Difference between revisions of "Sebatian"

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{{list subpages}}
 
{{Infobox language
 
{{Infobox language
 
|creator = [[User:IlL|IlL]]
 
|creator = [[User:IlL|IlL]]
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|image =  
 
|image =  
 
|setting = [[Verse:Unbegotten]]
 
|setting = [[Verse:Unbegotten]]
|nativename = jľoudhišká dažvá
+
|nativename = sebhatišká dažvá
 
|pronunciation =
 
|pronunciation =
|region =  
+
|region = Britain
 
|states =  
 
|states =  
 
|speakers =  
 
|speakers =  
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|familycolor=Indo-European
 
|familycolor=Indo-European
 
|fam1=Indo-European
 
|fam1=Indo-European
|fam2=Ilitho-Balto-Slavic
 
 
|script={{PAGENAME}} script
 
|script={{PAGENAME}} script
 
}}
 
}}
  
'''Ilithian''' /ɪ'lɪθiən/, '''Classical Zeuhi''' or '''Ileithian''' in older sources (''jľoudhišká dažvá'') is a classical language in Russia and Central Asia in [[Verse:Unbegotten]], spoken by the Ilithians (referred to as Ἰλείθοι ''Ileíthoi'' or Ἰλεύθοι ''Ileúthoi'' in Ancient Greek sources; the Greek name was borrowed into Latin as ''Ilīthī''). It is inspired by Czech, Sanskrit and Proto-Celtic. It is close to both Greek and Indo-Iranian but shares many features with Balto-Slavic.
+
'''Sebatian''' /'beɪʃən/ (''sebhatišká dažvá'') is a classical language in Great Britain in [[Verse:Unbegotten]], spoken by the Sebatians. It is inspired by Czech, Sanskrit and Proto-Celtic.
 +
 
 +
As an ancient IE language, Sebatian is highly inflected and retains many archaic features (while being fairly innovative in other ways). It is close to both Greek and Indo-Iranian but shares many features with Balto-Slavic.
 +
 
 +
[[Zauhi]] is a descendant.
  
 
gájati = to sing
 
gájati = to sing
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lígma (leyg-mn) = game
 
lígma (leyg-mn) = game
  
Jsužen = name cognate to Eugene, Owen (> Siżan)
+
Jsužen = name cognate to Eugene, Owen (> Śużen)
  
 
šu = with
 
šu = with
 +
 +
rkš = bear
 +
 +
žnýtál = family
  
 
==Phonology==
 
==Phonology==
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ē, eh1 > ý, iH > í
 
ē, eh1 > ý, iH > í
  
all é > ý in the "Prakrit", ý from older long e causes "second palatalization", ý from Ilithian é causes "third palatalization"
+
all é > ý in the "Prakrit", ý from older long e causes "second palatalization", ý from Sebatian é causes "third palatalization"
  
 
mýs, mýnes- 'month'
 
mýs, mýnes- 'month'
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ja > je?
 
ja > je?
 
=== Iotation ===
 
=== Iotation ===
k g h t d dh p b bh v m n l r s > č dž džh ť ď ďh pj bj bhj vj mň(+no CL) ň ľ ř š
+
k g h t d dh p b bh v m n l r s > CL+č CL+CL+džh CL+ť CL+ď CL+ďh pj bj bhj vj mň CL+ň CL+ľ CL+ř CL+š
  
This occurs after laryngeals vocalize. Iotation causes compensatory lengthening: ''*bʰh₂nyoh₂'' 'I shine' > ''*bʰanjō'' > ''*bʰāňōə'' > CIlith ''bháňů'' 'I show'.
+
This occurs after laryngeals vocalize. Sometimes iotation causes compensatory lengthening ("CL") of the vowel before the iotated consonant: ''*bʰh₂nyoh₂'' 'I shine' > ''*bʰanjō'' > ''*bʰāňō'' > CIlith ''bháňů'' 'I appear'.
  
 
==Nouns==
 
==Nouns==
Literary Ilithian nouns and adjectives are extremely conservative in that they retain all 8 PIE cases and the dual number (like Sanskrit). However, a lot of analogical leveling between noun paradigms has taken place.
+
Literary Sebatian nouns and adjectives are extremely conservative in that they retain all 8 PIE cases and the dual number (like Sanskrit). However, a lot of analogical leveling between noun paradigms has taken place.
 
=== o-stems ===
 
=== o-stems ===
 
{|class=wikitable style=text-align:center
 
{|class=wikitable style=text-align:center
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! colspan=3| ''vrk'' (m.) = wolf
 
! colspan=3| ''vrk'' (m.) = wolf
 
! colspan=3| ''loušná'' (f.) = moon, month
 
! colspan=3| ''loušná'' (f.) = moon, month
! colspan=3| ''oušta'' (n.) = mouth
+
! colspan=3| ''důra'' (n.) = gift
 
|-
 
|-
 
!
 
!
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|''vrk''||''vrků''||''vrké''
 
|''vrk''||''vrků''||''vrké''
 
|''loušná''||''loušné''||''loušnech''
 
|''loušná''||''loušné''||''loušnech''
|''oušta''||''oušté'' || ''ouštá''
+
|''důra''||''důré'' || ''důrá''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right"|'''Genitive'''
 
|align="right"|'''Genitive'''
|''vrkaš''|| ''vrkou'' ||''vrkou''
+
|''vrkaš''|| ''vrkáu'' ||''vrkou''
|''loušnech''|| ''loušnou'' ||''loušnou''
+
|''loušnech''|| ''loušnáu'' ||''loušnou''
|''ouštaš''|| ''ouštou'' ||''ouštou''
+
|''důraš''|| ''důráu'' ||''důrou''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Dative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Dative'''
 
|''vrkej'' ||''vrkabhou''  ||''vrkabh''
 
|''vrkej'' ||''vrkabhou''  ||''vrkabh''
 
|''loušnáj'' ||''loušnábhou'' ||''loušnábh''
 
|''loušnáj'' ||''loušnábhou'' ||''loušnábh''
|''ouštej'' ||''ouštabhou'' ||''ouštabh''
+
|''důrej'' ||''důrabhou'' ||''důrabh''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right"|'''Accusative'''
 
|align="right"|'''Accusative'''
 
|''vrka'' ||''vrků''||''vrkouch''
 
|''vrka'' ||''vrků''||''vrkouch''
|''loušnou''||''loušné'' ||''loušnech''
+
|''loušnou''||''loušné'' ||''loušnouch''
|''oušta''||''oušté'' ||''ouštá''
+
|''důra''||''důré'' ||''důrá''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right"|'''Ablative'''
 
|align="right"|'''Ablative'''
 
|''vrkách'' ||''vrkabhou''  ||''vrkabh''
 
|''vrkách'' ||''vrkabhou''  ||''vrkabh''
 
|''loušnách'' ||''loušnábhou'' ||''loušnábh''
 
|''loušnách'' ||''loušnábhou'' ||''loušnábh''
|''ouštách'' ||''ouštabhou'' ||''ouštabh''
+
|''důrách'' ||''důrabhou'' ||''důrabh''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right"|'''Instrumental'''
 
|align="right"|'''Instrumental'''
 
|''vrký'' ||''vrkabhí''  ||''vrkéch''
 
|''vrký'' ||''vrkabhí''  ||''vrkéch''
 
|''loušnajá'' ||''loušnábhí'' ||''loušnábhi''
 
|''loušnajá'' ||''loušnábhí'' ||''loušnábhi''
|''ouštý'' || ''ouštabhí'' ||''ouštéch''
+
|''důrý'' || ''důrabhí'' ||''důréch''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Locative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Locative'''
|''vrké'' || ''vrkou'' ||''vrkéš''
+
|''vrké'' || ''vrkáu'' ||''vrkéš''
|''loušné''||''loušnou''  ||''loušnáš''
+
|''loušné''||''loušnáu''  ||''loušnáš''
|''oušté'' || ''ouštou'' ||''ouštéš''
+
|''důré'' || ''důráu'' ||''důréš''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Vocative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Vocative'''
 
|''vrče!'' ||''vrků!''  ||''vrké!''
 
|''vrče!'' ||''vrků!''  ||''vrké!''
 
|''loušna!'' || ''loušné!''||''loušnech!''
 
|''loušna!'' || ''loušné!''||''loušnech!''
|''oušte!'' || ''oušté!'' ||''ouštá!''
+
|''důre!'' || ''důré!'' ||''důrá!''
 
|}
 
|}
  
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|align="right"|'''Nominative'''
 
|align="right"|'''Nominative'''
 
|''ageň'' ||''agňů''||''agňé''
 
|''ageň'' ||''agňů''||''agňé''
|''mať'' ||''maťé'' ||''maťech''
+
|''mať'' ||''maťé'' ||''matěch''
 
|''mař'' ||''mařé'' || ''maří''
 
|''mař'' ||''mařé'' || ''maří''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right"|'''Genitive'''
 
|align="right"|'''Genitive'''
|''agňéš'' || ''agňou''  ||''agňou''
+
|''agňéš'' || ''agňáu''  ||''agňou''
|''maťéch'' || ''maťou'' ||''maťou''
+
|''matěch'' || ''maťáu'' ||''maťou''
|''mařéš'' || ''mařou'' ||''mařou''
+
|''mařéš'' || ''mařáu'' ||''mařou''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Dative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Dative'''
|''agňej'' || ''agňébhou'' ||''agňebh''
+
|''agněj'' || ''agněbhou'' ||''agněbh''
|''maťáj'' || ''maťébhou'' ||''maťebh''
+
|''maťáj'' || ''matěbhou'' ||''matěbh''
|''mařej'' || ''mařébhou'' ||''mařebh''
+
|''mařej'' || ''mařebhou'' ||''mařebh''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right"|'''Accusative'''
 
|align="right"|'''Accusative'''
 
|''agni'' || ''agňů'' ||''agních''
 
|''agni'' || ''agňů'' ||''agních''
|''mati'' || ''maťé'' || ''maťech''
+
|''mati'' || ''maťé'' || ''matích''
 
|''mař'' || ''mařé'' ||''maří''
 
|''mař'' || ''mařé'' ||''maří''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right"|'''Ablative'''
 
|align="right"|'''Ablative'''
|''agňéch'' || ''agňébhou'' ||''agňebh''
+
|''agňéch'' || ''agněbhou'' ||''agněbh''
|''maťéch'' || ''maťébhou'' ||''maťebh''
+
|''maťéch'' || ''matěbhou'' ||''matěbh''
|''mařéch'' || ''mařébhou'' ||''mařebh''
+
|''mařéch'' || ''mařebhou'' ||''mařebh''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right"|'''Instrumental'''
 
|align="right"|'''Instrumental'''
|''agní'' || ''agňébhí'' ||''agňéch''
+
|''agní'' || ''agněbhí'' ||''agňéch''
|''matijá'' || ''maťébhí'' ||''maťábhi''
+
|''matijá'' || ''matěbhí'' ||''matěbhi''
|''maří'' || ''mařébhí'' || ''mařéch''
+
|''maří'' || ''mařebhí'' || ''mařéch''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Locative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Locative'''
|''agňé'' || ''agňou'' ||''agníš''
+
|''agňé'' || ''agňáu'' ||''agníš''
|''maťé'' || ''maťou'' ||''matíš''
+
|''maťé'' || ''maťáu'' ||''matíš''
|''mařé'' || ''mařou'' ||''maříš''
+
|''mařé'' || ''mařáu'' ||''maříš''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Vocative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Vocative'''
|''agňe!'' || ''agňů!'' ||''agňé!''
+
|''agně!'' || ''agňů!'' ||''agňé!''
|''maťi!'' || ''maťé!'' ||''maťech!''
+
|''mati!'' || ''maťé!'' ||''matěch!''
 
|''maře!'' || ''mařé!'' ||''maří!''
 
|''maře!'' || ''mařé!'' ||''maří!''
 
|}
 
|}
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|-
 
|-
 
|align="right"|'''Genitive'''
 
|align="right"|'''Genitive'''
|''patních'' || ''patnijou''  ||''patnijou''
+
|''patních'' || ''patnijáu''  ||''patnijou''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Dative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Dative'''
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|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Locative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Locative'''
|''patnijé'' || ''patnijou'' ||''patníš''
+
|''patnijé'' || ''patnijáu'' ||''patníš''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Vocative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Vocative'''
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|-
 
|-
 
|align="right"|'''Genitive'''
 
|align="right"|'''Genitive'''
|''avýjouš'' || ''avýjavou'' ||''avýjavou''
+
|''avýjouš'' || ''avýjaváu'' ||''avýjavou''
|''žouštouch'' || ''žouštavou'' ||''žouštavou''
+
|''žouštouch'' || ''žouštaváu'' ||''žouštavou''
|''medhouš'' || ''medhavou'' ||''medhavou''
+
|''medhouš'' || ''medhaváu'' ||''medhavou''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Dative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Dative'''
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|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Locative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Locative'''
|''avýjáu, avýjavi'' || ''avýjavou'' ||''avýjúš''
+
|''avýjáu, avýjavi'' || ''avýjaváu'' ||''avýjúš''
|''žouštáu, žouštavi'' || ''žouštavou'' ||''žouštúš''
+
|''žouštáu, žouštavi'' || ''žouštaváu'' ||''žouštúš''
|''medháu, medhavi'' || ''medhavou'' ||''medhúš''
+
|''medháu, medhavi'' || ''medhaváu'' ||''medhúš''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Vocative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Vocative'''
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|-
 
|-
 
|align="right"|'''Genitive'''
 
|align="right"|'''Genitive'''
|''žmenaš''|| ''žmenou'' ||''žmenou''
+
|''žmenaš''|| ''žmenáu'' ||''žmenou''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Dative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Dative'''
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|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Locative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Locative'''
|''žmeni, žmené'' || ''žmenou'' ||''žmenaš''
+
|''žmeni, žmené'' || ''žmenáu'' ||''žmenaš''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Vocative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Vocative'''
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|-
 
|-
 
|align="right"|'''Genitive'''
 
|align="right"|'''Genitive'''
|''vnamenaš''|| ''vnamenou'' ||''vnamenou''
+
|''vnamenaš''|| ''vnamenáu'' ||''vnamenou''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Dative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Dative'''
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|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Locative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Locative'''
|''vnameni, vnamené'' || ''vnamenou'' ||''vnamenaš''
+
|''vnameni, vnamené'' || ''vnamenáu'' ||''vnamenaš''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Vocative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Vocative'''
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|-
 
|-
 
|align="right"|'''Genitive'''
 
|align="right"|'''Genitive'''
|''andhes, andhesaš''|| ''andhesou'' ||''andhesou''
+
|''andhes, andhesaš''|| ''andhesáu'' ||''andhesou''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Dative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Dative'''
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|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Locative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Locative'''
|''andhesi, andhesé'' || ''andhesou'' ||''andhesaš''
+
|''andhesi, andhesé'' || ''andhesáu'' ||''andhesaš''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Vocative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Vocative'''
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=== -ýr nouns ===
 
=== -ýr nouns ===
TODO: Family members ''patýr, mátýr, bhrátýr, svesýr, sún, duhatýr''
+
TODO: Family members ''patýr, mátýr, bhrátýr, svesýr, duhatýr''
 
+
==== Masculine ====
 
{|class=wikitable style=text-align:center
 
{|class=wikitable style=text-align:center
 
|-
 
|-
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|-
 
|-
 
|align="right"|'''Genitive'''
 
|align="right"|'''Genitive'''
|''patreš''|| ''patrou'' ||''patrou''
+
|''patreš''|| ''patráu'' ||''patrou''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Dative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Dative'''
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|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Locative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Locative'''
|''patři, patré'' || ''patrou'' ||''patrš''
+
|''patři, patré'' || ''patráu'' ||''patrš''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Vocative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Vocative'''
 
|''patre!'' ||''paterů!''  ||''pateré!''
 
|''patre!'' ||''paterů!''  ||''pateré!''
 
|}
 
|}
 +
==== Feminine ====
 +
 
=== Irregulars ===
 
=== Irregulars ===
 
{|class=wikitable style=text-align:center
 
{|class=wikitable style=text-align:center
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|-
 
|-
 
|align="right"|'''Genitive'''
 
|align="right"|'''Genitive'''
|''gouch''||''gavou''||''gavou''
+
|''gouch''||''gaváu''||''gavou''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Dative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Dative'''
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|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Locative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Locative'''
|''gavé'' || ''gavou'' ||''gouš''
+
|''gavé'' || ''gaváu'' ||''gouš''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Vocative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Vocative'''
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==Pronouns==
 
==Pronouns==
 +
=== Personal ===
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center;" width=500px
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center;" width=500px
 
! rowspan=2 | case || rowspan=2 | 1sg. || rowspan=2 | 2sg. || colspan=3 | 3sg. ||rowspan=2|reflexive
 
! rowspan=2 | case || rowspan=2 | 1sg. || rowspan=2 | 2sg. || colspan=3 | 3sg. ||rowspan=2|reflexive
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|-
 
|-
 
! acc.
 
! acc.
| '', me'' || ''tý, te'' || ''ta'' || ''tou'' || ''tach'' || ''sý, se''
+
| ''jmý'' (stressed), ''me'' (unstressed) || ''tý'' (stressed), ''te'' (unstressed) || ''ta'' || ''tou'' || ''tach'' || ''sý'' (stressed), ''se'' (unstressed)
 
|-
 
|-
 
! gen.
 
! gen.
| ''maná'' || ''tvaná'' || ''taš'' || ''tech'' || ''taš'' || ''svaná''
+
| ''jmaná'' || ''tvaná'' || ''taš'' || ''tech'' || ''taš'' || ''svaná''
 +
|-
 +
! poss.
 +
| ''jmák, jmanák'' || ''tvák, tvanák'' || ''"'' || ''"'' || ''"'' || ''svák, svanák''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! dat.
 
! dat.
| ''meži'', '''' || ''tebhi'', ''té'' || ''tasmej'' || ''tašáj, táj'' || ''tasmej'' || ''sebhi, sé''
+
| ''jmeži'', ''jmé'' || ''tebhi'', ''té'' || ''tasmej'' || ''tašáj, táj'' || ''tasmej'' || ''sebhi, sé''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! abl.
 
! abl.
| ''mežách'', ''mách'' || ''tebhách'', ''tvách'' || ''tasmách'' || ''tašách'' || ''tasmách'' || ''sebhách, svách''
+
| ''jmežách'', ''jmách'' || ''tebhách'', ''tvách'' || ''tasmách'' || ''tašách'' || ''tasmách'' || ''sebhách, svách''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! ins.
 
! ins.
| ''maný'' (m), ''majá'' (f) || ''tvaný'' (m/n), ''tvajá'' (f) || ''taný'' || ''tajá'' || ''taný'' || ''svaný'' (m/n), ''svajá'' (f)
+
| ''jmaný'' (m), ''jmajá'' (f) || ''tvaný'' (m/n), ''tvajá'' (f) || ''taný'' || ''tajá'' || ''taný'' || ''svaný'' (m/n), ''svajá'' (f)
 
|-
 
|-
 
! loc.
 
! loc.
| ''maji'' || ''tvaji'' || ''tasmi'' || ''tašé'' || ''tasmi'' || ''svaji''
+
| ''jmaji'' || ''tvaji'' || ''tasmi'' || ''tašé'' || ''tasmi'' || ''svaji''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! rowspan=2 | case ||rowspan=2| 1du. || rowspan=2 | 2du. || colspan="3" | 3du.  
 
! rowspan=2 | case ||rowspan=2| 1du. || rowspan=2 | 2du. || colspan="3" | 3du.  
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|-
 
|-
 
! gen.
 
! gen.
| ''nájou'' || ''jújou'' || ''tou'' || ''tou'' || ''tou''
+
| ''nájáu'' || ''jújáu'' || ''táu'' || ''táu'' || ''táu''
 +
|-
 +
! poss.
 +
| ''náják'' || ''júják'' || ''"'' || ''"'' || ''"''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! dat.
 
! dat.
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|-
 
|-
 
! loc.
 
! loc.
| ''nájou'' || ''jújou'' || ''tou'' || ''tou'' || ''tou''
+
| ''nájáu'' || ''jújáu'' || ''téjáu'' || ''tájáu'' || ''téjáu''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! rowspan=2 | case ||rowspan=2| 1pl. || rowspan=2 | 2pl. || colspan="3" | 3pl.  
 
! rowspan=2 | case ||rowspan=2| 1pl. || rowspan=2 | 2pl. || colspan="3" | 3pl.  
Line 574: Line 590:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! acc.
 
! acc.
| ''nas'' || ''jus'' || ''touch'' || ''tech'' || ''tá''
+
| ''nas'' || ''jus'' || ''touch'' || ''touch'' || ''tá''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! gen.
 
! gen.
| ''nasmou'' || ''jusmou'' || ''téšou'' || ''tášou'' || ''téšou''
+
| ''nasmou'' || ''jušmou'' || ''téšou'' || ''tášou'' || ''téšou''
 +
|-
 +
! poss.
 +
| ''nasmák'' || ''jušmák'' || ''"'' || ''"'' || ''"''  
 
|-
 
|-
 
! dat.
 
! dat.
| ''nábh, nasmabh'' || ''júbh, jusmabh'' || ''tébh'' || ''tábh'' || ''tébh''  
+
| ''nábh, nasmabh'' || ''júbh, jušmabh'' || ''tébh'' || ''tábh'' || ''tébh''  
 
|-
 
|-
 
! abl.
 
! abl.
| ''nábh, nasmabh'' || ''júbh, jusmabh'' || ''tébh'' || ''tábh'' || ''tébh''  
+
| ''nábh, nasmabh'' || ''júbh, jušmabh'' || ''tébh'' || ''tábh'' || ''tébh''  
 
|-
 
|-
 
! ins.
 
! ins.
Line 589: Line 608:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! loc.
 
! loc.
| ''nasméš'' || ''jusméš'' || ''téš'' || ''táš'' || ''téš''  
+
| ''nasméš'' || ''jušméš'' || ''téš'' || ''táš'' || ''téš''  
 
|}
 
|}
 +
The possessive pronouns ''m(an)ák, tv(an)ák, sv(an)ák, nasmák, jušmák'' decline as ''o''-stem adjectives. Other pronouns use the genitive form.
 +
 +
=== Demonstrative ===
 
Demonstratives: ši, ší, šich (distance-neutral)
 
Demonstratives: ši, ší, šich (distance-neutral)
  
Line 599: Line 621:
 
==Adjectives==
 
==Adjectives==
 
=== o-stem adjectives ===
 
=== o-stem adjectives ===
 +
==== Hard ====
 
{|class=wikitable style=text-align:center
 
{|class=wikitable style=text-align:center
 
|+ Declension of ''jsúrt'' 'good' (from *h₁su-h₂r-tós 'well-ordered')
 
|+ Declension of ''jsúrt'' 'good' (from *h₁su-h₂r-tós 'well-ordered')
Line 624: Line 647:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right"|'''Genitive'''
 
|align="right"|'''Genitive'''
|''jsúrtaš''|| ''jsúrtou'' ||''jsúrtou''
+
|''jsúrtaš''|| ''jsúrtáu'' ||''jsúrtou''
|''jsúrtech''|| ''jsúrtou'' ||''jsúrtou''
+
|''jsúrtech''|| ''jsúrtáu'' ||''jsúrtou''
|''jsúrtaš''|| ''jsúrtou'' ||''jsúrtou''
+
|''jsúrtaš''|| ''jsúrtáu'' ||''jsúrtou''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Dative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Dative'''
Line 635: Line 658:
 
|align="right"|'''Accusative'''
 
|align="right"|'''Accusative'''
 
|''jsúrta'' ||''jsúrtů''||''jsúrtouch''
 
|''jsúrta'' ||''jsúrtů''||''jsúrtouch''
|''jsúrtou''||''jsúrté'' ||''jsúrtech''
+
|''jsúrtou''||''jsúrté'' ||''jsúrtouch''
 
|''jsúrta''||''jsúrté'' ||''jsúrtá''
 
|''jsúrta''||''jsúrté'' ||''jsúrtá''
 
|-
 
|-
Line 649: Line 672:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Locative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Locative'''
|''jsúrtami'' || ''jsúrtou'' ||''jsúrtéš''
+
|''jsúrtami'' || ''jsúrtáu'' ||''jsúrtéš''
|''jsúrté''||''jsúrtou''  ||''jsúrtáš''
+
|''jsúrté''||''jsúrtáu''  ||''jsúrtáš''
|''jsúrtami'' || ''jsúrtou'' ||''jsúrtéš''
+
|''jsúrtami'' || ''jsúrtáu'' ||''jsúrtéš''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Vocative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Vocative'''
Line 658: Line 681:
 
|''jsúrta''||''jsúrté'' || ''jsúrtá''
 
|''jsúrta''||''jsúrté'' || ''jsúrtá''
 
|}
 
|}
=== 3rd-declension adjectives ===
+
 
 +
==== Soft ====
 +
 
 
=== u-stem adjectives ===
 
=== u-stem adjectives ===
 
{|class=wikitable style=text-align:center
 
{|class=wikitable style=text-align:center
Line 685: Line 710:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right"|'''Genitive'''
 
|align="right"|'''Genitive'''
|''jvesouš''|| ''jvesavou'' ||''jvesavou''
+
|''jvesouš''|| ''jvesaváu'' ||''jvesavou''
|''jvesích''|| ''jvesijou'' ||''jvesijou''
+
|''jvesích''|| ''jvesijáu'' ||''jvesijou''
|''jvesouš''|| ''jvesavou'' ||''jvesavou''
+
|''jvesouš''|| ''jvesaváu'' ||''jvesavou''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Dative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Dative'''
Line 710: Line 735:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Locative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Locative'''
|''jvesumi'' || ''jvesavou'' ||''jvesúš''
+
|''jvesumi'' || ''jvesaváu'' ||''jvesúš''
|''jvesijé''||''jvesijou''  ||''jvesíš''
+
|''jvesijé''||''jvesijáu''  ||''jvesíš''
|''jvesumi'' || ''jvesavou'' ||''jvesúš''
+
|''jvesumi'' || ''jvesaváu'' ||''jvesúš''
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align="right" |'''Vocative'''
 
|align="right" |'''Vocative'''
Line 719: Line 744:
 
|''jvesu''||''jvesavé'' || ''jvesú''
 
|''jvesu''||''jvesavé'' || ''jvesú''
 
|}
 
|}
 
+
=== Participles ===
==Verbs==
+
{|class=wikitable style=text-align:center
===Affixes===
+
|+ Declension of ''jsas'' 'being'
TODO: optative endings
 
 
 
Infinitive ''-ti'' from -tey, like in Balto-Slavic
 
{{col-begin}}
 
{{col-n}}
 
Primary endings
 
 
 
Indicative
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
 
|-
 
|-
!rowspan="2"|
+
!
!colspan="3"| Active
+
! colspan=3| masc.
!colspan="3"| Passive
+
! colspan=3| fem.
 +
! colspan=3| neut.
 
|-
 
|-
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural  !! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
+
!
 +
!singular
 +
!dual
 +
!plural
 +
!singular
 +
!dual
 +
!plural
 +
!singular
 +
!dual
 +
!plural
 
|-
 
|-
! 1st
+
|align="right"|'''Nominative'''
| ''-ů, -m, -mi'' || ''-va'' || ''-me'' || '''' || ''-vahé'' || ''-mahé''
+
|''jsas''||''jsantů''||''jsanté''
 +
|''jsantí''||''jsantijé''||''jsantích''
 +
|''jsan''||''jsanté'' || ''jsantá''
 
|-
 
|-
! 2nd
+
|align="right"|'''Genitive'''
| ''-š, -si'' || ''-ta'' || ''-te'' || ''-sé'' || ''-tahé'' || ''-hvé''
+
|''jsantaš''||''jsantáu''||''jsantou''
 +
|''jsantích''||''jsantijáu''||''jsantijou''
 +
|''jsantaš''||''jsantáu'' || ''jsantou''
 
|-
 
|-
! 3rd
+
|align="right"|'''Dative'''
| ''-t'' || ''-tou'' || ''-nt'' || ''-té'' || ''-touhé'' || ''-nté''
+
|''jsantam''||''jsantabhou''||''jsantabh''
 +
|''jsantí''||''jsantíbhou''||''jsantíbh''
 +
|''jsantam''||''jsantabhou'' || ''jsantabh''
 
|-
 
|-
|}
+
|align="right"|'''Accusative'''
{{col-n}}
+
|''jsanta''||''jsantů''||''jsantech''
Secondary endings
+
|''jsantí''||''jsantijé''||''jsantích''
 
+
|''jsan''||''jsanté'' || ''jsantá''
Indicative
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
 
|-
 
|-
!rowspan="2"|
+
|align="right"|'''Ablative'''
!colspan="3"| Active
+
|''jsantách''||''jsantabhou''||''jsantabh''
!colspan="3"| Passive
+
|''jsantích''||''jsantíbhou''||''jsantíbh''
 +
|''jsantách''||''jsantabhou'' || ''jsantabh''
 
|-
 
|-
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural  !! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
+
|align="right"|'''Instrumental'''
|-
+
|''jsantý''||''jsantabhí''||''jsantéch''
! 1st
+
|''jsantijá''||''jsantíbhí''||''jsantíbhi''
| -á- > -ou, -(e)je > -í, -je > -ji || ''-va'' || ''-me'' || ''-má'' || ''-vaha'' || ''-maha''
+
|''jsantý''||''jsantabhí'' || ''jsantéch''
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''-ch'' || ''-ta'' || ''-te'' || ''-tá'' || ''-taha'' || ''-hva''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''-Ø'' || ''-tou'' || ''-n'' || ''-ta'' || ''-touha'' || ''-anta''
 
 
|-
 
|-
 +
|align="right"|'''Locative'''
 +
|''jsantami''||''jsantáu''||''jsantéš''
 +
|''jsantijé''||''jsantijáu''||''jsantíš''
 +
|''jsantami''||''jsantáu'' || ''jsantéš''
 
|}
 
|}
{{col-n}}
 
Imperative endings
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!rowspan="2"|
 
!colspan="3"| Active
 
!colspan="3"| Passive
 
|-
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural  !! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''-'' || ''-'' || ''-'' || ''-'' || ''-'' || ''-''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''-Ø, -dhi'' || ''-ta'' || ''-te'' || ''-se'' || ''-tá'' || ''-hvá''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''-tu'' || ''-tou'' || ''-ntu'' || ''-tá'' || ''-toudhá'' || ''-antá''
 
|-
 
|}
 
{{col-end}}
 
  
===Verb classes===
+
==Verbs==
Past perfective comes from PIE perfects or root aorists
+
{{main|Sebatian/Verbs}}
==== Nasal infix class ====
 
Infinitive: ''jugti'' = to join, to connect
 
 
 
Gerundive: ''jugtí (jest)''
 
 
 
Participles:
 
*''jungas, junganť'' = pres. active participle
 
*''jungamin'' = passive participle
 
*''jungšas, jungšanť'' = future active ptcp.
 
 
 
Primary conjugation
 
 
 
Present indicative
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!rowspan="2"|
 
!colspan="3"| Active
 
!colspan="3"| Passive
 
|-
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural  !! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''jungů'' || ''jungava'' || ''jungame'' || ''jungé'' || ''jungavahé'' || ''jungamahé''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''jundžeš'' || ''jundžeta'' || ''jundžete'' || ''jundžesé'' || ''jundžetahé'' || ''jundžehvé''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''jundžet'' || ''jundžetou'' || ''jungant'' || ''jundžeté'' || ''jundžetouhé'' || ''junganté''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
Secondary conjugation
 
 
 
Imperfect indicative
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!rowspan="2"|
 
!colspan="3"| Active
 
!colspan="3"| Passive
 
|-
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural  !! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''jejugou'' || ''jejugava'' || ''jejugame'' || ''jejugamá'' || ''jejugavaha'' || ''jejugamaha''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''jejudžech'' || ''jejudžeta'' || ''jejudžete'' || ''jejudžešá'' || ''jejudžetaha'' || ''jejudžehvé''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''jejudže'' || ''jejudžetou'' || ''jejugan'' || ''jejudžeta'' || ''jejudžetouha'' || ''jejuganta''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
Future indicative
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!rowspan="2"|
 
!colspan="3"| Active
 
!colspan="3"| Passive
 
|-
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural  !! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''jungšů'' || ''jungšava'' || ''jungšame'' || ''jungšé'' || ''jungšavahé'' || ''jungšamahé''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''jungšaš'' || ''jungšata'' || ''jungšate'' || ''jungšasé'' || ''jungšatahé'' || ''jungšahvé''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''jungšat'' || ''jungšatou'' || ''jungšant'' || ''jungšaté'' || ''jungšatouhé'' || ''jungšanté''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
Imperative endings
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!rowspan="2"|
 
!colspan="3"| Active
 
!colspan="3"| Passive
 
|-
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural  !! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''-'' || ''jungava!'' || ''jungame!'' || ''-'' || ''jungavá!'' || ''jungamahá!''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''jundže! jundžedhi!'' || ''jundžeta!'' || ''jundžete!'' || ''jundžese!'' || ''jundžetá!'' || ''jundžehvé!''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''jundžetu!'' || ''jundžetou!'' || ''jungantu!'' || ''jundžetá!'' || ''jundžetouhá!'' || ''jungantá!''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
==== ''-áti'' verbs ====
 
Infinitive: ''šventáti'' = to worship
 
 
 
Gerundive: ''šventátí (jest)''
 
 
 
Participles:
 
*''šventous, šventánť'' = pres. active participle
 
*''šventámin'' = passive participle
 
*''šventášas, šventášanť'' = future active ptcp.
 
Primary conjugation
 
 
 
Present indicative
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!rowspan="2"|
 
!colspan="3"| Active
 
!colspan="3"| Passive
 
|-
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural  !! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''šventám'' || ''šventáva'' || ''šventáme'' || ''šventé'' || ''šventávahé'' || ''šventámahé''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''šventáš'' || ''šventáta'' || ''šventáte'' || ''šventásé'' || ''šventátahé'' || ''šventáhvé''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''šventát'' || ''šventátou'' || ''šventánt'' || ''šventáté'' || ''šventátouhé'' || ''šventánté''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
Secondary conjugation
 
 
 
Imperfect indicative
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!rowspan="2"|
 
!colspan="3"| Active
 
!colspan="3"| Passive
 
|-
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural  !! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''ješventou'' || ''ješventáva'' || ''ješventáme'' || ''ješventámá'' || ''ješventávaha'' || ''ješventámaha''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''ješventách'' || ''ješventáta'' || ''ješventáte'' || ''ješventášá'' || ''ješventátaha'' || ''ješventáhvé''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''ješventá'' || ''ješventátou'' || ''ješventán'' || ''ješventáta'' || ''ješventátouha'' || ''ješventánta''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
Future indicative
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!rowspan="2"|
 
!colspan="3"| Active
 
!colspan="3"| Passive
 
|-
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural  !! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''šventášů'' || ''šventášava'' || ''šventášame'' || ''šventášé'' || ''šventášavahé'' || ''šventášamahé''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''šventášaš'' || ''šventášata'' || ''šventášate'' || ''šventášasé'' || ''šventášatahé'' || ''šventášahvé''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''šventášat'' || ''šventášatou'' || ''šventášant'' || ''šventášaté'' || ''šventášatouhé'' || ''šventášanté''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
Imperative endings
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!rowspan="2"|
 
!colspan="3"| Active
 
!colspan="3"| Passive
 
|-
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural  !! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''-'' || ''šventáva!'' || ''šventáme!'' || ''-'' || ''šventává!'' || ''šventámahá!''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''šventá! šventádhi!'' || ''šventáta!'' || ''šventáte!'' || ''šventáse!'' || ''šventátá!'' || ''šventáhvé!''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''šventátu!'' || ''šventátou!'' || ''šventántu!'' || ''šventátá!'' || ''šventátouhá!'' || ''šventántá!''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
==== -ejeti ====
 
Infinitive: ''harejeti'' = to anger
 
 
 
Gerundive: ''harejetí (jest)''
 
 
 
Participles:
 
*''harejas, harejanť'' = pres. active participle
 
*''harejamin'' = passive participle
 
*''haréšas, haréšanť'' = future active ptcp.
 
 
 
Primary conjugation
 
 
 
Present indicative
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!rowspan="2"|
 
!colspan="3"| Active
 
!colspan="3"| Passive
 
|-
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural  !! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''harejů'' || ''harejava'' || ''harejame'' || ''harejé'' || ''harejavahé'' || ''harejamahé''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''hareješ'' || ''harejeta'' || ''harejete'' || ''harejesé'' || ''harejetahé'' || ''harejehvé''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''harejet'' || ''harejetou'' || ''harejant'' || ''harejeté'' || ''harejetouhé'' || ''harejanté''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
Secondary conjugation
 
 
 
Imperfect indicative
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!rowspan="2"|
 
!colspan="3"| Active
 
!colspan="3"| Passive
 
|-
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural  !! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''jejugou'' || ''jejugava'' || ''jejugame'' || ''jejugamá'' || ''jejugavaha'' || ''jejugamaha''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''jejudžech'' || ''jejudžeta'' || ''jejudžete'' || ''jejudžešá'' || ''jejudžetaha'' || ''jejudžehvé''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''jejudže'' || ''jejudžetou'' || ''jejugan'' || ''jejudžeta'' || ''jejudžetouha'' || ''jejuganta''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
Future indicative
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!rowspan="2"|
 
!colspan="3"| Active
 
!colspan="3"| Passive
 
|-
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural  !! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''jungšů'' || ''jungšava'' || ''jungšame'' || ''jungšé'' || ''jungšavahé'' || ''jungšamahé''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''jungšaš'' || ''jungšata'' || ''jungšate'' || ''jungšasé'' || ''jungšatahé'' || ''jungšahvé''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''jungšat'' || ''jungšatou'' || ''jungšant'' || ''jungšaté'' || ''jungšatouhé'' || ''jungšanté''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
Imperative endings
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!rowspan="2"|
 
!colspan="3"| Active
 
!colspan="3"| Passive
 
|-
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural  !! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''-'' || ''jungava!'' || ''jungame!'' || ''-'' || ''jungavá!'' || ''jungamahá!''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''jundže! jundžedhi!'' || ''jundžeta!'' || ''jundžete!'' || ''jundžese!'' || ''jundžetá!'' || ''jundžehvé!''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''jundžetu!'' || ''jundžetou!'' || ''jungantu!'' || ''jundžetá!'' || ''jundžetouhá!'' || ''jungantá!''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
==== -jeti ====
 
Infinitive: ''ašoušeti'' = to hear
 
 
 
Gerundive: ''ašoušetí (jest)''
 
 
 
Participles:
 
* ašoušís, ašoušenť = pres. active participle
 
* ašoušemin = passive participle
 
* ašouššas, ašouššanť = future active ptcp.
 
 
 
Primary conjugation
 
 
 
Present indicative
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!rowspan="2"|
 
!colspan="3"| Active
 
!colspan="3"| Passive
 
|-
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural  !! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''ašoušem'' || ''ašouševa'' || ''ašoušeme'' || ''ašoušé'' || ''ašouševahé'' || ''ašoušemahé''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''ašoušeš'' || ''ašoušeta'' || ''ašoušete'' || ''ašoušesé'' || ''ašoušetahé'' || ''ašoušehvé''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''ašoušet'' || ''ašoušetou'' || ''ašoušent'' || ''ašoušeté'' || ''ašoušetouhé'' || ''ašoušenté''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
Secondary conjugation
 
 
 
Imperfect indicative
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!rowspan="2"|
 
!colspan="3"| Active
 
!colspan="3"| Passive
 
|-
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural  !! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''jášouší'' || ''jášouševa'' || ''jášoušeme'' || ''jášoušemá'' || ''jášouševaha'' || ''jášoušemaha''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''jášoušech'' || ''jášoušeta'' || ''jášoušete'' || ''jášoušešá'' || ''jášoušetaha'' || ''jášoušehvé''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''jášouše'' || ''jášoušetou'' || ''jášoušen'' || ''jášoušeta'' || ''jášoušetouha'' || ''jášoušenta''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
Future indicative
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!rowspan="2"|
 
!colspan="3"| Active
 
!colspan="3"| Passive
 
|-
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural  !! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''ašouššů'' || ''ašouššava'' || ''ašouššame'' || ''ašouššé'' || ''ašouššavahé'' || ''ašouššamahé''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''ašouššaš'' || ''ašouššata'' || ''ašouššate'' || ''ašouššasé'' || ''ašouššatahé'' || ''ašouššahvé''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''ašouššat'' || ''ašouššatou'' || ''ašouššant'' || ''ašouššaté'' || ''ašouššatouhé'' || ''ašouššanté''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
Imperative endings
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!rowspan="2"|
 
!colspan="3"| Active
 
!colspan="3"| Passive
 
|-
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural  !! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''-'' || ''ašouševa!'' || ''ašoušeme!'' || ''-'' || ''ašouševá!'' || ''ašoušemahá!''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''ašouše! ašoušedhi!'' || ''ašoušeta!'' || ''ašoušete!'' || ''ašoušese!'' || ''ašoušetá!'' || ''ašoušehvé!''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''ašoušetu!'' || ''ašoušetou!'' || ''ašoušentu!'' || ''ašoušetá!'' || ''ašoušetouhá!'' || ''ašoušentá!''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
==== Thematic root class ====
 
Infinitive: ''bensti'' = to bind
 
 
 
Gerundive: ''benstí (jest)''
 
 
 
Participles:
 
*''bendhas, bendhanť'' = pres. active participle
 
*''bandhamin'' = passive participle
 
*''benšas, benšanť'' = future active ptcp.
 
Primary conjugation
 
 
 
Present indicative
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!rowspan="2"|
 
!colspan="3"| Active
 
!colspan="3"| Passive
 
|-
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural  !! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''bendhů'' || ''bendhava'' || ''bendhame'' || ''bendhé'' || ''bendhavahé'' || ''bendhamahé''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''bendheš'' || ''bendheta'' || ''bendhete'' || ''bendhesé'' || ''bendhetahé'' || ''bendhehvé''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''bendhet'' || ''bendhetou'' || ''bendhant'' || ''bendheté'' || ''bendhetouhé'' || ''bendhanté''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
Secondary conjugation
 
 
 
Imperfect indicative
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!rowspan="2"|
 
!colspan="3"| Active
 
!colspan="3"| Passive
 
|-
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural  !! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''jebendhou'' || ''jebendhava'' || ''jebendhame'' || ''jebendhamá'' || ''jebendhavaha'' || ''jebendhamaha''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''jebendhech'' || ''jebendheta'' || ''jebendhete'' || ''jebendhešá'' || ''jebendhetaha'' || ''jebendhehva''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''jebendhe'' || ''jebendhetou'' || ''jebendhan'' || ''jebendheta'' || ''jebendhetouha'' || ''jebendhanta''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
Future indicative
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!rowspan="2"|
 
!colspan="3"| Active
 
!colspan="3"| Passive
 
|-
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural  !! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''benšů'' || ''benšava'' || ''benšame'' || ''benšé'' || ''benšavahé'' || ''benšamahé''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''benšaš'' || ''benšata'' || ''benšate'' || ''benšasé'' || ''benšatahé'' || ''benšahvé''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''benšat'' || ''benšatou'' || ''benšant'' || ''benšaté'' || ''benšatouhé'' || ''benšanté''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
Imperative endings
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!rowspan="2"|
 
!colspan="3"| Active
 
!colspan="3"| Passive
 
|-
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural  !! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''-'' || ''bendhava!'' || ''bendhame!'' || ''-'' || ''bendhavá!'' || ''bendhamahá!''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''bendhe!'' || ''bendheta!'' || ''bendhete!'' || ''bendhese!'' || ''bendhetá!'' || ''bendhehvé!''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''bendhetu!'' || ''bendhetou!'' || ''bendhantu!'' || ''bendhetá!'' || ''bendhetouhá!'' || ''bendhantá!''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
==== Root athematic ====
 
*důti (to give): dedům, dedůš, dedůt, ..., dedůnt
 
*státi (to stand): sestám, sestáš, sestát, ..., sestánt
 
*dhýti (to do): dedhým, dedhýš, dedhýt, ..., dedhýnt
 
*bháti (to say): bebhám, bebháš, bebhát, ..., bebhánt
 
* ''anešti'' (to get): ''anešmi, anešši, anešt, anešva, anešta, aneštou, anešme, anešte, anešant
 
 
 
==== ''bhúti'' 'to be' ====
 
Infinitive: ''bhúti''
 
 
 
Gerundive: ''bhútí (jest)''
 
 
 
Participles:
 
*present ''jsas'' (m), ''jsanť'' (f)
 
*future ''bhúšas, bhúšanť''
 
 
 
Present
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!|
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''jesmi'' || ''jsva'' || ''jsme''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''jesi'' || ''jsta'' || ''jste''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''jest'' || ''jstou'' || ''jsant''
 
|-
 
|}
 
Forms beginning with ''js-'' are pronounced with [çs-] if not after a vowel. (The ''j'' is a reflex of PIE h₁.)
 
 
 
Future
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!|
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''bhúšů'' || ''bhúšava'' || ''bhúšame''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''bhúšaš'' || ''bhúšata'' || ''bhúšate''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''bhúšat'' || ''bhúšatou'' || ''bhúšant''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
Past ipfv.
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!|
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''jebhúm'' || ''jebhúva'' || ''jebhúme''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''jebhúch'' || ''jebhúta'' || ''jebhúte''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''jebhú'' || ''jebhútou'' || ''jebhún''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
Optative
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!|
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''bhújám'' || ''bhújáva'' || ''bhújáme''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''bhújáš'' || ''bhújáta'' || ''bhújáte''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''bhúját'' || ''bhújátou'' || ''bhújánt''
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
Imperative
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
|-
 
!
 
! Singular !! Dual!! Plural
 
|-
 
! 1st
 
| ''-'' || ''bhúva!'' || ''bhúme!''
 
|-
 
! 2nd
 
| ''bhú! bhúdhi!'' || ''bhúta!'' || ''bhúte!''
 
|-
 
! 3rd
 
| ''bhútu!'' || ''bhútou!'' || ''bhúntu!''
 
|-
 
|}
 
  
 
== Numerals ==
 
== Numerals ==
Line 1,399: Line 838:
  
 
==Syntax==
 
==Syntax==
Ilithian has unmarked order SOV: 'The woman sings the song' is ''Džená gájma gájet''. (Using ''gájma'' 'song' as an object of ''gájeti'' 'to sing' implies specificity. 'Sings a (nonspecific) song' would simply be ''gájet''.)
+
Sebatian has unmarked order SOV: 'The woman sings the song' is ''Džená gájma gájet''. (Using ''gájma'' 'song' as an object of ''gájeti'' 'to sing' implies specificity. 'Sings a (nonspecific) song' would simply be ''gájet''.)
  
Ilithian is topic-prominent, so the topic comes first:
+
Sebatian is topic-prominent, so the topic comes first:
 
*''Džená gájma gájet'' = The woman sings the song (cf. ''Onna wa uta wo utau'')
 
*''Džená gájma gájet'' = The woman sings the song (cf. ''Onna wa uta wo utau'')
 
*''Gájma gájet džená'' = The song is sung by a woman/The *woman* sings the song (cf. ''Uta wa onna ga utau'')
 
*''Gájma gájet džená'' = The song is sung by a woman/The *woman* sings the song (cf. ''Uta wa onna ga utau'')
 
*''Žmenou dvů jstou'' = There are two people/Of people, there are two (cf. ''Hito wa futari ga iru'')
 
*''Žmenou dvů jstou'' = There are two people/Of people, there are two (cf. ''Hito wa futari ga iru'')
 
*''Tam švů jest'' = He has a dog (cf. Jp. ''Kare wa inu ga iru'')
 
*''Tam švů jest'' = He has a dog (cf. Jp. ''Kare wa inu ga iru'')
The ''-č'' or ''-če'' Wackernagel clitic ('and' in Classical Ilithian) becomes an explicit topic particle in later forms of Ilithian.
+
The ''-č'' or ''-če'' Wackernagel clitic ('and' in Classical Sebatian) becomes an explicit topic particle in later forms of Sebatian.
  
 
==Sample text==
 
==Sample text==
=== Ilithian textbook ===
+
=== UDHR ===
 +
''Višvé žmené svapátěbhi ženijánté; téšou jsutvrtitáť andoušijéče lígé jsant.''
 +
 
 +
=== Sebatian textbook ===
 
==== Lesson 2 ====
 
==== Lesson 2 ====
''Ši vír jest. Vír Jsužen rekté, taš vnama Jsužen jest. Šíč džená jest. Džená Ouháľá rekté. Jsužen Ouháľech pať jest, Ouháľáč Jsuženaš patní. Žmátů jstou. Tíbha tří dhýná jsant, súnů duhatýrče.''
+
''Ši vír jest. Vír Jsužen rekté, taš vnama Jsužen jest. Šíč džená jest. Džená Ouháľá rekté. Jsužen Ouhálěch pať jest, Ouháľáče Jsuženaš patní. Žmátů jstou. Tébhou tří dhýná jsant, súnů duhatýrče.''
  
This is a man. The man is called Jsužen, his name is Jsužen. This is a woman. The woman's name is Ouhaľá. Jsužen is Ouhaľá's husband, Ouhaľá is his wife. They are married/a couple. They have three children, two sons and a daughter.
+
This is a man. The man is called Jsužen, his name is Jsužen. This is a woman. The woman's name is Ouháľá. Jsužen is Ouháľá's husband, and Ouháľá is his wife. They are married/a couple. They have three children, two sons and a daughter.
  
 
===Schleicher's Fable===
 
===Schleicher's Fable===
'''Avi ješvéč'''
+
'''Avi ješvéče'''
  
''Avi, jasmej vlná nébhú, jevidat ješvouch: jéva tangu važa vežanti, jévač maža bhara, jévač žmena ašu bheranti.''
+
''Avi, jasmej vlná nébhú, jevidat ješvouch: jéva tangu važa vežanti, jévače maža bhara, jévače žmena ašu bheranti.''
  
 
[[Category:Indo-European languages|C]]
 
[[Category:Indo-European languages|C]]
  
 
=== From ''Labyrint světa a ráj srdce'' ===
 
=== From ''Labyrint světa a ráj srdce'' ===
{{col-begin}}
+
'''Sebatian'''
{{col-break}}
+
 
'''Ilithian'''
+
''JÉDNESI PANTÁTECH TEČMENÁ. Gegrýš jaha tasmej ajavej, jasmi se žmenišáj maťáj vištím ater jsúrtami vlkamič bháněti vjážet, vídas jaha vištítá ater žmenéš stámená rtěchče pravekouchče rbhíchče, jebhi anadedhánté, ambebháté meži nepavá bhúti doušá, ja se jsu, šu janý žmenou štidhý se andůjou, meš am jaja praveka džívatou anadůtí bhúját, maťájmi.''
  
JÉDNESI PANTÁTECH TEČMENÁ. Gegrýs jaha tasmej ajavej, jasmi se žmenišáj maťáj vištím jenter jsúrtami vlkamič bháňeti vjážet, vídas jaha vištítá meď žmených stámená rťechče pravekouchče rbhíchče, jebhi anadedhánté, ambebhát meži ka nepavá bhúját doušá, ka se jsu, šu kají žmenou štidhý se andůjou, meš am kaja praveka džívatou anadůtí bhúját, maťájmi.
 
{{col-break}}
 
 
'''English''' (tr. Matthew Spinka)
 
'''English''' (tr. Matthew Spinka)
  
 
REASONS FOR UNDERTAKING THE WANDERINGS. Having reached the age when human intelligence begins to distinguish between good and evil, and having seen the various classes, orders, callings, occupations, and professions that men engage in, it seemed to me highly desirable to consider well which of these groups of folk I should join and which profession I should choose for my life work.
 
REASONS FOR UNDERTAKING THE WANDERINGS. Having reached the age when human intelligence begins to distinguish between good and evil, and having seen the various classes, orders, callings, occupations, and professions that men engage in, it seemed to me highly desirable to consider well which of these groups of folk I should join and which profession I should choose for my life work.
{{col-break}}
+
 
 
'''Czech original''' (Komenský)
 
'''Czech original''' (Komenský)
  
O PŘÍČINÁCH V SVĚT PUTOVÁNÍ. Když sem v tom věku byl, v kterémž se lidskému rozumu rozdíl mezi dobrým a zlým ukazovati začíná, vida já rozdílné mezi lidmi stavy, řády, povolání, práce a předsevzetí, jímiž se zanášejí, zdála se mi toho nemalá býti potřeba, abych se dobře, ke kterému bych se houfu lidí připojiti a v jakých věcech život stráviti měl, rozmyslil.
+
''O PŘÍČINÁCH V SVĚT PUTOVÁNÍ. Když sem v tom věku byl, v kterémž se lidskému rozumu rozdíl mezi dobrým a zlým ukazovati začíná, vida já rozdílné mezi lidmi stavy, řády, povolání, práce a předsevzetí, jímiž se zanášejí, zdála se mi toho nemalá býti potřeba, abych se dobře, ke kterému bych se houfu lidí připojiti a v jakých věcech život stráviti měl, rozmyslil.''
{{col-end}}
 
  
[[Category:Indo-European languages]][[Category:Stem-Balto-Slavic]][[Category:Ilithic]][[Category:Languages]]
+
[[Category:Indo-European languages]][[Category:Stem-Balto-Slavic]][[Category:Sebatic]][[Category:Languages]]

Latest revision as of 12:26, 3 June 2021

Pages with the prefix 'Sebatian' in the and 'Talk' namespaces:

Talk:
Sebatian
sebhatišká dažvá
Created by IlL
Setting Verse:Unbegotten
Region Britain
Language family
Indo-European
  • Sebatian
Writing system Sebatian script

Sebatian /sə'beɪʃən/ (sebhatišká dažvá) is a classical language in Great Britain in Verse:Unbegotten, spoken by the Sebatians. It is inspired by Czech, Sanskrit and Proto-Celtic.

As an ancient IE language, Sebatian is highly inflected and retains many archaic features (while being fairly innovative in other ways). It is close to both Greek and Indo-Iranian but shares many features with Balto-Slavic.

Zauhi is a descendant.

gájati = to sing

vrýž = king

lígma (leyg-mn) = game

Jsužen = name cognate to Eugene, Owen (> Śużen)

šu = with

rkš = bear

žnýtál = family

Phonology

→ PoA
↓ Manner
Labial Dental/Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ň, ni /ɲ/ [ŋ]
Plosive tenuis p /p/ t /t/ č /tʃ/ ť, ti /c/ k /k/
voiced b /b/ d /d/ /dʒ/ ď, di /ɟ/ g /g/
breathy bh /bʱ/ dh /dʱ/ džh /dʒʱ/ ďh, dhi /ɟʱ/
Fricative unvoiced [f] s /s/ š /ʃ/ [ç] ch /x/
voiced v /v/ ž /ʒ/ j /j~ʝ/ h /ɦ/
Liquid l /l/, r /r/ ř /(Czech ř)/ ľ, li /ʎ/

Consonants: identical to Czech (add ľ bh dh džh ďh, but h < gh), but j = [ʝ~ç]. No Auslautverhärtung.

d dh t n l + i í pronounced as if written ď ďh ť ň ľ + i í; ý is non-palatalizing í

Vowels: a e i u á é í/ý ú ů ej ou áj áu, acute = long vowel (u, ú, ů, ou, áu = ɯ, ɯː, uː, ɔw, aːw), l ĺ r ŕ = syllabic liquids

PIE oey, ōy > ej

Pitch accent: Proto-Slavic style?

Palatals come from iotation or k g before e i (like PSlavic)

initial e- > je-

ē, eh1 > ý, iH > í

all é > ý in the "Prakrit", ý from older long e causes "second palatalization", ý from Sebatian é causes "third palatalization"

mýs, mýnes- 'month'

ja > je?

Iotation

k g h t d dh p b bh v m n l r s > CL+č CL+dž CL+džh CL+ť CL+ď CL+ďh pj bj bhj vj mň CL+ň CL+ľ CL+ř CL+š

This occurs after laryngeals vocalize. Sometimes iotation causes compensatory lengthening ("CL") of the vowel before the iotated consonant: *bʰh₂nyoh₂ 'I shine' > *bʰanjō > *bʰāňō > CIlith bháňů 'I appear'.

Nouns

Literary Sebatian nouns and adjectives are extremely conservative in that they retain all 8 PIE cases and the dual number (like Sanskrit). However, a lot of analogical leveling between noun paradigms has taken place.

o-stems

vrk (m.) = wolf loušná (f.) = moon, month důra (n.) = gift
singular dual plural singular dual plural singular dual plural
Nominative vrk vrků vrké loušná loušné loušnech důra důré důrá
Genitive vrkaš vrkáu vrkou loušnech loušnáu loušnou důraš důráu důrou
Dative vrkej vrkabhou vrkabh loušnáj loušnábhou loušnábh důrej důrabhou důrabh
Accusative vrka vrků vrkouch loušnou loušné loušnouch důra důré důrá
Ablative vrkách vrkabhou vrkabh loušnách loušnábhou loušnábh důrách důrabhou důrabh
Instrumental vrký vrkabhí vrkéch loušnajá loušnábhí loušnábhi důrý důrabhí důréch
Locative vrké vrkáu vrkéš loušné loušnáu loušnáš důré důráu důréš
Vocative vrče! vrků! vrké! loušna! loušné! loušnech! důre! důré! důrá!

i-stems

ageň (m.) = fire mať (f.) = thought mař (n.) = sea
singular dual plural singular dual plural singular dual plural
Nominative ageň agňů agňé mať maťé matěch mař mařé maří
Genitive agňéš agňáu agňou matěch maťáu maťou mařéš mařáu mařou
Dative agněj agněbhou agněbh maťáj matěbhou matěbh mařej mařebhou mařebh
Accusative agni agňů agních mati maťé matích mař mařé maří
Ablative agňéch agněbhou agněbh maťéch matěbhou matěbh mařéch mařebhou mařebh
Instrumental agní agněbhí agňéch matijá matěbhí matěbhi maří mařebhí mařéch
Locative agňé agňáu agníš maťé maťáu matíš mařé mařáu maříš
Vocative agně! agňů! agňé! mati! maťé! matěch! maře! mařé! maří!

Feminines in

patní (f.) = wife
singular dual plural
Nominative patní patnijé patních
Genitive patních patnijáu patnijou
Dative patní patníbhou patníbh
Accusative patní patnijé patních
Ablative patních patníbhou patníbh
Instrumental patnijá patníbhí patníbhi
Locative patnijé patnijáu patníš
Vocative patní! patnijé! patních!

u-stems

avýju (m.) = wind žouštú (f.) = meat medhu (n.) = honey
singular dual plural singular dual plural singular dual plural
Nominative avýju avýjavů avýjavé žouštú žoustavé žouštavech medhu medhavé medhú
Genitive avýjouš avýjaváu avýjavou žouštouch žouštaváu žouštavou medhouš medhaváu medhavou
Dative avýjavej avýjubhou avýjubh žouštaváj žouštubhou žouštubh medhavej medhubhou medhubh
Accusative avýjú avýjavů avýjúch žouštú žouštavé žouštúch medhu medhavé medhú
Ablative avýjouch avýjubhí avýjubh žouštouch žouštubhí žouštubh medhouch medhubhí medhubh
Instrumental avýjú avýjubhí avýjubhi žouštujá žouštubhí žouštubhi medhú medhubhí medhubhi
Locative avýjáu, avýjavi avýjaváu avýjúš žouštáu, žouštavi žouštaváu žouštúš medháu, medhavi medhaváu medhúš
Vocative avýjou! avýjavů! avýjavé! žouštou! žouštavé! žoustavech! medhou! medhavé! medhú!

n-stems

žmů (m.) = human
singular dual plural
Nominative žmů žmenů žmené
Genitive žmenaš žmenáu žmenou
Dative žmenej žmenabhou žmenabh
Accusative žmena žmenů žmenech
Ablative žmenách žmenabhou žmenabh
Instrumental žmený žmenabhí žmenéch
Locative žmeni, žmené žmenáu žmenaš
Vocative žmů! žmenů! žmené!

ma-stems

vnama (n.) = name
singular dual plural
Nominative vnama vnamené vnamená
Genitive vnamenaš vnamenáu vnamenou
Dative vnamenej vnamenabhou vnamenabh
Accusative vnama vnamené vnamená
Ablative vnamenách vnamenabhou vnamenabh
Instrumental vnamený vnamenabhí vnamenéch
Locative vnameni, vnamené vnamenáu vnamenaš
Vocative vnama! vnamené! vnamená!

s-stems

andh (n.) = spring (season)
singular dual plural
Nominative andh andhesé andhesá
Genitive andhes, andhesaš andhesáu andhesou
Dative andhesej andhesabhou andhesabh
Accusative andh andhesé andhesá
Ablative andhesách andhesabhou andhesabh
Instrumental andhesý andhesabhí andheséch
Locative andhesi, andhesé andhesáu andhesaš
Vocative andh! andhesé! andhesá!

Also: nebh 'cloud'

Other athematics

Other athematics usually become of the regular o-stems or the i-stems, depending on the final consonant. For example, vrýž 'king' (from *h₃rḗǵs) declines as a regular i-stem masculine noun.

-ýr nouns

TODO: Family members patýr, mátýr, bhrátýr, svesýr, duhatýr

Masculine

patýr (m.) = father
singular dual plural
Nominative patýr paterů pateré
Genitive patreš patráu patrou
Dative patrej patrbhou patrbh
Accusative patra paterů patŕch
Ablative patréch patrbhou patrbh
Instrumental patrý patrbhí patrbhi
Locative patři, patré patráu patrš
Vocative patre! paterů! pateré!

Feminine

Irregulars

(f.) = cow
singular dual plural
Nominative gavé gavech
Genitive gouch gaváu gavou
Dative gaváj gůbhou gůbh
Accusative gou, gavou gavé gůch, gavech
Ablative gouch gůbhou gůbh
Instrumental gavá, gůjá gůbhí gůbhi
Locative gavé gaváu gouš
Vocative gů! gavé! gavech!

Pronouns

Personal

case 1sg. 2sg. 3sg. reflexive
m. f. n.
nom. jaha sa tach -
acc. jmý (stressed), me (unstressed) (stressed), te (unstressed) ta tou tach (stressed), se (unstressed)
gen. jmaná tvaná taš tech taš svaná
poss. jmák, jmanák tvák, tvanák " " " svák, svanák
dat. jmeži, jmé tebhi, tasmej tašáj, táj tasmej sebhi, sé
abl. jmežách, jmách tebhách, tvách tasmách tašách tasmách sebhách, svách
ins. jmaný (m), jmajá (f) tvaný (m/n), tvajá (f) taný tajá taný svaný (m/n), svajá (f)
loc. jmaji tvaji tasmi tašé tasmi svaji
case 1du. 2du. 3du.
m. f. n.
nom. nou jou
acc. nou jou
gen. nájáu jújáu táu táu táu
poss. náják júják " " "
dat. nábhou júbhou tébhou tábhou tébhou
abl. nábhou júbhou tébhou tábhou tébhou
ins. nábhí júbhí tébhí tábhí tébhí
loc. nájáu jújáu téjáu tájáu téjáu
case 1pl. 2pl. 3pl.
m. f. n.
nom. véch júch sech
acc. nas jus touch touch
gen. nasmou jušmou téšou tášou téšou
poss. nasmák jušmák " " "
dat. nábh, nasmabh júbh, jušmabh tébh tábh tébh
abl. nábh, nasmabh júbh, jušmabh tébh tábh tébh
ins. nábhi, nasmabhi júbhi téch tábhi téch
loc. nasméš jušméš téš táš téš

The possessive pronouns m(an)ák, tv(an)ák, sv(an)ák, nasmák, jušmák decline as o-stem adjectives. Other pronouns use the genitive form.

Demonstrative

Demonstratives: ši, ší, šich (distance-neutral)

Interrogative (determiner and pronoun): či, čí, čich

Relative: ja, já, jach

Adjectives

o-stem adjectives

Hard

Declension of jsúrt 'good' (from *h₁su-h₂r-tós 'well-ordered')
masc. fem. neut.
singular dual plural singular dual plural singular dual plural
Nominative jsúrt jsúrtů jsúrté jsúrtá jsúrté jsúrtech jsúrta jsúrté jsúrtá
Genitive jsúrtaš jsúrtáu jsúrtou jsúrtech jsúrtáu jsúrtou jsúrtaš jsúrtáu jsúrtou
Dative jsúrtam jsúrtabhou jsúrtabh jsúrtáj jsúrtábhou jsúrtábh jsúrtam jsúrtabhou jsúrtabh
Accusative jsúrta jsúrtů jsúrtouch jsúrtou jsúrté jsúrtouch jsúrta jsúrté jsúrtá
Ablative jsúrtách jsúrtabhou jsúrtabh jsúrtách jsúrtábhou jsúrtábh jsúrtách jsúrtabhou jsúrtabh
Instrumental jsúrtý jsúrtabhí jsúrtéch jsúrtajá jsúrtábhí jsúrtábhi jsúrtý jsúrtabhí jsúrtéch
Locative jsúrtami jsúrtáu jsúrtéš jsúrté jsúrtáu jsúrtáš jsúrtami jsúrtáu jsúrtéš
Vocative jsúrte jsúrtů jsúrté jsúrta jsúrté jsúrtech jsúrta jsúrté jsúrtá

Soft

u-stem adjectives

Declension of jvesu 'solemn, holy (of objects, places and occasions)' (from *h₁wésus)
masc. fem. neut.
singular dual plural singular dual plural singular dual plural
Nominative jvesu jvesavů jvesavé jvesí jvesijé jvesích jvesu jvesavé jvesú
Genitive jvesouš jvesaváu jvesavou jvesích jvesijáu jvesijou jvesouš jvesaváu jvesavou
Dative jvesum jvesubhou jvesubh jvesí jvesíbhou jvesíbh jvesum jvesubhou jvesubh
Accusative jvesú jvesavů jvesúch jvesí jvesijé jvesích jvesu jvesavé jvesú
Ablative jvesouš jvesubhou jvesubh jvesích jvesíbhou jvesíbh jvesouš jvesubhou jvesubh
Instrumental jvesú jvesubhí jvesubhi jvesijá jvesíbhí jvesíbhi jvesú jvesubhí jvesubhi
Locative jvesumi jvesaváu jvesúš jvesijé jvesijáu jvesíš jvesumi jvesaváu jvesúš
Vocative jvesu jvesavů jvesavé jvesí jvesijé jvesích jvesu jvesavé jvesú

Participles

Declension of jsas 'being'
masc. fem. neut.
singular dual plural singular dual plural singular dual plural
Nominative jsas jsantů jsanté jsantí jsantijé jsantích jsan jsanté jsantá
Genitive jsantaš jsantáu jsantou jsantích jsantijáu jsantijou jsantaš jsantáu jsantou
Dative jsantam jsantabhou jsantabh jsantí jsantíbhou jsantíbh jsantam jsantabhou jsantabh
Accusative jsanta jsantů jsantech jsantí jsantijé jsantích jsan jsanté jsantá
Ablative jsantách jsantabhou jsantabh jsantích jsantíbhou jsantíbh jsantách jsantabhou jsantabh
Instrumental jsantý jsantabhí jsantéch jsantijá jsantíbhí jsantíbhi jsantý jsantabhí jsantéch
Locative jsantami jsantáu jsantéš jsantijé jsantijáu jsantíš jsantami jsantáu jsantéš

Verbs

Numerals

jév, jévá, jéva (m/f/n) = 1
dvů, dvé, dvé (m/f/n) = 2
tři, třis, tří (m/f/n) = 3
četur, četus, četura (m/f/n) = 4
penče, penčis, penča (m/f/n) = 5
šeš = 6
septa - 7
aštů = 8
jneva = 9
deša = 10
jévurdeša = 11
dvůrdeša = 12
třírdeša = 13
četurdeša = 14
penčurdeša = 15
šešurdeša = 16
septurdeša = 17
aštůrdeša = 18
jnevurdeša = 19
vížati = 20
jévurvížati = 21
třížat = 30
četuržat = 40
pendžat = 50
šeššat = 60
septažat = 70
aštůžat = 80
jnevažat = 90
šata = 100
žílí = 1000

Syntax

Sebatian has unmarked order SOV: 'The woman sings the song' is Džená gájma gájet. (Using gájma 'song' as an object of gájeti 'to sing' implies specificity. 'Sings a (nonspecific) song' would simply be gájet.)

Sebatian is topic-prominent, so the topic comes first:

  • Džená gájma gájet = The woman sings the song (cf. Onna wa uta wo utau)
  • Gájma gájet džená = The song is sung by a woman/The *woman* sings the song (cf. Uta wa onna ga utau)
  • Žmenou dvů jstou = There are two people/Of people, there are two (cf. Hito wa futari ga iru)
  • Tam švů jest = He has a dog (cf. Jp. Kare wa inu ga iru)

The or -če Wackernagel clitic ('and' in Classical Sebatian) becomes an explicit topic particle in later forms of Sebatian.

Sample text

UDHR

Višvé žmené svapátěbhi ženijánté; téšou jsutvrtitáť andoušijéče lígé jsant.

Sebatian textbook

Lesson 2

Ši vír jest. Vír Jsužen rekté, taš vnama Jsužen jest. Šíč džená jest. Džená Ouháľá rekté. Jsužen Ouhálěch pať jest, Ouháľáče Jsuženaš patní. Žmátů jstou. Tébhou tří dhýná jsant, súnů duhatýrče.

This is a man. The man is called Jsužen, his name is Jsužen. This is a woman. The woman's name is Ouháľá. Jsužen is Ouháľá's husband, and Ouháľá is his wife. They are married/a couple. They have three children, two sons and a daughter.

Schleicher's Fable

Avi ješvéče

Avi, jasmej vlná nébhú, jevidat ješvouch: jéva tangu važa vežanti, jévače maža bhara, jévače žmena ašu bheranti.

From Labyrint světa a ráj srdce

Sebatian

JÉDNESI PANTÁTECH TEČMENÁ. Gegrýš jaha tasmej ajavej, jasmi se žmenišáj maťáj vištím ater jsúrtami vlkamič bháněti vjážet, vídas jaha vištítá ater žmenéš stámená rtěchče pravekouchče rbhíchče, jebhi anadedhánté, ambebháté meži nepavá bhúti doušá, ja se jsu, šu janý žmenou štidhý se andůjou, meš am jaja praveka džívatou anadůtí bhúját, maťájmi.

English (tr. Matthew Spinka)

REASONS FOR UNDERTAKING THE WANDERINGS. Having reached the age when human intelligence begins to distinguish between good and evil, and having seen the various classes, orders, callings, occupations, and professions that men engage in, it seemed to me highly desirable to consider well which of these groups of folk I should join and which profession I should choose for my life work.

Czech original (Komenský)

O PŘÍČINÁCH V SVĚT PUTOVÁNÍ. Když sem v tom věku byl, v kterémž se lidskému rozumu rozdíl mezi dobrým a zlým ukazovati začíná, vida já rozdílné mezi lidmi stavy, řády, povolání, práce a předsevzetí, jímiž se zanášejí, zdála se mi toho nemalá býti potřeba, abych se dobře, ke kterému bych se houfu lidí připojiti a v jakých věcech život stráviti měl, rozmyslil.