu] and Paulistan Luthic rapporto [ʁɐˈpɔɹ.tu] ~ [hɐˈpɔɹ.tu]
  • lack of Gorgia Tuscana: Paulistan Luthic doesn't spirantise atonic plosives: Standard Ravennese Luthic capu [ˈka.fu] > Paulistan Luthic capo [ˈka.pu]
  • i-epenthesis: Word-terminally plosives are affected by i-epenthesis: Standard Ravennese Luthic ac [ɐx], ist [ist] > Paulistan Luthic ac [ɐ.kĭ], est [es.t͡ʃĭ], this may also be considered a kind of paragoge. This may also happen in consonant clusters if if the second consonant is not /ɾ/ or /l/, resulting in opziune /opˈ > [opiˈ]
  • deaffrication: the palatalised forms of /t/, /k/ and /ɡ/, are realised as /s/, /s/ and /ʒ/ retrospectively: Standard Ravennese Luthic dicidere [di.t͡ʃiˈ], geva [ˈd͡ʒe.βɐ] > Paulistan Luthic dicidere [d͡ʒi.siˈde.ɾe], geva [ˈʒe.vɐ] and Standard Ravennese Luthic Luthic ziu (from Latin thīus) [ˈt͡si.u] > Paulistan Luthic zio [ˈsi.u ~ ˈzi.u]. In some cases, where /t͡s/ is voiced to /d͡z/, it is realised as /z/
  • nasalisation: like Paulitano, Paulistan Luthic nasalises every vowel before a nasal in NV.N-: Standard Ravennese Luthic banana [bɐˈna.nɐ] > Paulistan Luthic banana [bɐˈnɐ̃.nɐ]

Main orthographical differences:

  • Masculine nouns ending in ⟨u⟩ are always spelt as ⟨o⟩
  • Greco-Roman digraphs such as ⟨th⟩, ⟨ph⟩, ⟨ch⟩ are fully displaced by ⟨t⟩, ⟨f⟩, ⟨c⟩
  • For velar plosives before front vowels, they are spelt as ⟨qu⟩ and ⟨gu⟩
    • The velar nasal is no longer spelt as ⟨g⟩ before another velar, but rather as ⟨n⟩
  • The circumflex accent is displaced by the acute accent
  • Lack of ⟨þ⟩ and ⟨ð⟩ in the alphabet
  • Due to Portuguese influence ⟨j, k, w, x, y⟩ are way commoner instead of the nativisations ⟨gi, c(h), v, c ~ ss, i⟩ present in Standard Ravennese Luthic
  • The spellings ⟨gn⟩ and ⟨gl⟩ are fully displaced by ⟨nh⟩ and ⟨lh⟩; ⟨gn⟩ is also found as ⟨ñ⟩ in many communities nearby Spanish speakers, mainly outside the capital, such as Bauru, Sorocaba and Jundiaí

Main grammatical differences:

  • Loss of the neuter gender
  • Loss of the passive voice
  • u-stems are merged with o-stems
  • The verbs vessare and havere are fully displaced by tenere as the common auxiliary verb, mainly due to Portuguese influence
  • The nominative merges with the accusative, simplifying the general declension paradigmata

Demography and distribution

Map showing the areas of São Paulo where Paulistan Luthic is spoken today
Luthic speakers over 3 years of age in the municipality with most speakers (2022 IBGE census data). Absolute and relative numbers. Percentages given are in comparison to the total population of the corresponding state.
Region Totals Percentages
São Paulo 1,200 24%
São Bernardo do Campo 700 14%
Santo André 500 10%
Diadema 250 5%
São Caetano do Sul 230 4.6%
Jundiaí 230 4.6%
Bauru 210 4.2%
Sorocaba 180 3.6%
Ferraz de Vasconcelos, Embu Guaçu,
São Lourenço da Serra, Itapecerica da Serra,
Cotia, Embu das Artes, Taboão da Serra,
Osasco, Carapicuíba, Barueri, Jandira,
Itapevi, Vargem Grande Paulista
750 15%
Piratininga, Cabrália Paulista, Duartina, Avaí 650 13%
Total: 5,000 100%

According to Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Portuguese: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística; IBGE) Luthic is only spoken in São Paulo, and numbers may range anywhere from “perhaps a few dozen, up to almost two thousand people”.

According to the 2022 census by IBGE, Paulistan Luthic is spoken by 5,000 people, some 45 (0.9%) of whom are monolingual. The largest concentrations of Paulistan Luthic speakers are found in the municipalities of São Paulo and the ABCD Region, consisting of Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo, São Caetano do Sul and Diadema. A coniderable amount of Paulistan Luthic speakers are also found nearby the capital, in Ferraz de Vasconcelos, Embu Guaçu, São Lourenço da Serra, Itapecerica da Serra, Cotia, Embu das Artes, Taboão da Serra, Osasco, Carapicuíba, Barueri, Jandira, Itapevi, Vargem Grande Paulista, and nearby Bauru, in Piratininga, Cabrália Paulista, Duartina and Avaí.

Paulistan Luthic phonology

Consonant phonemes of Paulistan Luthic
Labial Dental/
Palatal Velar/Uvular
plain labial
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive voiceless p t k (kʷ)
voiced b d ɡ (ɡʷ)
Affricate voiceless (t͡ʃ)
voiced (d͡ʒ)
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ
voiced v z ʒ
Approximant j w
Liquid central ɾ (ʁ)
lateral l ʎ
  • /ʁ/ can be velar, uvular, or glottal and may be voiceless unless between voiced sounds.
  • /kʷ/ and /ɡʷ/ may be realised as [kw] and [ɡw] instead.
  • /ɲ/ is often realised as [j̃], which nasalises the preceding vowel.
  • /ŋ/ is often realised as [w̃], which nasalises the preceding vowel.
  • /j, w/ are often realised as [ɪ̯, ʊ̯]​ in unstressed position.
  • /s/ and /z/ are normally lamino-alveolar, as in English.
  • As phonemes, /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ occur only in loanwords, but due to palatalisation, they are also found as allophones of /t/ and /d/ before /i/, /ĩ/ and /j/.
Vowel phonemes of Standard Luthic
Front Central Back
oral nasal oral nasal oral nasal
Close i ĩ u ũ
Close-mid e o õ
Open-mid ɛ ɐ ɐ̃ ɔ
Open a
  • /u/ is laxed to [ʊ] if unstressed.
  • /i/ is laxed to [ɪ] if unstressed.
  • /e/ is often realised as [i] if unstressed.
  • Nasalised /e/ and /o/ are often “diphthongised”, resulting in /ẽ/ > [ẽȷ̃] and, /õ/ > [õw̃].

Paulistan Luthic morphology

Paulistan Luthic has been greatly affected by Paulistano, however, it still has grammatical cases for noun, a feature it has not been lost, however, unlike Standard Ravennese Luthic, Paulistan Luthic does not drop its prepositions before a declined noun, another common feature in Luthic is to decline only the article preceding the noun.

  • Standard Ravennese Luthic i frigiondi “the friends” > Paulistan Luthic los frigiondo “the friends”
  • Standard Ravennese Luthic þo staþo “in this place” > Paulistan Luthic in do stado “in this place”
  • Standard Ravennese Luthic miþ lom piedivo “with the feet” > Paulistan Luthic mid lom piede “with the feet”
Number Case o-stem m a-stem f i-stem unm r-stem unm d-stem unm
Singular nom. acc. dago geva crafte brodre piede
dat. daga geva crafti brodri piedi
gen. dagi gevae crafti brodri piedi
Plural nom. acc. dagos gevas craftes brodres piedes
dat. dagom gevam craftivo brodrivo piedivo
gen. dagoro gevaro craftem brodrem piedem


It is generally stated that Luthic has around 370,000 words, or 410,000 if obsolete words are counted, however 98% of the Luthic used today consists of only 5,800 words.

Luthic’s core lexicon (3,172 wors), Lucia Giamane (2016)

A 2016 statistic by Lucia Giamane is based on 3,172 words chosen on the criteria of frequency, semantic richness and productivity, which also contain words formed on the territory of the Luthic language. This statistic gives the percentages below:

  • 1,200 words inherited from Gothic;
  • 953 words inherited from Latin;
  • 510 words, academic loanwords from Latin;
  • 133 words borrowed from Italian;
  • 125 words borrowed from West Germanic, such as Frankish, Langobardic and Standard High German;
  • 101 words formed in Luthic;
  • 98 words borrowed from French;
  • 52 words borrowed from Greek.

Luthic has approximately 2,000 uncompounded words inherited from Proto-Indo-European. These were inherited via:

  • 45% Germanic;
  • 43% Italic, Romance;
  • 8% Celtic;
  • 2% Hellenic;
  • 2% Uncertain.

A single etymological root appears in Luthic in a native form, inherited from Vulgar Latin, and a learned form, borrowed later from Classical Latin. The following pairs consist of a native noun and a learned adjective:

There are also noun-noun and adjective-adjective pairs with slightly different meanings:

  • thing / cause: cosa / caüsa from Latin causa;
  • bull / calf: toru / taüru from Latin taurus;
  • chilled / frozen: freddu / frigidu from Latin frīgidus.

Insertional code-switching

Code-switching or language alternation occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation or situation. Code-switching is different from plurilingualism in that plurilingualism refers to the ability of an individual to use multiple languages, while code-switching is the act of using multiple languages together.

Insertional code-switching is often referred to as “borrowing” or “tag-switching”, when lexical items from a secondary language are introduced into the primary language. These loan words are partially or fully assimilated into the secondary language, conforming to its phonological and morphological structure. Insertional code-switching serves a “pragmatic purpose, acting as sentence enhancers or indicating the speaker's attitude towards the context of an utterance.”

  • Standard Luthic: Il nattu stâþ scaunu. Lae staerna sceinanno e la luna stâþ folla.
  • Standard Italian: La notte è bella. Le stelle brillano e la luna è piena.
  • Insertional code-swicthing: Il nattu ae bellu. Le stelle ~ lae stellae sceinanno e la luna ae piena.
    Note that both è and ae stand for /ɛ/.

The borrowed words can be integrated into the host language either partially or entirely, taking into account their phonological and morphological structure.

Swadesh list

The Swadesh list (/ˈswɑːdɛʃ/) is a compilation of tentatively universal concepts for the purposes of lexicostatistics. Translations of the Swadesh list into a set of languages allow researchers to quantify the interrelatedness of those languages. The Swadesh list is named after linguist Morris Swadesh. It is used in lexicostatistics (the quantitative assessment of the genealogical relatedness of languages) and glottochronology (the dating of language divergence). Because there are several different lists, some authors also refer to "Swadesh lists".

The most used list nowadays is the Swadesh 207-word list, adapted from Swadesh 1952.

Standard Luthic Swadesh list
Swadesh list
1. ic [ix] “I” 53. stecca [ˈstɛk.kɐ] “stick” 105. flaerare [flɛˈ] “to smell” 157. sabbia [ˈsab.bjɐ] “sand”
2. þû [ˈθu] “you” 54. acrano [ɐˈ] “fruit” 106. ogare [oˈɡ] “to fear” 158. molda [ˈmɔl.dɐ] “dust”
3. is [is] “he” ia [jɐ] “she” ata [a.θɐ] “it” 55. seme [ˈ] “seed” 107. slefare [sleˈɸ] “sleep” 159. aerþa [ˈɛr.θɐ] “earth”
4. vi [vi] “we” 56. laufu [ˈlɔ.ɸu] “leaf” 108. vivere [viˈβ] “to live” 160. molmanu [mɔlˈ] “sand”
5. gi [d͡ʒi] “you” 57. vaurte [ˈvɔr.te] “root” 109. sveltare [zvɛlˈ] “to die” 161. nêbola [ˈne.βo.lɐ] “fog”
6. eis [ˈis] isae [iˈsɛ] eis [ˈis] “they” 58. renda [ˈrɛn.dɐ] “bark” 110. dauþare [dɔˈθ] “to kill” 162. hemeno [eˈ] “sky”
7. su [su] sa [sɐ] þata [θɐ.θɐ] “this” 59. blomna [ˈblom.nɐ] “flower” 111. lottare [lotˈ] “to fight” 163. vendu [ˈven.du] “wind”
8. este [ˈes.te] esta [ˈes.tɐ] esto [ˈ] “that” 60. herba [ˈɛr.bɐ] “grass” 112. cacciare [kɐtˈt͡ʃ] “to hunt” 164. neve [ˈnɛ.βe] “snow”
9. her [er] “here” 61. corda [ˈk̠ɔr.dɐ] “rope” 113. blegguare [bleɡˈɡʷ] “to hit” 165. glaccio [ˈɡlat.t͡ʃo] “ice”
10. þar [θɐr] “there” 62. pelle [ˈpɛl.le] “skin” 114. tagliare [tɐʎˈʎ] “to cut” 166. fumu [ˈ] “smoke”
11. qu [kʷu] qa [kʷɐ] qo [kʷo] “who” 63. carne [ˈ] “meat” 115. scindere [ʃinˈ] “to split” 167. fona [ˈfo.nɐ] “fire”
12. ce [t͡ʃe] “what” 64. saggue [ˈsaŋʷ.ɡʷe] “blood” 116. pognalare [poɲ.ɲɐˈ] “to stab” 168. asga [ˈaz.ɡɐ] “ash”
13. car [kɐr] “where” 65. beine [ˈ] “bone” 117. crazzore [krɐtˈt͡] “to scratch” 169. bruciare [bruˈt͡ʃ] “to burn”
14. can [kɐn] “when” 66. grassa [ˈɡras.sɐ] “fat” 118. gravare [ɡrɐˈβ] “to dig” 170. strada [ˈstra.ðɐ] “road”
15. ce [t͡ʃe] “how” 67. uovo [ˈwo.βo] “egg” 119. svemmare [zvẽˈ] “to swim” 171. baergana [ˈbɛr.ɡɐ.nɐ] “mountain”
16. non [non] “not” 68. haurno [ˈɔ] “horn” 120. fliugare [fljuˈɡ] “to fly” 172. rossu [ˈrɔ] “red”
17. allu [ˈ] “all” 69. coda [ˈk̠o.ðɐ] “tail” 121. carvore [kɐrˈβ] “to walk” 173. verde [ˈ] “green”
18. managu [mɐˈna.ɣu] “many” 70. feþar [ˈfe.θɐr] “feather” 122. qemare [kᶣeˈ] “to come” 174. giallu [ˈd͡ʒ] “yellow”
19. somu [ˈ] “some” 71. taglo [ˈtaʎ.ʎo] “hair” 123. legare [leˈɡ] “to lie” 175. blagcu [ˈblaŋ˗.k̠u] “white”
20. favu [ˈfa.βu] “few” 72. capu [ˈka.ɸu] “head” 124. setare [seˈ] “to sit” 176. neru [ˈ] “black”
21. anþeru [ɐ̃ˈθ] “other” 73. oreccla [oˈrek.klɐ] “ear” 125. stare [ˈ]. “stand” 177. nattu [ˈnat.tu] “night”
22. aenu [ˈɛ.nu] “one” 74. augono [ˈɔ.ɣ] “eye” 126. girare [d͡ʒiˈ] “to turn” 178. dagu [ˈda.ɣu] “day”
23. tvi [ˈtvi] “two” 75. nasu [ˈna.zu] “nose” 127. driusare [drjuˈ] “to fall” 179. giar [d͡ʒɐr] “year”
24. þreis [ˈθris] “three” 76. monþu [ˈmõ.θu] “mouth” 128. gevare [d͡ʒeˈβ] “to give” 180. varmu [ˈ] “warm”
25. fidvor [ˈfid.vor] “four” 77. dente [ˈden.te] “tooth” 129. haldare [ɐlˈ] “to hold” 181. caldu [ˈkal.du] “cold”
26. fimfe [ˈfĩ.ɸe] “five” 78. tugga [ˈtuŋ.ɡɐ] “tongue” 130. spremere [spreˈ] “to squeeze” 182. follu [ˈ] “full”
27. mêchelu [ˈ] “big” 79. oggla [ˈoŋ.ɡlɐ] “fingernail” 131. fregare [freˈɡ] “to rub” 183. nuovu [ˈnwo.βu] “new”
28. laggu [ˈlaŋ˗.ɡ˗u] “long” 80. piê [ˈpje] “foot” 132. þvare [ˈð] “to wash” 184. altu [ˈal.tu] “old”
29. largu [ˈlar.ɡ˗u] “wide” 81. gamba [ˈgam.bɐ] “leg” 133. asciugare [ɐʃ.ʃuˈɡ] “to wipe” 185. buonu [ˈ] “good”
30. spessu [ˈ] “thick” 82. gnivo [ˈɲi.βo] “knee” 134. tirare [tiˈ] “to pull” 186. malu [ˈ] “bad”
31. pesante [peˈzan.te] “heavy” 83. manu [ˈ] “hand” 135. spiggere [spiŋ˖ˈɡ̟] “to push” 187. maciu [ˈma.t͡ʃu] “rotten”
32. leizelu [ˈlid.d͡] “little” 84. ala [ˈa.lɐ] “wing” 136. vaerfare [vɛrˈɸ] “to throw” 188. sporcu [ˈspor.k̠u] “dirty”
33. scaurtu [ˈsk̠ɔr.tu] “short” 85. qeþu [ˈkᶣe.θu] “belly” 137. bendare [benˈ] “to tie” 189. drittu [ˈdrit.tu] “straight”
34. agguu [ˈaŋʷ.ɡʷu] “narrow” 86. viscerae [ˈviʃ.ʃe.rɛ] “guts” 138. siugiare [sjuˈd͡ʒ] “to sew” 190. ritondu [riˈton.du] “round”
35. sottile [sotˈti.le] “thin” 87. collo [ˈk̠ɔl.lo] “neck” 139. contare [k̠onˈ] “to count” 191. scarfu [ˈskar.ɸu] “sharp”
36. qena [ˈkᶣe.nɐ] “woman” 88. dorso [ˈdɔ] “back” 140. rogiare [roˈd͡ʒ] “to say” 192. smussato [zmusˈsa.θu] “dull”
37. mannu [ˈmɐ̃.nu] “man” 89. brostu [ˈbros.tu] “breast” 141. segguare [seŋʷˈɡʷ] “to sing” 193. slaettu [ˈzlɛt.tu] “smooth”
38. mannescu [mɐ̃ˈnes.k̠u] “human being” 90. haertene [ˈɛ] “heart” 142. giucare [d͡ʒuˈ] “to play” 194. ûmidu [ˈu.mi.ðu] “wet”
39. bambinu [bamˈ] “child” 91. figato [fiˈɡa.θo] “liver” 143. flotore [floˈ] “to float” 195. þaursu [ˈθɔ] “dry”
40. sposa [ˈspo.zɐ] “wife” 92. dregcare [dreŋˈ] “to drink” 144. fluire [fluˈ] “to flow” 196. raettu [ˈrɛt.tu] “correct”
41. abnu [ˈ] “husband” 93. mangiare [mɐnˈd͡ʒ] “to eat” 145. glacciare [ɡlɐtˈt͡ʃ] “to freeze” 197. vicinu [viˈt͡ʃ] “near”
42. moðar [ˈmo.ðɐr] “mother” 94. beidare [biˈ] “to bite” 146. svellare [zvɛlˈ] “to swell” 198. lontanu [lonˈ] “far”
43. faðar [ˈfa.ðɐr] “father” 95. succhiare [suk̟ˈk̟] “to suck” 147. sauilo [ˈsɔj.lo] “sun” 199. destra [ˈdes.trɐ] “right”
44. animale [ɐ.niˈma.le] “animal” 96. speivare [spiˈβ] “to spit” 148. luna [ˈlu.nɐ] “moon” 200. sinistra [siˈnis.trɐ] “left”
45. fescu [ˈfes.k̠u] “fish” 97. vomitare [vo.miˈ] “to vomit” 149. staerna [ˈstɛr.nɐ] “star” 201. a [a] ad [a‿ð̞] “at”
46. foglu [ˈfoʎ.ʎu] “bird” 98. soffiare [soɸˈɸ] “to blow” 150. vadne [ˈ] “water” 202 in [in] “in”
47. hondu [ˈon.du] “dog” 99. rispirare [ris.piˈ] “to breathe” 151. ploggia [ˈplod.d͡ʒa] “rain” 203. miþ [miθ] “with”
48. pidocclu [piˈdɔk.klu] “louse” 100. clare [ˈ] “to laugh” 152. aca [ˈa.xɐ] “river” 204. e [e] ed [e‿ð̞] “and”
49. serpe [ˈsɛ] “snake” 101. saecare [sɛˈ] “to see” 153. lagu [ˈla.ɣu] “lake” 205. si [si] “if”
50. vaurmu [ˈvɔ] “worm” 102. hausare [ɔˈ] “to hear” 154. mareina [mɐˈ] “sea” 206. faurcê [fɔrˈt͡ʃe] “because”
51. trivo [ˈtri.βo] “tree” 103. gnoscere [ɲoʃˈʃ] “to know” 155. sale [ˈsa.le] “salt” 207. namno [ˈ] “name”
52. valþu [ˈval.θu] “forest” 104. þagcare [θɐŋˈ] “to think” 156. staenu [ˈstɛ.nu] “stone” 208. Râsdifice [ˈraz.di.ɸi.t͡ʃe] “Linguifex

Creating word lists depends on the decay of morphemes or changes in vocabulary. For glottochronology to be applicable to a language, the rate of morpheme decay must remain constant. This has led to criticism of the glottochronologic formula, as some linguists contend that the rate of morpheme decay cannot be assumed to be consistent over time. American linguist Robert Lees acquired a value for the “glottochronological constant” (r) of words by analysing the known changes in 13 pairs of languages using the 200-word list by Swadesh. He calculated a value of 0.805 ± 0.0176 with 90% confidence. Swadesh obtained a value of 0.86 for his 100-word list, with the higher value reflecting the exclusion of semantically unstable words. This constant is related to the retention rate of words by the following formula:

Glottochronologic constant.png

L is the rate of replacement, ln represents the natural logarithm and r is the glottochronological constant.

The basic formula of glottochronology in its shortest form is this:

Divergence time (short).png

t is a given period of time from one stage of the language to another (measured in millennia), c is the proportion of wordlist items retained at the end of that period and L is the rate of replacement for that word list.

Divergence time (long).png

By testing historically verifiable cases in which t is known by nonlinguistic data (such as the approximate distance from Classical Latin to modern Romance languages), Swadesh arrived at the empirical value of approximately 0.14 for L, which means that the rate of replacement constitutes around 14 words from the 100-wordlist per millennium. This is represented in the table below.

Glottochronology Time Scale
Rough Median Dating Median Cognate Retention in 100-Word List
500 BP 86%
1000 BP 74%
1500 BP 64%
2000 BP 55%
2500 BP 47%
3000 BP 40%
4000 BP 30%
5000 BP 22%
6000 BP 16%
7000 BP 12%
8000 BP 9%
9000 BP 7%
10000 BP 5%


Linguistic map of Ravenna and neighbouring regions.
Italian: “Lingue parlate accanto al Lutico”
English: “Languages spoken alongside Luthic”

Lexical and grammatical similarities among the Romance languages spoken in Ravenna and Emilia-Romagna, and between Latin and each of them, are apparent from the following examples in various Romance lects, all meaning ‘She always closes the window before she dines/before dining’. Additional translations are provided in Gothic, German, Icelandic, due to Luthic Germanic stems, and other related Romance languages.

Latin (Ea) semper antequam cēnat fenestram claudit.
Gothic 𐍃𐌹 𐌰𐌹𐍅 𐍆𐌰𐌿𐍂(𐌰) 𐌼𐌰𐍄𐌾𐌹𐌸 𐌰𐌿𐌲𐌰𐌳𐌰𐌿𐍂𐍉 𐌲𐌰𐌻𐌿𐌺𐌹𐌸.
Si aiw faur(a) matjiþ augadaurō galūkiþ.
German Sie schließt immer das Fenster, bevor sie speist.
Sie immer schließt das Fenster bevor speist. (altered, wrong in Standard German)
Icelandic Hún æ fyrir metur glugganum lókar. (obsolete or altered)
Hún lokar alltaf glugganum áður en hún borðar. (standard Modern Icelandic)
Hún lokar alltaf glugganum fyrir mat. (also correct)
Luthic (Ia) galucet aeve la finestra faur di cenare / mazzare.
Upper Luthic (Lei) galucet aif la finestar faur id cenar / mazzar.
Reggiano Emilian (Lē) la sèra sèmpar sù la fnèstra prima ad snàr.
Bolognese Emilian (Lî) la sèra sänper la fnèstra prémma ed dṡnèr.
Placentine Emilian Ad sira lé la sèra seimpar la finéstra prima da seina.
Italian (Ella/lei) chiude sempre la finestra prima di cenare.
Eastern Lombard (Lé) la sèra sèmper sö la finèstra prima de senà.
Western Lombard (Lee) la sara sù semper la finestra primma de disnà / scenà.
Romagnol (Lia) la ciud sëmpra la fnèstra prëma ad magnè.
Tuscan Lei chiude sempre la finestra prima di cenà.
Umbrian Lia chiude sempre la finestra prima de cenà.
Venetian Eła ła sara / sera senpre ła fenestra vanti de diznar.
Northern Corsican Ella chjode / chjude sempre lu / u purtellu avanti/nanzu di cenà.
Southern Corsican Edda / Idda sarra / serra sempri u purteddu nanzu/prima di cinà.
Gallurese Idda chjude sempri lu balconi primma di cinà.
Ligurian (Le) a saera sempre u barcun primma de cenà.
Neapolitan Essa 'nzerra sempe 'a fenesta primma d'a cena / 'e magnà.
Piedmontese Chila a sara sèmper la fnestra dnans ëd fé sin-a/dnans ëd siné.
Romanian (Ea) închide întotdeauna fereastra înainte de a cina.
Campidanese Sardinian Issa serrat semp(i)ri sa bentana in antis de cenai.
Logudorese Sardinian Issa serrat semper sa bentana in antis de chenàre.
Sassarese Edda sarra sempri lu balchoni primma di zinà.
Sicilian Iḍḍa ncasa sempri a finesṭṛa prima ’i manciari â sira.
Lexical similarity coefficients
Luthic Italian Spanish Portuguese French Romanian Catalan Romansh Sardinian English German
Luthic 1 0.49 0.40 0.38 0.47 0.35 0.45 0.36 0.43 0.41 0.42
Italian 0.49 1 0.82 0.80 0.89 0.77 0.87 0.78 0.85
Spanish 0.40 0.82 1 0.89 0.75 0.71 0.85 0.74 0.76
Portuguese 0.38 0.80 0.89 1 0.75 0.72 0.85 0.74 0.76
French 0.47 0.89 0.75 0.75 1 0.75 0.78 0.80 0.27 0.29
Romanian 0.35 0.77 0.71 0.72 0.75 1 0.73 0.72 0.74
Catalan 0.45 0.87 0.85 0.85 0.73 1 0.76 0.75
Romansh 0.36 0.78 0.74 0.74 0.78 0.72 0.76 1 0.74
Sardinian 0.43 0.85 0.76 0.76 0.80 0.74 0.75 0.74 1
English 0.41 0.27 1 0.60
German 0.42 0.29 0.60 1

Comparison with modern Germanic and Romance languages

English The cold winter is near, a snowstorm will come. Come in my warm house, my friend. Welcome! Come here, sing and dance, eat and drink. That is my plan. We have water, beer, and milk fresh from the cow. Oh, and warm soup!
Dutch De koude winter is nabij, een sneeuwstorm zal komen, Kom in mijn warme huis, mijn vriend. Welkom! Kom hier, zing en dans, eet en drink. Dat is mijn plan. We hebben water, bier, en melk vers van de koe. Oh, en warme soep!
German Der kalte Winter ist nahe, ein Schneesturm wird kommen. Komm in mein warmes Haus, mein Freund, Willkommen! Komm her, sing und tanz, iss und trink. Das ist mein Plan. Wir haben Wasser, Bier und Milch frisch von der Kuh. Oh, und warme Suppe!
Frisian De kâlde winter is nei, in sniestoarm sil komme. Kom yn myn waarme hûs, myn freon. Wolkom! Kom hjir, sjong en dänsje, yt en drink. Dat is myn plan. Wy ha wtter, bier, en molke farsk fan de ko. Och, en waarme sop!
Norwegian Den kalde vinteren er nær, en snøstorm vil komme. Kom inn i mitt varme hus, min venn. Velkommen! Kom her, syng og dans, et og drikk. Dette er min plan. Vi har vann, øl og melk fersk fra kua. Åh, og varm suppe!
Icelandic Kaldi veturinn nálgast, snjóstormur mun koma. Komdu inn í hlýja húsið mitt, vinur minn. Velkominn! Komdu hingað, syngdu og dansaðu, borðaðu og drekktu. Það er planið mitt. Við höfum vatn, bjór, og mjólk ferska úr kúnni. Ó, og volga súpu!
Luthic Il caldu vintru ist vicinu, aena tormenta qerrât. Qemâ gia meina husa/rasna, frigiondu meinu. Beneqemutu! Qemâ her, segguâ e danzâ, mangiâ e dregcâ. Su ist il meinu planu. Vi haemos vadne, biure, e meluco fresco da vacca. Ah, e zuppa varma!
Portuguese O frio do inverno está a chegar, uma tempestade de neve virá. Vem para a minha casa quente, meu amigo. Bem-vindo! Vem cá, canta e dança, come e bebe. É esse o meu plano. Temos água, cerveja e leite fresco da vaca. Ah, e sopa quente!
Italian Il freddo inverno è vicino, arriverà una tormenta di neve. Vieni nella mia calda casa, amico mio. Benvenuto! Vieni qui, canta e danza, mangia e bevi. Questo è il mio piano. Abbiamo acqua, birra e latte fresco di mucca. Ah, e zuppa calda!
Spanish El frío invierno está cerca, vendrá una tormenta de nieve. Ven a mi cálida casa, amigo mío. ¡Bienvenido! Ven aquí, canta y baila, come y bebe. Ese es mi plan. Tenemos agua, cerveza y leche fresca de la vaca. ¡Oh, y sopa caliente!
French Le froid de l'hiver est proche, une tempête de neige s'annonce. Viens dans ma maison chaude, mon ami. Bienvenue ! Viens ici, chante et danse, mange et bois. C'est mon plan. Nous avons de l'eau, de la bière et du lait frais de la vache. Oh, et de la soupe chaude !
Romanian Iarna geroasă este aproape, viscolul o să vină. Vino în casa mea călduroasă, prietene. Bine ai venit! Vino încoace, cântă și dansează, bea și mănâncă. Ăsta e planul meu. Avem apa, bere și lapte proaspăt de la vacă. Aaa, și supă calda!
Portuguese Este é um magnifico palácio real. Parti, peão ignorante! Somente os elites respeitáveis em política, ciência, cultura e arte são autorizados a entrar. Retornai imediatamente à vossa fazenda miserável, e pagai a taxa, ou os guardas exterminarão a vossa família.
Italian Questo è un magnifico palazzo reale. Partite, pedone ignorante! Solo le élite rispettabili in politica, scienza, cultura e arte sono autorizzate a entrare. Tornate immediatamente alla vostra misera fattoria e pagate la tassa, o le guardie stermineranno la vostra famiglia.
Spanish Este es un magnífico palacio real. ¡Partí, peón ignorante! Sólo las élites respetables de la política, la ciencia, la cultura y el arte están autorizadas a entrar. Regresá inmediatamente a vuestra miserable hacienda y pagá la tasa, o los guardias exterminarán a vuestra familia.
French C'est un magnifique palais royal. Partez, paysan ignorant ! Seules les élites respectables en politique, science, culture et art sont autorisées à entrer. Retournez immédiatement à votre misérable ferme. Et payez la taxe, ou les gardes extermineront votre famille.
Romanian Acesta este un palat regal magnific. Îndepărtaţi-vă, țăranule ignorant! Doar elitele respectabile din politică, știință, cultură și artă sunt autorizate să intre. Întoarceți-vă imediat la ferma voastră mizerabilă. Și plătiţi taxele, altfel gărzile vă vor extermina familia.
Luthic Este ist aenu magnificu palazzu reale. Partite, pedone ignorante! Sole lae elitae rispettabili in politica, scienzia, coltura e crafte autorizzanða ad entrare. Tornate immediatamente all’isvara misera garda e pagate lo geldo, aud i guardi stermineranno l’isvara famigla.
English This is a magnificent royal palace. Depart, ignorant peasant! Only respectable elites in politics, science, culture and art are authorised to enter. Return immediately to your miserable farm. And pay the tax, or the guards will exterminate your family.
Dutch Dit is een prachtig koninklijk paleis. Gaat weg u, onwetende boer! Alleen respectabele elites in de politiek, wetenschap, cultuur en kunst hebben toegang. Keert u onmiddellijk terug naar uw ellendige boerderij. En betaalt u de belasting, of de bewakers zullen uw familie uitroeien.
German Dies ist ein prächtiger königlicher Palast. Weggehen Sie unwissender Bauer! Nur respektable Eliten aus Politik, Wissenschaft, Kultur und Kunst haben Zutritt. Kehren Sie sofort auf Ihren armseligen Bauernhof zurück. Und zahlen Sie die Steuern, sonst werden die Wachen Ihre Familie auslöschen.
Frisian Dit is in prachtich keninklik paleis. Gean werom, ûnwittende boer! Allinnich respektabele elites yn polityk, wittenskip, kultuer en keunst hawwe tagong. Gean werom fuort nei jo miserabele pleats. En betelje de belesting, of de bewakers sille jo famylje útroege.
Norwegian Dette er et praktfullt kongelig palass. Forsvinn, uvitende bonde! Bare respektable eliter innen politikk, vitenskap, kultur og kunst har adgang. Dra straks tilbake til din elendige gård. Og betal skatten, ellers vil vaktene utrydde familien din.
Icelandic Þetta er stórkostleg konungshöll. Farið þér, fáfróður bóndi! Aðeins virðuleg elíta í stjórnmálum, vísindum, menningu og listum hafa aðgang. Farið þér strax aftur á ömurlega bæinn ykkart. Og borgið þér skattinn, annars munu verðir útrýma fjölskyldu ykkarri.


Leipzig-Jakarta with cognates
Item Luthic Gothic Latin PIE
fire fona “fire” (< *fōn, *funin-, related to *fōr, *fuïr-, which is found in North and West Germanic, ultimately from Proto-Germanic *fōr, *funiz ~ *fuiniz ~ *funiniz) 𐍆𐍉𐌽 (fōn) “fire” (< *fōn, *funin-, related to *fōr, *fuïr-, which is found in North and West Germanic, ultimately from Proto-Germanic *fōr, *funiz ~ *fuiniz ~ *funiniz) pūrgō < *puragō “to purge”, from *pur + *agō, literally meaning “to do with fire; to clean with fire”. The second element is attested in Italic as Umbrian 𐌐𐌉𐌓 (pir) *péh₂wr̥, *ph₂wéns “fire”. Two main terms for “fire” are reconstructible for PIE: *h₁n̥gʷnis and *péh₂wr̥, usually considered in semantic opposition; the first is usually masculine, refers to fire as animate and active (compare Agni, the most prominent Old Indic deity, and Latin ignis “fire”); the second is neuter and refers to fire as inanimate and passive, i.e. as a substance.
nose nasu “nose” *𐌽𐌰𐍃𐌰 (nasa) “nose” nāsus “nose”, nāris “nostril” *néh₂s, *nh₂sós “nose”
to go ganare “to go” *𐌲𐌰𐌽 (gān), merged with 𐌲𐌰𐌲𐌲𐌰𐌽 (gaggan) “to go” rēs < *ǵʰeh₁ro- “derelict; heir” *ǵʰeh₁- “to leave behind; to abandon; to come; to reach; to go; to walk”
water vadne “water” 𐍅𐌰𐍄𐍉 (watō) “water” unda “wave” < *udnéh₂ < *udn- *wódr̥, *udn- “water”
mouth monþu “mouth” 𐌼𐌿𐌽𐌸𐍃 (munþs) “mouth” mentum “chin” *mento- (“mouth; jaw”) < *men- “to stand out; to protrude; to project; to stick out”
tongue tugga “tongue” 𐍄𐌿𐌲𐌲𐍉 (tuggō) “tongue” lingua < dinguā̆ “tongue”. Influenced by lingō “to lick” as a folk etymology; compare Old Armenian լեզու (lezu) and Lithuanian liežùvis *dn̥ǵʰwéh₂s “tongue”
blood saggue “blood” 𐌴𐌹𐍃𐌰𐍂𐌽 (eisarn) “iron” (via Celtic?) assarātum “drink made with blood and wine”, assyr “blood”, sanguī̆s < *h₁sh₂n̥- “blood” *h₁ésh₂r̥ “blood”
bone beine “bone” *𐌱𐌰𐌹𐌽 “bone” *perfināre < *finō “to break” *bʰeyh₂- “to strike; to cut; to hew”
thou þû “you” 𐌸𐌿 (þū) “you” tū “you” *tíh₁, *tu- “you”
root vaurte “root” 𐍅𐌰𐌿𐍂𐍄𐍃 (waurts) “root” rādīx “root” *wréh₂diHs “root”
to come qemare “to come” 𐌵𐌹𐌼𐌰𐌽 (qiman) “to come” venīre < *gʷen < *gʷem- < *gʷm̥- “to come” *gʷem- “to step”
breast brostu “breast” 𐌱𐍂𐌿𐍃𐍄𐍃 (brusts) “breast” frū̆stum “piece; bit; crumb; morsel; scrap of food” *bʰrews- “to break (up); to cut”
rain ploggia “rain” *𐍆𐌻𐌰𐌿𐌼𐍃 (flaums) “stream; flow; flood”, compare 𐍆𐌻𐍉𐌳𐌿𐍃 (flōdus) “river” for the same root < *pleh₃(w)-, often considered a lengthened *ō-grade of *plew- pluvia “rain” *plew- “to fly; to flow; to run”
I ic “I” 𐌹𐌺 (ik) “I” egō̆ “I” *eǵóH < *éǵ ~ *h₁eǵ(H) “I”
name namno “name” 𐌽𐌰𐌼𐍉 (namō) “name” nōmen “name” *h₃néh₃mn̥ ~ *h₃nh₃méns “name”
louse pidocclu “louse” pēdis “louse” *pesdis < *pesd- “annoying insect?”. Ultimately IE, cognates include: Avestan 𐬞𐬀𐬰𐬛𐬎- (pazdu-) “beetle; maggot” and Sanskrit पेदु- (pedú-) “proper noun of a man, protected by the Asvins, by whom he was presented with white snake-killing honey”, पैद्व​ (paidvá-) “the snake-killing horse of Pedu; an insect harming horses”
wing ala “wing” *𐌰𐌷𐍃𐌻𐌰 (ahsla) “shoulder” āla “wing” *h₂eḱs(i)leh₂ < *h₂eḱs- “axle; axis”
meat carne “meat” *𐍃𐌺𐌰𐌹𐍂𐌰𐌽 (skairan) “to shear” carō “meat” *(s)ker- “to cut off; to server; to separate; to divide”
arm bracchio “arm” *𐌼𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌲𐌿𐍃 (maurgus) “short” bracchium “arm” *mréǵʰus < *mreǵʰ- “short; brief”
fly þliugano “fly” *𐌸𐌻𐌹𐌿𐌲𐍉 (þliugō) “fly” plūma “feather; plume” *plewk- “to fly; to flow; to run”
night nattu “night” 𐌽𐌰𐌷𐍄𐍃 (nahts) “night” nōx “night” *nókʷts “night”
ear oreccla “ear” 𐌰𐌿𐍃𐍉 (ausō) “ear” auris “ear” *h₂ṓws, *h₂éwsos “ear”
neck collo “neck” 𐌷𐌰𐌻𐍃 (hals) “neck” collum “neck” *kʷolso- < *kʷel- “to turn (end-over-end)”
far fairra “far” 𐍆𐌰𐌹𐍂𐍂𐌰 (fairra) “far” per “through(out); via” *pernóy < *per- “before; in front; first”
to do/make taugiare “to do/make” 𐍄𐌰𐌿𐌾𐌰𐌽 (taujan) “to do/make” *dewh₂- “to fit”. Ultimately IE, cognates include: Tocharian B tsu- “to cohere; to adhere; to contain” and Ancient Greek δύναμαι (dúnamai) “to be able; to can”
house huso “house” *𐌷𐌿𐍃 (hūs) “house” < *(s)kuHsóm scūtum “shield” < *(s)kuHtóm *(s)kewH- “to cover; to protect”
stone staenu “stone” 𐍃𐍄𐌰𐌹𐌽𐍃 (stains) “stone” < *steyh₂- stāre “to stand” < *steh₂- *steh₂- “to stand”
bitter baetru “bitter” 𐌱𐌰𐌹𐍄𐍂𐍃 (baitrs) “bitter” < *bʰoydrós fissus “split; cloven” < *bʰidtós *bʰeyd- “to split”
to say rogiare “to say” 𐍂𐍉𐌳𐌾𐌰𐌽 (rōdjan) “to speak; to talk” < *h₂reh₁dʰ- < *h₂réh₁dʰh₁eti rērī “to reckon” < *h₂reh₁yéti *h₂reh₁- “to think; to reason”
tooth dente “tooth” 𐍄𐌿𐌽𐌸𐌿𐍃 (tunþus) “tooth” dēns “tooth” *h₃dónts “tooth”
hair taglo “hair” 𐍄𐌰𐌲𐌻 (tagl) “hair” dolāre “to hew; to chop” *delh₁- “to split”. Uncertain and debatable.
big mêchelu “big” 𐌼𐌹𐌺𐌹𐌻𐍃 (mikils) “great; large; big” < *méǵh₂los magnus “great; large; big” < *m̥ǵh₂nós *méǵh₂s (*m̥ǵh₂-) “big; great”
one aenu “one” 𐌰𐌹𐌽𐍃 (ains) “one” ūnus “one” *h₁óynos “one”
who qu “who” 𐍈𐌰𐍃 (ƕas) “who; what” quis “who” *kʷís, *kʷós “who”
he, she, it is, ia, ata “he, she, it” 𐌹𐍃, 𐍃𐌹, 𐌹𐍄𐌰 (is, si, ita) “he, she, it” is, ea, id “he, she, it” *h₁e, *ih₂, *id “he, she, it”
to hit blegguare “to hit” 𐌱𐌻𐌹𐌲𐌲𐍅𐌰𐌽 (bliggwan) “to beat; to scourge; to cut; to kill” *mléwe- < *mlew- “weak?”. Ultimately Indo-European, related to Ancient Greek ἀμβλύς (amblús) “blunt; dim; faint” and Avestan 𐬨𐬭𐬎𐬙𐬀 (mruta) “crushed; weak”, also related to Old Norse blauðr (soft; meek; coward(ly)).
foot piê “foot” 𐍆𐍉𐍄𐌿𐍃 (fōtus) “foot” pēs “foot” *pṓds, *ped- “foot”
horn haurno “horn” 𐌷𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌽 (haurn) “horn” cornū “horn” *ḱr̥h₂nós < *ḱer(h₂)- “horn”
this su, sa, þata “this” 𐍃𐌰, 𐍃𐍉, 𐌸𐌰𐍄𐌰 (sa, sō, þata) “this” sī “if” < *sey (an innovated thematic locative singular)
tum “then” < *tóm, accusative of *só
iste, ista, istud “that” < *h₁e(s)- + *só
*só, *séh₂, *tód “this; that”
fish fescu “fish” 𐍆𐌹𐍃𐌺𐍃 (fisks) “fish” < *piskós piscis “fish” < *piskís *peysk- “fish”
yesterday gestradagu “yesterday” 𐌲𐌹𐍃𐍄𐍂𐌰𐌳𐌰𐌲𐌹𐍃 “tomorrow” hesternus “yesterday’s” < *dʰǵʰyésteros
febris < *dʰegʷʰris
*dʰǵʰyés “yesterday”
*dʰegʷʰ- “to burn; hot; warm”
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Luthic English IPA
Haelo m sg
Haela f sg
Haelos m pl
Haelas f pl
Hello [ˈɛ.lo] m sg
[ˈɛ.lɐ] f sg
[ˈɛ.los] m pl
[ˈɛ.lɐs] f pl
Buona maurgina Good morning [ˈbwɔ.nɐ ˈmɔr.d͡ʒi.nɐ]
Buono dago Good afternoon [ˈbwɔ.no ˈda.ɣo]
Buona sera Good evening [ˈbwɔ.nɐ ˈse.rɐ]
Buono natto Good night [ˈbwɔ.no ˈ]
Ce ist ata þeino namno? What is your name? [t͡ʃe ist ɐ.θɐ ˈθ ˈ]
Ata meino namno ist [...] My name is [...] [ɐ.θɐ ˈ ˈ ist ⸨...⸩]
Car is? Where are you from? [kɐr is]
Im di [...] I am from [...] [im di ⸨...⸩]
Beneqemutu m
Beneqemuta f
Welcome [ˌᶣeˈmu.tu] m
[ˌᶣeˈmu.tɐ] f
Piacere! Pleased to meet you! [pjɐˈt͡ʃ]
Ce taugis? How are you? [t͡ʃe ˈtɔ.d͡ʒis]
Begio Please [ˈbe.d͡ʒo]
Scusâ Excuse me [sk̠uˈza]
Grazie Thank you [ˈɡrat.t͡sje]
Di nulla You are welcome [di ˈ]
Giumane her rogiat Lûthico? Does anyone here speak Luthic? [d͡ʒuˈ er ˈro.d͡ʒɐθ ˈlu.ti.xo]
Rogias Lûthico? Do you speak Luthic? [ˈro.d͡ʒɐs ˈlu.ti.xo]
Ce pronuncias þata vaurdo? How do you pronounce this word? [t͡ʃe proˈnun.t͡ʃɐ.s‿sɐ.θɐ ˈvɔ]
Ce rogiare [...] in Lûthico? How to say [...] in Luthic? [t͡ʃe roˈd͡ʒ ⸨...⸩ i.l‿ˈlu.tʰi.xo]
Cantas rasdas rogias? How many languages do you speak? [ˈkan.tɐs ˈraz.dɐs ˈro.d͡ʒɐs]
Begio, rogiâ maeze lentamente Please, speak more slowly [ˈbe.d͡ʒo|roˈd͡ʒɐ.m‿ˈmɛd.d͡ze len.tɐˈmen.te]
Begio, ripetae þata Please, repeat that [ˈbe.d͡ʒo|ri.ɸeˈtɛ.θ‿θɐ.θɐ]
Begio, screvae þata Please, write that down [ˈbe.d͡ʒo|skreˈβɛ.θ‿θɐ.θɐ]
Non scio
I understand
I don’t understand
[non ˈʃi.o]
Arrivederci Goodbye [ɐr.ri.βeˈder.t͡ʃi]
Buono viaggo Bon voyage [ˈbwɔ.no ˈvjad.d͡ʒo]
Buono appetito Bon appetit [ˈbwɔ.no ɐp.peˈti.θo]

Idiomatic phrases

Mostly of the Luthic idiomatic phrases are similar to mostly European languages idioms, mainly Italian and French. Luthic idioms are often about food or mocking the French people, but mostly because of the French government and its movements against minority people within its territory. Another factor is the Roman inherited culture, as the Roman elite considered the Germanic people savage and stupid (e.g. the word Vandal, that can also stand for a person who needlessly destroys, defaces, or damages things, especially other people’s property; and Gothic that also meant barbarous, rude, unpolished, belonging to the “Dark Ages”, mediaeval as opposed to classical; ultimately of Germanic origin, the name of two East Germanic tribes, but drastically semantic changed to sound pejorative). There were many Germanic raids against the Roman Empire, and a common weapon used back then by the West Germanic people were the javelins, the Common West Germanic word for javelin is *frankō, which is also the name of the Frankish tribe (cf. Latin Francus and Francia). Luthic inherited the word “fragcese” [frɐŋˈke.ze] from Francia + -ensis, ultimately meaning “French (language)”, “Frenchman, Frenchwoman” and "French (people)”, but also meaning “stupid, savage, useless” from a semantic change similar to Vandal and Gothic.

  1. Monþo al·lo volfo: calqued from Italian in bocca al lupo, equivalent to break a leg, good luck; literally, “in the wolf’s mouth”.
  2. Dauþit lo volfo: calqued from Italian crepi in lupo, an answer similar to “thank you”; literally, “may the wolf die”.
  3. Tvi italiani miþ sole aena mana: equivalent to two birds with one stone; literally, “two Italians with only one hand”, a mock to Italians’ che vuoi?.
  4. Veglare anþero pomodoro: an expression for someones who is asking for special treatment; literally, “to want another tomato”.
  5. La herba vicini ist aeve verdiza: equivalent to the grass is always greener on the other side; literally, “The neighbour’s grass is always greener”.
  6. La fame laþot pasta, agce si inu salsa: equivalent to desperate times call for desperate measures; literally, “Hunger calls for pasta, even if without sauce”.
  7. L’amore dominat inu regolam: somewhat equivalent to all’s fair in love and war; literally, “Love rules without rules”.
  8. Blegguare lo chiudo capo: equivalent to hit the nail on the head, with the same literal translation.
  9. Martellare lo dito: the opposite to the previous idiomatic phrase, when someone is totally wrong; literally, “To hammer the finger”.
  10. Gnosco las meinas patatas: equivalent to I can handle this; literally, “I know my potatoes”.
  11. Stoppau di rogiare fragcese: an expression asking for someone to be straightforward and speak one’s mind; literally, “Stop speaking French”.
  12. Imparasti fragcese, nu rogiâ: equivalent to make one’s bed and lie in it; literally, “You learnt French, now speak it”.
  13. Pasta miþ salsa e caffê aeve neru: equivalent to call a spade a spade; literally, “Pasta with sauce and coffee always black”.
  14. Il þeinu sale stâþ dolce: equivalent to out of one’s mind; literally, “Your salt is sweet”.
  15. Havere managos casos faul·lo dativo: equivalent to wear too many hats; literally, “Have too many usages for the dative”, a joke about the many usages of the dative case in Luthic.
  16. Sputâ la patata da seina monþa faur di rogiare: equivalent to speak up; literally, “Spit the potato out of your mouth before speaking”.
  17. Rogiando da diavola: equivalent to speak of the devil, with the same literal translation.
  18. Il pomudoru non taugit lo capocuocu: equivalent to clothes don’t make the man; literally, “The tomato doesn’t make the chef”.
  19. Aenu pomudoru grossu: equivalent to big shot; literally, “A big tomato”.
  20. Havere aeno cervello di fragcesi: an expression for someone who acts stupidly, has low intelligence or has poor judgment; literally, “To have a French brain”.
  21. Cosa ist marcia in Roma: equivalent to something is rotten in the state of Denmark; literally, “Something is rotten in Rome”.
  22. Scimmia non dauþat scimmia: equivalent to honour among thieves; literally, “Monkey doesn’t kill monkey”.
  23. Costare aeno augono: equivalent to an arm and a leg; literally, “To cost an eye”.
  24. Þata ist Italiana mis: equivalent to it’s all Greek to me; literally, “This is Italian to me”.
  25. Drigcare svasve aenu russu: equivalent to drink like a fish; literally, “To drink like a Russian”.
  26. Vivere grande ed al·la fragcesa: an expression for living in extravagance, 'to live in luxury; literally, “To live big and French”, mocking the French lifestyle.
  27. Possere drigcare veleno ana þata: equivalent to bet one’s bottom dollar; literally, “To can drink poison on that”.
  28. Il volfu danzat her: an expression for a great party; literally, “The wolf dances here”.
  29. Non vendere los seinos pomosdoros faur di maturanda: equivalent to don’t count your chickens before they’re hatched; literally, “Don’t sell your tomatoes before they’re ripe”.
  30. Pizza buona non cambiat la ricetta: equivalent to if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it; literally, “A good pizza doesn’t change its recipe”.

Sample text

The North Wind and the Sun in Luthic:

  • Orthographic version in Standard Luthic
Il vendu trabaergana ed ata sauilo giucavanno carge erat il fortizu, can aenu pellegrinu qemavat avvoltu hacola varma ana. I tvi dicideronno ei, il fromu a rimuovere lo hacolo pellegrina sariat il fortizu anþera. Il vendu trabaergana dustoggit a soffiare violenza, ac ata maeze is soffiavat, ata maeze il pellegrinu striggevat hacolo; tantu ei, al·lo angio il vendu desistaet da seina sforza. Ata sauilo allora sceinaut varmamente nal·lo hemeno, e þan il pellegrinu rimuovaet lo hacolo immediatamente. Þan il vendu trabaergana obbligauða ad andaetare ei, lata sauilo erat ata fortizo tvoro.

  • Broad transcription
/il ˈβen.du trɐˈbɛr.ɡɐ.na e.d‿ɐ.tɐ ˈsɔj.lo d͡ʒu.kɐˈβɐ̃.no kɐr.d͡ʒe ˈɛ.rɐθ il ˈɸɔr.ti.d͡zu | kɐn ɛ.nu pel.leˈɡ kʷeˈma.βɐθ ɐβˈβol.tu ɐˈkɔ.la ˈβ ɐ.nɐ ‖ i tβi di.t͡ʃi.deˈrõ.no ˈi | il ˈɸ ɐ ri.mwoˈβ lo ɐˈkɔ.lo pel.leˈɡ ˈsa.rjɐθ il ˈɸɔr.ti.d͡zu ɐ̃ˈθe.ra ‖ il ˈβen.du trɐˈbɛr.ɡɐ.na duˈstɔd.d͡ʒiθ ɐ soɸˈɸ βjoˈlɛn.t͡sa | ɐ.k‿ɐ.tɐ ˈmɛ.d͡ze is soɸˈɸja.βɐθ | ɐ.tɐ ˈmɛ.d͡ze il pel.leˈɡ striŋˈɡe.βɐθ ɐˈkɔ.lo | ˈtan.tu ˈi | ɐl.lo ˈan.d͡ʒo il ˈβen.du deˈzi.stɛθ da ˈ ˈsɸɔr.t͡sa ‖ ɐ.tɐ ˈsɔj.lo ɐlˈlɔ.rɐ ʃiˈnɔθ βɐr.mɐˈmen.te nɐl.lo eˈ | e θɐn il pel.leˈɡ riˈmwo.βɛθ lo ɐˈkɔ.lo ĩ.me.djɐ.tɐˈmen.te ‖ θɐn il ˈβen.du trɐˈbɛr.ɡɐ.na ob.bliˈɡɔ.ðɐ ɐ.d‿ɐn.dɛˈ ˈi | lɐ.tɐ ˈsɔj.lo ˈɛ.rɐθ ɐ.tɐ ˈɸɔr.ti.d͡zo ˈtβ

  • Narrow transcription (differences emphasised)
[il ˈven.du trɐˈbɛr.ɡɐ.na e.ð‿ɐ.θɐ ˈsɔj.lo d͡ʒu.xɐˈβɐ̃.no kɐr.d͡ʒe ˈɛ.rɐθ il ˈfɔr.tid.d͡zu | kɐn ɛ.nu pel.leˈɡ kᶣeˈma.βɐθ ɐβˈβol.tu ɐˈk̠ɔ.la ˈ ɐ.nɐ ‖ i tvi di.t͡ʃi.ðeˈrõ.no ˈi | il ˈ ɐ.r‿ri.mwoˈβ lo ɐˈk̠ɔ.lo pel.leˈɡ ˈsa.rjɐθ il ˈfɔr.tid.d͡zu ɐ̃ˈθe.ra ‖ il ˈven.du trɐˈbɛr.ɡɐ.na dusˈtɔd.d͡ʒiθ ɐ.s‿soɸˈɸ vjoˈlɛn.t͡sa | ɐ.x‿ɐ.θɐ ˈmɛd.d͡ze is soɸˈɸja.βɐθ | ɐ.θɐ ˈmɛd.d͡ze il pel.leˈɡ striŋ˖ˈɡ̟e.βɐθ ɐˈk̠ɔ.lo | ˈtan.tu ˈi | ɐl.lo ˈan.d͡ʒo il ˈven.du deˈzi.stɛθ da.s‿ˈ ˈsfɔr.t͡saɐ.θɐ ˈsɔj.lo ɐlˈlɔ.rɐ ʃiˈnɔθ vɐr.mɐˈmen.te nɐl.lo eˈ | e θɐn il pel.leˈɡ riˈmwo.βɛθ lo ɐˈk̠ɔ.lo ĩ.me.djɐ.θɐˈmen.te ‖ θɐn il ˈven.du trɐˈbɛr.ɡɐ.na ob.bliˈɡ˗ɔ.ðɐ ɐ.ð‿ɐn.dɛˈ ˈi | lɐ.θɐ ˈsɔj.lo ˈɛ.rɐθ ɐ.θɐ ˈfɔr.tid.d͡zo ˈ]

  • Extranarrow transcription

This extranarrow transcription illustrates a Lugo Ravennese, educated, middle-generation speech, in his twenties, and a careful yet colloquial style.

⟦il̻ ˈven̻.d̻uu̥ˣ t̻rɐˈbɛ̝r.ɡɐ.n̻ä e.ð‿ɐ.θɐ ˈs̻ɔ̝ɒ̯̆j.l̻o d͡ʒʷu̽ə̯̆.xɐˈβɐ̃.n̻o kɐr.d͡ʒʷe ˈɛ̝.rɐθ il̻ ˈfɔ̟r.t̻i̽ə̯̆d̻.d̻͡z̪uu̥ˣ | kɐn̻ ɛæ̯̆.n̻uu̥ˣ pel̻.l̻eˈɡri̽ə̯̆.n̻uu̥ˣ kᶣeˈmä.βɐθ ɐβˈβol̻.t̻uu̥ˣ ɐˈk̠ɔ̟.l̻ä ˈvär.mä ɐ.n̻ɐ ‖ ii̥ᶜ̧ t̻vii̥ᶜ̧ d̻i̽ə̯̆.t͡ʃʷi̽ə̯̆.ðeˈrõ.n̻o ˈii̥ᶜ̧ | il̻ ˈfro.muu̥ˣ ɐ.r‿ri̽ə̯̆.mwoˈβ l̻o ɐˈk̠ɔ̟.l̻o pel̻.l̻eˈɡri̽ə̯̆.n̻ä ˈs̻ä.rjɐθ il̻ ˈfɔ̟r.t̻i̽ə̯̆d̻.d̻͡z̪uu̥ˣ ɐ̃ˈθe.rä ‖ il̻ ˈven̻.d̻u t̻rɐˈbɛ̝r.ɡɐ.n̻ä d̻us̻ˈt̻ɔ̟d.d͡ʒʷiθ ɐ.s̻‿s̻oɸˈɸjä.re vjoˈl̻ɛ̝n̻.t̻͡s̪ä | ɐ.x‿ɐ.θɐ ˈmɛæ̯̆d̻.d̻͡z̪e is̻ s̻oɸˈɸjä.βɐθ | ɐ.θɐ ˈmɛæ̯̆d̻.d̻͡z̪e il̻ pel̻.l̻eˈɡri̽ə̯̆.n̻uu̥ˣ s̻t̻ri̽ə̯̆ŋ˖ˈɡ̟e.βɐθ ɐˈk̠ɔ̟.l̻o | ˈt̻än̻.t̻uu̥ˣ ˈii̥ᶜ̧ | ɐl̻.l̻o ˈän̻.d͡ʒʷo il̻ ˈven̻.d̻uu̥ˣ d̻eˈz̻i̽ə̯̆.s̻tɛ̝θ d̻ä.s̻‿ˈs̻i̽ə̯̆.n̻ä ˈs̻fɔ̟r.t̻͡s̪ä ‖ ɐ.θɐ ˈs̻ɔ̝ɒ̯̆j.l̻o ɐl̻ˈl̻ɔ.rɐ ʃʷi̽ə̯̆ˈn̻ɔ̟θ vɐr.mɐˈmen̻.t̻e n̻ɐl̻.l̻o eˈme.n̻o | e θɐn̻ il̻ pel̻.l̻eˈɡri̽ə̯̆.n̻uu̥ˣ ri̽ə̯̆ˈmwo.βɛ̝θ l̻o ɐˈk̠ɔ̟.l̻o ĩ.me.d̻jɐ.θɐˈmen̻.t̻e ‖ θɐn̻ il̻ ˈven̻.d̻uu̥ˣ t̻rɐˈbɛ̝r.ɡɐ.n̻ä̻i̽ə̯̆ˈɡ˗ɔ̟.ðɐ ɐ.ð‿ɐn̻.d̻ɛæ̯̆ˈt̻ä.re ˈii̥ᶜ̧ | l̻ɐ.θɐ ˈs̻ɔ̝ɒ̯̆j.l̻o ˈɛ̝.rɐθ ɐ.θɐ ˈfɔ̟r.t̻id̻.d̻͡z̪o ˈt̻⟧

  • Narrow transcription (differences emphasised, Bolognese Standard Luthic)
[il ˈvin.du tɾɐˈbɛr.ɡɐ.na e.ð̞‿ɐ.θɐ ˈsɔj.lo d͡zu.xɐˈvɐ̃.nu kɐr.d͡ze ˈɛ.rɐθ il ˈfɔɾ.tid.d͡zu | kɐn pel.liˈɡ kᶣeˈma.vɐθ ɐvˈvul.tu ɐˈkɔ.la ˈ ɐ.nɐ ‖ i tvi di.t͡si.ð̞eˈrõ.nu ˈi | il ˈ ɐ.r‿ri.mwoˈve.ɾe lo ɐˈkɔ.lo pel.liˈɡ ˈsa.rjɐθ il ˈfɔr.tid.d͡zu ɐ̃ˈt͡θe.ra ‖ il ˈvin.du tɾɐˈbɛr.ɡɐ.na dusˈtɔd.d͡ziθ ɐ.s‿sofˈ vjoˈlɛn.t͡sa | ɐ.x‿ɐ.θɐ ˈmɛd.d͡ze is sofˈfja.vɐθ | ɐ.θɐ ˈmɛd.d͡ze il pel.liˈɡ stɾiŋˈɡ̟e.vɐθ ɐˈkɔ.lo | ˈtan.tu ˈi | ɐl.lo ˈan.d͡zo il ˈvin.du deˈzis.tɛθ da.s‿ˈ ˈsfɔr.t͡sa ‖ ɐ.θɐ ˈsɔj.lo ɐlˈlɔ.rɐ ʃiˈnɔθ vɐr.mɐˈmen.te nɐl.lo eˈ | e θɐn il pel.liˈɡ riˈmwo.vɛθ lo ɐˈkɔ.lo ĩ.me.djɐ.θɐˈmen.te ‖ θɐn il ˈvin.du tɾɐˈbɛr.ɡɐ.na ob.bliˈɡɔ.ð̞ɐ ɐ.ð̞‿ɐn.dɛˈ ˈi | lɐ.θɐ ˈsɔj.lo ˈɛ.ɾɐθ ɐ.θɐ ˈfɔr.tid.d͡zo ˈ]

  • Orthographic version in Standard Luthic, with reductions
Il vendu trabaergana·d ata sauilo giucavanno carge erat il fortizu, can aenu pellegrinu qemavat avvoltu hacola varma ana. I tvi dicideronno ei, il fromu a rimuovere lo hacolo pellegrina sariat il fortizu anþera. Il vendu trabaergana dustoggit a soffiare violenza, ac ata maeze is soffiavat, ata maeze il pellegrinu striggevat hacolo; tantu ei, all’angio il vendu desistaet da seina sforza. Ata sauilo allora sceinaut varmamente nal hemeno, e þan il pellegrino rimuovaet lo hacolo immediatamente. Þan il vendu trabaergana obbligauða·d andaetare ei, lata sauilo erat ata fortizo tvoro.

  • Orthographic version in English
The North Wind and the Sun were disputing which was the stronger, when a traveller came along wrapped in a warm cloak. They agreed that the one who first succeeded in making the traveller take his cloak off should be considered stronger than the other. Then the North Wind blew as hard as he could, but the more he blew the more closely did the traveller fold his cloak around him; and at last the North Wind gave up the attempt. Then the Sun shined out warmly, and immediately the traveller took off his cloak. And so the North Wind was obliged to confess that the Sun was the stronger of the two.

The Lord’s Prayer in Luthic:

  • Orthographic version in Luthic

Faðar unsar, þû hemeno,
Veiða lata namno þeino;
La þiuðanagarda þeina qemit;
Lo veglano þeino taugiat;
Svasve hemeno ed ana aerþa.
Il claefu qotidianu unsar gevâ unse oggi,
Ed afletâ las unsaras colpas,
Svasve afletamos þos ei, colpanno unsis;
E non letare unse in tentazione
Ac frieau unse da mala.
Faur þuc ist þiuðanagarda,
E la forza, la volþa,
Faur saecla saecloro. Amen.

  • Broad transcription

/ˈɸa.ðɐr ˈũ.sɐr | ˈθu eˈ
ˈβi.ðɐ lɐ.tɐ ˈ ˈθ
lɐ θjuˌða.nɐˈɡar.dɐ ˈθi.nɐ ˈkʷe.miθ
lo βeʎˈʎ ˈθ ˈtɔ.d͡ʒɐθ
zβɐ.zβe eˈ e.d‿ɐ.nɐ ˈɛr.θɐ
il ˈklɛ.ɸu kʷo.tiˈ ˈũ.sɐr d͡ʒeˈβa ũ.se ˈɔd.d͡ʒi
e.d‿ɐ.ɸleˈta lɐs ˈũ.sɐ.rɐs ˈkol.pɐs
zβɐ.zβe ɐ.ɸleˈta.mos θos ˈi | kolˈpɐ̃.no ũ.sis
e non leˈ ũ.se in ten.tɐtˈt͡
ɐk ɸrjeˈɔ ũ.se da ˈ
ɸɔr θuk ist θjuˌða.nɐˈɡar.da
e la ˈɸɔr.t͡sa | la ˈvol.θa
ɸɔr ˈsɛ.klɐ ˈsɛ ‖ ˈ

  • Narrow transcription

[ˈfa.ðɐr ˈũ.sɐr | ˈθu eˈ
ˈvi.ðɐ lɐ.θɐ ˈ ˈθ
lɐ θjuˌða.nɐˈɡar.dɐ ˈθi.nɐ ˈkᶣe.miθ
lo veʎˈʎ ˈθ ˈtɔ.d͡ʒɐθ
zvɐ.zve eˈ e.ð‿ɐ.nɐ ˈɛr.θɐ
il ˈklɛ.ɸu kʷo.θiˈ ˈũ.sɐr d͡ʒeˈβa ũ.se ˈɔd.d͡ʒi
e.ð‿ɐ.ɸleˈta lɐs ˈũ.sɐ.rɐs ˈk̠ol.pɐs
zvɐ.zve ɐ.ɸleˈθ‿θos ˈi | k̠olˈpɐ̃.no ũ.sis
e non leˈ ũ.se in ten.tɐtˈt͡
ɐ.f‿frjeˈɔ ũ.se da ˈ
fɔr θux ist θjuˌða.nɐˈɡar.da
e la ˈfɔr.t͡sa | la ˈvol.θa
fɔr ˈsɛ.klɐ ˈsɛ ‖ ˈ]

  • Orthographic version in English

Our Father, who art in heaven,
Hallowed be thy name.
Thy kingdom come,
Thy will be done on earth,
as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread.
And forgive us our debts,
as we forgive our debtors.
And lead us not into temptation,
but deliver us from evil:
For thine is the kingdom,
and the power, and the glory,
forever. Amen.

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External links

Conlang status

Progress: 96%
Head direction
Initial Mixed Final
Primary word order
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

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