User:Ashucky/Sketches

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Periodic table

Periodic table
Group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals Pnictogens Chalcogens Halogens Noble gases

Ememir (Sumerian conlang)

Phonology

Bilabial Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m [m] n [n] ĝ [ŋ]
Plosive p [pʰ/p] b [p/b] t [tʰ/t] d [t/d] k [kʰ/k] g [k/g]
Fricative s [s] š [ʃ] h [x]
Affricate z [t͡s] (r̂ [t͡sʰ])
Approximant (y/i [j] ?) (w/u [w] ?)
Trill r [r/ɾ]
Flap or tap (r̂ ?)
Lateral app. l [l]


Front Back
Close i [i] (ī [i:] ?) u [u] (ū [u:] ?)
Mid e [e] (ē [e:]?) (o [o] (ō [o:] ?) ?)
Open a [a] (ā [a:] ?)

Grammar

Nouns

Characteristics

NOMINAL CHAIN:
1) [NOUN] + [ADJECTIVE + POSSESSIVE/DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN + PLURAL (e/i)n(e)] + [CASE]

2) [PRONOUN] + [CASE]


Plurals:

  • -(e)n(e) for human and -(i)n(e) for non-human
  • reduplication (stands for "all the X", mostly non-human) > full or partial
Cases
Substantives
Case Suffixes Notes
Human Non-h.
Genitive -ak/-a/-k
Ergative -e subject of transitive verbs (agent)
Absolutive subject of intransitive verbs (argument); object of transitive verbs (patient)
Dative -ra/-r -/? indirect object; complementary with locative (or directive?) for non-human
Directive -/? -e > -ye motion arriving at, position next to; indirect obejct (non-human)
Locative -/? -a > -ya motion into, position inside; rarely used for human
Locative 2 -/? -ne
Terminative -še motion towards
Adverbiative -eš in the manner of < "how?"
Ablative -ta place/time from where (non-human); instrument; from the place of X (human)
Comitative -da > -ga with/and, in company
Equative -gen like/as
Declension
Case king (h) mother (h) tree (n) city (n) kings (h) mothers (h) trees (n) cities (n)
Genitive lugala(k) amā(k) ĝeša(k) eria(k) lugalena(k) amana(k) ĝešina(k) erina(k)
Ergative lugale amae ĝeše erie lugalenē amanē ĝešinē erinē
Absolutive lugal ama ĝeš eri lugalen(ē) aman(ē) ĝešin(ē) erin(ē)
Dative lugalra/lugalar amar(a) ĝešra/ĝešar erir(a) lugalenēr(a) aman̄ēr(a) ĝešinēr(a) erinēr(a)
Directive lugalye amaye ĝešye eriye lugalen[ē]ye aman[ē]ye ĝešin[ē]ye erin[ē]ye
Locative lugalya amaya ĝešya eriya lugalen[ē]ya aman[ē]ya ĝešin[ē]ya erin[ē]ya
Terminative lugalše/lugalaš amaše ĝešše/ĝešaš eriše lugalen[ē]še aman[ē]še ĝešin[ē]še erin[ē]še
Adverbiative lugaleš amaeš ĝešeš erieš lugaleneš amanēš ĝešinēš erinēš
Ablative lugalta amata ĝešta erita lugalen[ē]ta aman[ē]ta ĝešin[ē]ta erin[ē]ta
Comitative lugalga amaga ĝešga eriga lugalen[e]ga aman[ē]ga ĝešin[ē]ga erin[ē]ga
Equative lugalgen amagen ĝešgen erigen lugalen[ē]gen aman[ē]gen ĝešen[ē]gen erin[ē]gen

Pronouns

Personal
Personal pronouns
Aboslutive Ergative Dative Dimensional
1sg ĝe ĝe/ĝē ĝār(a) ĝāda; ĝāta; ĝāše
2sg ze ze/zē zār(a) zāda; zāta; zāše
3sg ane; ibe ane; ibe aner(a); iber(a) aneda/anega; aneta; aneša
1pl den den denra/denar(a) denda/denga; denta; denše
2pl zen zen zenra/zenar(a) zenda/zenga; zenta; zenše
3pl an(e)nē an(e)nē an(e)nēr(a) an(e)nēda/an(e)nēga; an(e)nēta; an(e)nēše
Possessive
Possessive pronouns
Absolutive Genitive Locative Ergative Directive Dative Dimensional Plural
1sg -ĝu -ĝa -ĝya -ĝu -ĝye -ĝur(a) -ĝuda -ĝunē
2sg -zu -za -zya -zu -zye -zur(a) -zuda -zunē
3sg -(a)ni; -bi -(a)na; -ba -(a)nya; -bya -(a)ne; -be -(a)nye; -bye -(a)nir(a); -bir(a) -(a)nida/-(a)niga; -bida/-biga -(a)ninē; -binē
1pl -me -ma -mya -me -mye -mer(a) -meda/-mega -menē
2pl -zene -zena -zenya -zene -zenye -zener(a) -zeneda/-zenega -zenenē/-zennē
3pl -(a)nne; -bīne -(a)nna; -bīna -(a)nnya; -bīnya -(a)nne; -bīne -(a)nnye; -bīnye -(a)nner(a); -bīner(a) -(a)nneda/-(a)nnega; -bīneda/-bīnega -(a)nnenē; -bīnenē/-bīnnē


Examples:

  • lugalĝu - my king : lugalme - our king
  • lugalzu - your king : lugalzene - your king
  • lugalani - his/her king : lugalanne - their king
  • lugalbi - its king : lugalbīne - their king
  • lugalĝunē - my kings : lugalmenē - our kings
  • lugalzunē - your kings : lugalzenenē your kings (zenene > zennē?)
  • lugalaninē - his/her kings : lugalannenē - their kings
  • lugalbinē - its kings : lugalbīnenē - their kings (binene > bīnnē?)
Other

Interrogative:

  • ana - what > anašam - why ~ anam - why
  • aba - who
  • agin - how ~ anagin - how
  • mea - where > meše - whither, meta - whence
  • (ud - when) ?

Indefinite:

  • name any > luname - some(one), any(one), no (one), none, niĝname - something, anything, nothing, kiname - somewhere, nowhere, uname - sometime, never

Reflexive:

  • ne(te) - self > neĝu - myself, nezu - yourself, nebi - itself, neteni - himself

Relative: -- ? --

  • lu - the person (who)
  • niĝ - the thing (which)
  • ki - the place (where)
  • aba - (the one) who
  • ana - (that) which

Demonstrative:

  • nen - this > -ne, -ney (word-final)
  • -bē - that > -bey (word-final)
  • -ri - yonder
  • ūr/yūr/yur - that

Adjectives

Numerals

Cardinal
Ordinal

Suffix: -kam(ma)

  • 1st: merga(ma)
  • 2nd: niškam(ma)
  • 3rd: eškam(ma)
  • 4th: limmukam(ma)
  • etc.

Verbs

Characteristics
Conjugation
Transitive Perfective Imperfective
Subject Stem Object Object Stem Subject
Base Past Present Future Base Past Present Future
1sg ʔ ī ē ā STEM (e)n n in en an STEM (e)n
2sg e e eh ah (e)s s is es as (e)s
3sg n, b in, ib en, eb an, ab Ø n, b in, ib en, eb an, ab
1pl d id ed ad (e)nden d id ed ad (e)nden
2pl z iz ez az (e)nzen z iz ez az (e)nzen
3pl š (e)š š (e)nē
Intransitive Perfective Imperfective
- Stem Subject - Stem Subject
Base Past Present Future Base Past Present Future
1sg - i e a STEM (e)n - i e a (+ed) (e)n
2sg (e)s (e)s
3sg Ø Ø
1pl (e)nden (e)nden
2pl (e)nzen (e)nzen
3pl (e)š (e)š


Forms of the prefixes:

  • -C > -Cen
  • -V > -v̄n (vowel lenthening)
  • -v̄ > -ūwen; -īyen; -ēyen; -āen
Full paradigm
Conjugation
Perfective Imperfective
Transitive Subject Stem Object Object Stem Subject
1sg ʔ (ī) en ʔ (ī) en
2sg e (e) en e (e) en
3sg p n (in) Ø n (in) e
3sg i b (ib) Ø (b) (ib) e
1pl enden enden
2pl enzen enzen
3pl n-V-eš (in) enē
Intransitive Stem Subject Stem Subject
1sg en (+ed) en
2sg en (+ed) en
3sg p Ø (+ed) Ø
3sg i Ø (+ed) Ø
1pl enden (+ed) enden
2pl enzen (+ed) enzen
3pl (+ed)
  • subject/patient = absolutive (patient = accusative object of transitive verbs; subject = nominative subject of intransitive verbs)
  • agent = ergative (agent = nominative subject of transitive verbs)
Prefixes
Other prefixes
Ventive Initial person
suffixes
Dative Cominative Terminative
ablative
Local
prefixes
1sg mu/mū mu/m ma da with
(ventive: (V)mda)
ta from
ši to(wards)
(ventive: (V)mta/mši)
ni in(to)
e on(to)
2sg mu (mye) e/r ra (ira)
3sg p (V)m n (in) na (ina)
3sg i (V)mm b (ib) ba
1pl me me
2pl enē enē (inē)
3pl mu ne/nnē ne

Examples:

  • nin lugalda indatušØ - the queen sat with the king
  • naĝar iriše ibšeĝenØ - the carpenter went to the city
  • lugale ninra iriya ē inaninduØ - a house was built for the queen by the king in the city
  • When a vocalic suffix is added before the ventive prefix, the vowel is added: īm-, ūm-, and ām-
    • īmĝen - he came here (m+ĝen+Ø)
    • īmmaĝen - he came away (m+ba+ĝen+Ø)
Performatives

Prefix: u-/ū- (> ul- when followed by verb root)

  • relative past (when/after) - only with perfective verbs

Prefix: i-/ī-

  • present forms, perfective

Prefix: a- (> al- when followed by verb root)

  • imperfective; al- in imperatives?


Modal prefixes:

  • NEGATIVE nu- (la-, li-) not
  • PRECATIVE hé- (ha-, hu-) may he, he should, whether
  • COHORTATIVE ga- (gi4-, gú-) may I, I shall
  • PROHIBITIVE na- may he not
  • AFFIRMATIVE na- he shall (shall he not?)
  • VETITIVE ba-ra- can not, must not
  • PROSPECTIVE ù- (a-, ì-) when, after
  • CONTRAPUNCTIVE ši- (ša-, šu-) so, therefore
  • FRUSTRATIVE nu-uš- if only
  • CONJUNCTIVE (i)n-ga- and, also, furthermore
Imperfective stems

Formation:

  • affixiation: -e (-ū > -ūwe, -ā > -āe, -ē > -ēye, -ī > -īye, -a/e/i/u > -ā/ē/ī/ū)
  • reduplication:
    • type 1: ĝar > ĝaĝa
    • type 2: ḫal(a) > ḫalḫa
  • suppletive root
Copula
Copula
Independent Enclitic
1sg -men =men
2sg -mes =mes
3sg -me =(a)m
1pl -menden =menden
2pl -menzen =menzen
3pl -meš =meš

Other

Nominalising suffix -wa
  • lugale hay indū > lugal lu hay indūwa
    • the king built the house > the king, the man who built the house


  • hay badū > hay dūwa
    • the house was built > the house that was built


  • lugale hay maḫ indū
    • the king built the lofty temple
  • hay maḫbita
    • from that lofty temple
  • hay maḫ lugale [hay maḫ] dūwabita
    • from that lofy temple built by the king


  • hay šubwa
    • the house that collapsed > the collapsed house
  • hay dūwa
    • the house that was built > the built house
  • inim dūgwa
    • the word that was spoken > the spoken word


  • lue hay indū > hay lue dūwa
    • the man built the house > the house built by the man

Vocabulary

Examples

General

  • dumu - son (absolutive)
  • dumuni - her/his son (possessive + absolutive)
  • dumune - by her/his son (possessive + ergative)
  • dumube - by that son (demonstrative + ergative)
  • dumun - sons (absolutive)
  • dumu-dumu - all the sons (reduplication + absolutive)
  • dumu turra - for the small son (adjective + dative case (-ra))
  • dumu turani - his/her small son (adjective + possessive + absolutive)
  • dumu turbira - for that small son (adjective + demonstrative + dative)
  • dumu turenēr(a) - for the small sons (adjective + plural + dative)
  • dumuninēr(a) - for his/her sons (possessive + plural + dative)
  • dumu turbēnēda - with those small sons (adjective + demonstrative + plural + comitative case (-da))
  • amanigin - like her mother
  • dumusaĝ lugalagin - like the first-born son of the king

Genitive

  • ē lugala(k) - the house of the king {é} + {lugal+ak} + Ø
  • ē lugala(k)ya - in the house of the king {é} + {lugal+ak} + ya
  • dumu lugalanake - by the son of his house {dumu} + {lugal+ani+ak} + e
  • šeš tur lugal mahakenē - the young brothers of the lofty king {šeš+tur} + {lugal+mah+ak} + ene + Ø
  • šeš tur lugal mahzabēnē - those young brothers of your lofty king {šeš+tur} + {lugal+mah+zu+ak} + bi + ene + Ø
  • ē dumua - the house of the son (é dumu+ak+Ø)
  • ē dumu lugalaka - the house of the son of the king (é dumu lugal+ak+ak+Ø)
  • ē dumu lugal Urimak(a)ka - the house of the son of the king of Ur (é dumu lugal úri(m)ki+ak+ak+ak+Ø)
  • ANTICIPATORY:
    • lugala diĝirani - of the king his god = the god of the king (lugal+ak diĝir+(a)ni+Ø)
    • udua lugalbi - of the sheep its owner = the owner of the sheep (udu+ak lugal+bi+Ø)
  • PREDICATIVE:
    • ĝākam - it is of me = it is mine (ĝá+ak+am)
    • zākam - it is yours (za+ak+am)
    • anekam - it is his/hers (ene+ak+am)
    • denakam - it is ours
    • zenakam - it is yours
    • annēkam - it is theirs (enene+ak+am)
    • kubey [ku] ĝākam - that silver is [silver] of me = that silver is mine
    • luney [lu] iribākam - this man is [a man] of that city = this man is of that city