User:Chrysophylax/sketch-2

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Morphology

Nouns

Nouns fall into several noun classes, w- (animate), l-(tools), n-(spirits and locations), ø- (inanimate) which in turn are inflected for grammatical case and number (singular-plural)

Example paradigm for the animate noun dar

Number Singular Plural
absolutive ẉ́dar udári
ergative udárano udáranoi
vocative udáre udárei

Collective nouns may be formed by replication following CVC > CV-CVC, e.g., dano ‘fruit’ → dadano ‘a harvest of fruits’.

Pronouns

Pronouns have a slightly different set of inflections.

First person singular "I"
Number Singular Plural
absolutive in ini
ergative inis inisi
genitive inisi inisii

Example text

JRR Tolkien, LotR, pp 412-3:

  1. Gondor! Gondor, between the Mountains and the Sea!
  2. West Wind blew there; the light upon the Silver Tree
  3. Fell like bright rain in gardens of the Kings of old.
  4. O proud walls! White towers! O wingèd crown and throne of gold!
  5. O Gondor, Gondor! Shall men behold the Silver Tree,
  6. Or West Wind blow again between the Mountains and the Sea?
  1. Gondor! Gondor, daits nanarsizara
  2. gauts naits nuna ẉ́bolbezi; zazal daursibana ditso
  3. zal dodolzena unár udár dadaurisigora ẉ́dolbe.

Hūnnir hār Tanwār

ekʲãgs koymuns

  1. T, N → 0 / #_V
    ano ( ← dano) ‘fruit’, anar ( ← nanar) ‘mountain range’

Sketch 2a

  1. T K → θ χ / R_V
    arθano ( ← ardano) ‘tall fruit’ , arχaitso ( ← argaitso) ‘high stronghold’
  2. au → ō /
    adōr ( ← adaur)
  3. in polysyllabic words e, a, o → ø / _#
    arχaits ẉ́dar ( ← arχaitso ẉd́ar)

Sketch 2b

  1. N → 0 / V_V
    iis ( ← inis)

Sketch 2c

  1. e, i → je, ji / #_
    jedéro ( ← edéro), jin ( ← in)
  2. ai → æː
    gæːtso ( ← gaitso) ‘stronghold’
  3. j, w → ji, wi / _C
    wizazal ( ← ẉ́zazal) ‘jewellery smith’
  4. ṇ, ṛ, ḷ → in, ir, il / _C
    índor ( ← ṇ́dor) ‘place by river’
  5. oi → ū
  6. unstressed [front], [back] → ĭ, ə̆
    ardə̆nə̆ ( ← ardano), absolutive widə̆r (← wídar) ‘lord’ but ə̆dárə̆nə̆ ( ← udárano) in the ergative.
  7. loss of word-final ĭ and ə̆
    argæːts ( ← argæːtsə̆)
  8. fortition of ĭ, ə̆ → e, u / C_C
    arendur ( ← arĭndə̆r)
  9. loss of remaining ĭ and ə̆
    ergative dárun ( ← ə̆dárə̆n) ‘lord’


Number Singular Plural
absolutive wídar dar
ergative dárun (← ə̆dárə̆nə̆) dárunu ( ← ə̆dárə̆nū)
vocative dar dáre
genitive dárus ( ← ə̆dárə̆sĭ) dáruse ( ← ə̆dárə̆sī)
Number Singular Plural
absolutive arendur arendur
ergative arendur (← arĭndə̆r) arendur ( ← arĭndə̆r)
vocative arendur arendur
genitive arendures( ← arĭndə̆rĭsĭ) arenduresi ( ← arĭndə̆rĭsī)

wrādes bhasyos

Prima derivatio

  • dar
  • dal
  • dan
  • dats
  • nar
  • nal
  • nan
  • nats
  • zar
  • zal
  • zan
  • zats
  • gar
  • gal
  • gan
  • gats
  • der
  • del
  • den
  • dets
  • ner
  • nel
  • nen
  • nets
  • zer
  • zel
  • zen
  • zets
  • ger
  • gel
  • gen
  • gets
  • dor
  • dol
  • don
  • dots
  • nor
  • nol
  • non
  • nots
  • zor
  • zol
  • zon
  • zots
  • gor
  • gol
  • gon
  • gots
  • dur
  • dul
  • dun
  • duts
  • nur
  • nul
  • nun
  • nuts
  • zur
  • zul
  • zun
  • zuts
  • gur
  • gul
  • gun
  • guts
  • dir
  • dil
  • din
  • dits
  • nir
  • nil
  • nin
  • nits
  • zir
  • zil
  • zin
  • zits
  • gir
  • gil
  • gin
  • gits
  • dair
  • dail
  • dain
  • daits
  • nair
  • nail
  • nain
  • naits
  • zair
  • zail
  • zain
  • zaits
  • gair
  • gail
  • gain
  • gaits
  • daur
  • daul
  • daun
  • dauts
  • naur
  • naul
  • naun
  • nauts
  • zaur
  • zaul
  • zaun
  • zauts
  • gaur
  • gaul
  • gaun
  • gauts

Secunda derivatio

  • da-dar
  • da-dal
  • da-dan
  • da-dats
  • na-nar
  • na-nal
  • na-nan
  • na-nats
  • za-zar
  • za-zal
  • za-zan
  • za-zats
  • ga-gar
  • ga-gal
  • ga-gan
  • ga-gats
  • de-der
  • de-del
  • de-den
  • de-dets
  • ne-ner
  • ne-nel
  • ne-nen
  • ne-nets
  • ze-zer
  • ze-zel
  • ze-zen
  • ze-zets
  • ge-ger
  • ge-gel
  • ge-gen
  • ge-gets
  • do-dor
  • do-dol
  • do-don
  • do-dots
  • no-nor
  • no-nol
  • no-non
  • no-nots
  • zo-zor
  • zo-zol
  • zo-zon
  • zo-zots
  • go-gor
  • go-gol
  • go-gon
  • go-gots
  • du-dur
  • du-dul
  • du-dun
  • du-duts
  • nu-nur
  • nu-nul
  • nu-nun
  • nu-nuts
  • zu-zur
  • zu-zul
  • zu-zun
  • zu-zuts
  • gu-gur
  • gu-gul
  • gu-gun
  • gu-guts
  • di-dir
  • di-dil
  • di-din
  • di-dits
  • ni-nir
  • ni-nil
  • ni-nin
  • ni-nits
  • zi-zir
  • zi-zil
  • zi-zin
  • zi-zits
  • gi-gir
  • gi-gil
  • gi-gin
  • gi-gits
  • da-dair
  • da-dail
  • da-dain
  • da-daits
  • na-nair
  • na-nail
  • na-nain
  • na-naits
  • za-zair
  • za-zail
  • za-zain
  • za-zaits
  • ga-gair
  • ga-gail
  • ga-gain
  • ga-gaits
  • da-daur
  • da-daul
  • da-daun
  • da-dauts
  • na-naur
  • na-naul
  • na-naun
  • na-nauts
  • za-zaur
  • za-zaul
  • za-zaun
  • za-zauts
  • ga-gaur
  • ga-gaul
  • ga-gaun
  • ga-gauts