User:Chrysophylax/Proto-Lusanic

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Proto-Lúsanic, also Proto-Lusanic, (sometimes abbreviated PLu.), is the reconstructed ancestral language of all the Lúsanian languages, including Aurónian, Finian and the Limbe-Mereian languages. Proto-Lúsanic is classified as being part of the “centum” languages (similarly to Italic, Celtic, Germanic, etc.), having merged the traditional palatovelar and plain series of the Proto-Indo-European plosives.

The reconstruction of Proto-Lúsanic is currently being undertaken but suffers from a lack of recorded sources as written material is mostly attested from one branch (Finio-Dhannic).

Sound changes from Proto-Indo-European

Late Proto-Indo-European

Many of these changes were shared by other branches of the Indo-European family.

  • “Palatovelars” merge with the “plain” velars (centumization):
  • /ḱ/ → /k/
  • /ǵ/ → /g/
  • /ǵʱ/ → /gʱ/
  • Two adjacent dentals become *ss:
  • /dt/ → /ss/
  • /tt/ → /ss/
  • /dd/ → /ss/
  • metathesis of “thorn clusters” (TK > KT, e.g. *h₂rtkos → *h₂rktos)
  • Loss of laryngeals before a following vowel:
  • /h₁e/ → /e/ ~ /i/
  • /h₂e/ → /a/
  • /h₃e/ → /o/
  • Loss of laryngeals after a preceding vowel, lengthening and colouring it:
  • /eh₁/ → /ē/
  • /eh₂/ → /ā/
  • /eh₃/ → /ō/

Early Proto-Lúsanic

  • Loss of laryngeals by vocalisation between two plosives (CHC > CVC)
    /h₁/ → /i/
    /h₂/ → /a/
    /h₃/ → /o/
  • Labiovelars and sequences of velar + *w merge:
  • /kʷ/ → /kw/
  • /gʷ/ → /gw/
  • /gʷʱ/ → /gʱw/
  • Sequences of *s + plosive simplify to *ss
  • /st/ → /ss/
  • /sk/ → /ss/
  • *m becomes *n before dentals and at the end of words.
  • /m̩d/ → /n̩d/
  • /m̩t/ → /n̩t/
  • /m#/ → /n#/
  • Sequences of a nasal and velar reduce to *nn in a two-step process.
  1. velars turn into a nasal velar
    • /nk/ → /nŋ/
    • /ng/ → /nŋ/
    • /ngʱ/ → /nŋ/
  2. nasal velars are de-velarized after a nasal
    • /nŋ/ → /nn/

Proto-Lúsanic

  • Epethentic *a inserted before syllabic resonants except if blocked by preceding *Vr:
  • /m̩/ → /am/
  • /n̩/ → /an/
  • /l̩/ → /al/
  • /r̩/ → /ar/
  • Merger of short *a into *ā in closed and stressed syllables:
    /CáC/ → /Cā́C/
  • labiovelar sequences become *w intervocalically:
  • /kw/ → /w/
  • /gw/ → /w/
  • Fricativization and devoicing of syllable-initial velar consonants before *w, *r, *l:
  • /kw/ → /hw/
  • /gw/ → /hw/
  • /gʱw/ → /hw/
  • All words become stressed on the first syllable (e.g. *gʰortós → *gʰórtos)
  • Lowering of *e to *a if the following syllable has *a (e.g *ésanti → *ásanti)
  • Raising of *o after *w
  • /wo/ → /wu/
  • Voicing of plosives between a resonant and a vowel (RCV > RC+voicedV)

Late Proto-Lúsanic

These features spread somewhat unevenly among the daughter branches of Proto-Lúsanic, but still probably constituted a single intelligible dialect continuum.

  • Voicing of word-medial and word-final *s
  • Loss of word-initial *h when followed by a liquid
  • /hl/ → /l/
  • /hr/ → /r/
  • Merger of *sp into *ss
  1. ^ Only word medial in Finian

Examples

PIE Proto-Lusanic Example
Proto-Lusanic Descendants
*p *p pátēr Dh. pathair
*t *t túsdandi Dh. tasandh
*k *k káptōd Fin. haftaa (< earlier *kaftaa)

Morphology

Noun

A minor collapse of the athematic/thematic distinction is observed, e.g. the thematic ablative -ad is here found on a traditionally athematic stem.

pátēr (Brightraven 2013)
Number Singular Plural
Nominative pátēr, *~īr páteris
Vocative pátre páteris
Genitive pátaris pātaroun
Accusative pátern pā́terans
Dative pátarei pátaribhos
Ablative pátarad pátaribhos
Instrumental pátarei pátaribhī
Locative pátarei pátarais
yúgon (Brightraven 2013)
Number Singular Plural
Nominative yúgon yúgā
Vocative yúgon yúgā
Genitive yúgis yúgoun
Accusative yúgon yúgā
Dative yúgei yúgibhos
Ablative yúgad yúgibhos
Instrumental yúgei yugibhī
Locative yúgei yúgais

Pronoun

Verb

Loss of the middle voice r-endings.

Creation of the future tense from former desiderative -s-.

Copula

Person Present
indicative
Imperfect
indicative
Optative Imperative
1st singular *ísani *ásan *ísjēn
2nd singular *íssi *ís *isjēs *ísdʰi
3rd singular *ísti *íst *isjēt *ístu
1st dual *swús *swé *sī́we
2nd dual *ístes *íston *íston *íston
3rd dual *ístes *ístān *ístān *ístān
1st plural *sámos *ísan *sīn
2nd plural *ísti *ísti *sī́ti *ísti
3rd plural *ásandi *sánad *sjánad *sándu

Numerals

  • 'one':
  • 'two':
  • 'three':
  • 'four': *wetwōr (> Finian vissaa wissâ, Limbe ωλυηρ ōluār, Dhannuá uéduór )
  • 'five': *pennwe (> Old Dhannuá PENVE penwe, Finian finni finni)
  • 'six':
  • 'seven':

Schleicher's PIE fable rendered into Proto-Lusanic

Here follows a 'direct' phonetic evolution of the reconstructed PIE text in Proto-Lusanic.

Proto-Lusanic (Bhitar Morningway[1])
[Warai] Owiz, éwūzwe, wésjo wŭ́lnā ne est, éwunz spéket, aiwón warún wúghon weghondan, aiwónwe méghan bhóron, aiwonwe ghámenn, ṓku bhérondan. Owiz nu éwaibhoz wéuwet: kḗr aghnuda moy éwunz agondan néran wídandey. Ewoz tu weuwont: klúdhi, owei, kḗr aghnuda ánsmei wídandibhoz. anḗr, pódiz, awjon rṓ wúlnān sebhi warnéudi nu wéramon wéstron néghi awion wulnā ésdi. Tód hluwuz owiz agron bhugét.


Proto-Lusanic (Ivanin Aiduvitić[2])
[Wérei] Owis, éwēswe, wési̯o wŭ́lnā ne íst, éwāns spéket, éwon wárun wúghon woghondan, éwonwe méghan bhóron, éwonwe ghámenan, ṓku bhérondan. Owis nu éwai̯bhos wū́wet: kḗr aghna moi̯ éwens agondan néran wídandei̯. Eweis tu wū́wont: lúdhi, owei, kḗr aghna ánsamei̯ wídandibhos: ánēr, pódis, áwi̯on rō wúlnān swébhi wárnūdi nu wéramon wéstron néghi áwi̯on wŭ́lnā íst. Tód lúwus owis nu agron bhúget.
Late Proto-Lusanic (Karl Svensson[3])
[Wórei̯] Úis, ū́ziswe, úzi̯o ulanā ne ísti, ū́ans spéket, éūn wórun wúghon wóghondan, éūnwe mághan bhóron, éūnwe ghámenan, ṓku bhérondan. Úis nu ūobhos wū́t: kḗr aghana moi̯ ū́ins agondan néran wídandei̯. Úīs tu wūnt: lúdhi, úi, kḗr aghana ánasmei̯ wídandibhos: ánēr, pódis, ūi̯on rō ūlanān swébhi wórnūdi nu wóramon wóstaron néghi ūi̯on ŭlanā ísti. Tód lūs úis nu agron bhúget.

Notes

[1] [2] [3]

  1. ^ a b Better do this in the morning, eh?
  2. ^ a b Aiduvitić harshly criticised Morningway's reconstruction in Why Morningway is Wrong: An unhealthy focus on Finio-Dhannic vocalism and was the first to derive forms including Limbe-Mereian data.
  3. ^ a b Representing a late Proto-Lusanic dialect probably basal to the Finio-Dhannic branch with w-contamination.