Austronesian Hebrew

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Phonology

Orthography

Nouns

Absolute State
case Singular Dual Plural case
Direct -u -āmi -ūma D
Genitive -i -aymi -īma O
Indirect -a
Construct State
case Singular Dual Plural case
Direct D
Genitive -ay O
Indirect

PAH nouns comes in two genders, masculine and feminine. The tell-tale marker of the feminine gender is the -at suffix, at or near the end of the word. Unfortunately for students, the majority of feminine nouns appear masculine in the singular and dual, with only verb and adjective agreement to give them away. There are some feminine words that have the tell-tale t marker, but not the a before it, though a t can be part of the root of a masculine noun.

There are three cases in the singular and two in the dual and plural. They are called Direct, Genitive, and Indirect or Direct and Oblique.

The case cannot be distinguished in the pronominal state, except on the head of the construct-chain with the 1cs or 3ms pronominal suffixes. In those two instances, there are alternate forms of the pronominal suffixes for the oblique case.

There is also a group of nouns that ended in ע in PH, where became a kind of /e/ in PAH. This meant their declension became -o, -e, -a in the singular, -ēmi, -eymi in the dual, and -ōmi, -ēma in the pl. For example, ZRE (seed) is ziro, zire, zira, zirēmi, zireymi, zirōmi, zirēma and the very similar diro/arm.


Feminine

Absolute State
case Singular Dual Plural case
Direct -(a)tu -(a)tōmi -ōtu D
Genitive -(a)ti -(a)taymi -ōti O
Indirect -(a)ta
Construct State
case Singular Dual Plural case
Direct -(a)t -(a)to -ot D
Genitive -(a)tay O
Indirect

There are some irregular nouns that are mostly masculine, but have feminine attributes: e.g. 'abu (father) is masculine, but looks semi-feminine in the dual/plural. Sing. 'abu, 'abi, 'aba Dual: 'abōtā, 'abōtay Pl.: 'abōtu, 'abōti. Note that this form is monoptotic in the singular construct, and has only one form for dual and plural construct.


Adjectives

Adjectives and participles do not reflect the dual, unless they are used substantively. So, you would have malku tôbu/𐨦͏𐨂𐨠͏𐨎 𐨐͏𐨂𐨫𐨨 - a good chief and malkūma tobūma/𐨨𐨦͏𐨂𐨌𐨠͏𐨆 𐨨𐨐͏𐨂𐨫𐨨 - good chiefs, but malkāmi tobīma/𐨨𐨦͏𐨁𐨌𐨠͏𐨆 𐨨͏𐨁𐨐͏𐨌𐨫𐨨 - of two good chiefs, and also tobtōmi/𐨨͏𐨁𐨠͏𐨆𐨌𐨦𐨠͏𐨆 = two good (women). Adjectives do not inflect for state.

Pronouns

Personal - Independent

Personal pronouns are often omitted, except in verbless clauses. There are two forms: one can exist independently and the other is a suffix attached to the construct/pronominal-state noun.

First person
case Common #
D* 𐨣𐨁͏𐨀͏𐨌
āni
sing.
D* 𐨐͏𐨂𐨣͏𐨌𐨀
anāku
dual
D* 𐨣͏𐨂𐨣͏𐨌𐨀
anānu
pl.
Second person
case Masc. Fem. #
D* 𐨠͏͏𐨺𐨀
atta
𐨠͏𐨁͏𐨺𐨀
atti
sing.
D* 𐨨͏𐨌𐨠͏𐨅𐨌͏𐨺𐨀
attēmā
dual
D* 𐨨𐨠͏𐨂𐨀
attum
𐨣𐨠͏𐨁𐨀
attin
plural
Third person
case Masc. Fem. #
D* 𐨬͏𐨱͏𐨂͏𐨌
hūwa
𐨩͏𐨱͏𐨁𐨌
hīya
sing.
D* 𐨨͏𐨁𐨱͏𐨂͏𐨌
hūmi
dual
D* 𐨨𐨿𐨱͏𐨂
hum
𐨣͏𐨺𐨱͏𐨁
hinna
plural


Personal - Suffix

Sing. Dual Pl.
1c D:-ī
O:-ya
V:-ni
-nāya -nu
2m -ka -kūma -kim
2f -(e)k -kin
3m D: -ō
O: -aw
V:-hu
-hūma -hum
3f -ha -hin

A simple work to attach pronominal suffixes to is sūsu/horse, because of its CVVC root.

Sing. Dual Plural
PAH Roman. Gloss PAH Roman. Gloss PAH Roman. Gloss
1c 𐨯͏𐨁𐨌𐨯͏𐨂𐨌 sūsī my horse 𐨩͏𐨣͏𐨌𐨯𐨯͏𐨂 susnāya the horse of us two 𐨣͏𐨂𐨯𐨯͏𐨂𐨌 sūsnu the horse of us
𐨩͏𐨯𐨯͏𐨂𐨌
𐨣𐨁͏𐨨𐨫𐨮
sūsya
ŋalamani
of my horse
he greeted me
2 𐨐͏𐨯𐨯͏𐨂𐨌 sūska your (m) horse 𐨨𐨐͏𐨂𐨌𐨯𐨯͏𐨂 suskūma the horse of you two 𐨨𐨐͏𐨁𐨯𐨯͏𐨂𐨌 sūskim the horse of you all (m)
𐨐𐨯͏𐨅𐨯͏𐨂𐨌 sūsek your (f) horse 𐨣𐨐͏𐨁𐨯𐨯͏𐨂𐨌 sūskin the horse of you all (f)
3 𐨯͏𐨆𐨌𐨯͏𐨂𐨌 sūsō his horse 𐨨𐨱͏𐨂͏𐨌𐨯𐨯͏𐨂𐨌 sushūma the horse of them two 𐨨𐨱͏𐨂𐨯𐨯͏𐨂𐨌 sūshum their (m) horse
𐨬𐨯𐨯͏𐨂𐨌
𐨱͏𐨂𐨨͏𐨆𐨫𐨮
sūsaw
ŋalamohu
of his horse
she greeted him
𐨱𐨯𐨯͏𐨂𐨌 sūsha her horse 𐨣𐨱͏𐨁𐨯𐨯͏𐨂𐨌 sūshin their (f) horse

Relative

The relative pronoun in PAH seems to be derived from the Aramaic pronoun *šu-. The relative pronoun can act as a proclitic particle or it stands alone and receives stress on the penultimate/only syllable (as one would expect).

case Masc. Fem. #
D 𐨮͏𐨂
ŋu
𐨠͏𐨂𐨮
ŋatu
sing.
G 𐨮͏𐨁
ŋi
𐨠͏𐨁𐨮
ŋati
I 𐨮
ŋa
𐨠͏𐨮
ŋata
D 𐨨͏𐨁𐨮͏𐨌
ŋāmi
𐨨͏𐨁𐨠͏𐨆𐨌𐨮͏𐨌
ŋātōmi
dual
O 𐨨͏𐨁𐨩͏𐨿𐨮
ŋaymi
𐨨͏𐨁𐨩͏𐨿𐨠͏𐨮͏𐨌
ŋātaymi
D 𐨨𐨮͏𐨂𐨌
ŋūma
𐨠͏𐨂𐨮͏𐨆𐨌
ŋōtu
plural
O 𐨨𐨮͏𐨁𐨌
ŋīma
𐨠͏𐨁𐨮͏𐨆𐨌
ŋōti

Demonstrative

Near

case Masc. Fem. #
D 𐨰͏𐨂
zu
𐨠͏𐨂𐨰͏𐨆𐨌
zōtu
sing.
G 𐨰͏𐨁
zi
𐨠͏𐨁𐨰͏𐨆𐨌
zōti
I 𐨰
za
𐨠͏𐨰͏𐨆𐨌
zōta
D イッル゚̅
'illū
dual
/
plural
O イッリ゚̅
'illī

Near deixis in Austronesian Hebrew follows the West Semitic pattern, PS *ðV > Aram. *ða > BH ze > PAH zu


Medial

case Masc. Fem. #
D
'ellu

'ellōtu
sing.
G
'elli

'ellōti
I
'ella

'ellōta
D
'illū
dual
/
plural
O
'illī

Somewhat creatively, PAH uses the East Semitic near-deixis pronoun as medio-proximal deixis.


Far

The 3rd person personal pronoun is used as if it were a far-deitic pronoun/adjective. It is also used in verbless clauses, like all pronouns. More confusingly, huwa/hiya also functions like a relative pronoun, or better yet as "that is". "the one", "the very one", or "that one".

Interrogative and Indefinite

Unlike all the other pronouns, these inflect for personal vs. impersonal, not gender. Note, the dual and plural forms are sometimes used for emphasis against a single referent.

Interrogative

case Who? What(ever)? #
D ミ̅ユ
mīyu
マ̅
sing.
G ミ̅マ
mīya
I ミ̅乂
mīyi
D ミ̅ヨ̅ミ
mīyōmi
マ̅マ̅
māmā
dual
O ミ̅マィミ
mīyēmi
マ̅マィ
māmē
D ミ̅ユ̅マ
mīyūma
マ̅ム̅
māmū
plural
O ミ̅乂̅マ
mīyīma
マ̅ミ̅
māmī

Indefinite

These forms often take enclitic pronouns. Again, there are personal and impersonal forms, not genders.

"Which(ever)"
case personal impersonal #
D マッヌ
mannu
ミ̅ヌ
mīnu
sing.
G マッナ
manna
ミ̅ナ
mīna
I マッニ
manni
ミ̅ニ
mīni
D マッヌマ̅
mannumā
ミ̅ヌマ̅
mīnumā
dual
O マッヌマィ
mannumē
ミ̅ヌマィ
mīnumē
D マッヌム̅
mannumū
ミ̅ヌム̅
mīnumū
plural
O マッヌミ̅
mannumī
ミ̅ヌミ̅
mīnumī

The dual and plural of mannu can be used impersonally. The construct forms are man- and mīn- in the singular and mannum- and mīnum- in the dual/plural.

Adverbs

Suffixing

These attach to the indirect/oblique case of the singular noun.

-ㇷ/-ah 
This is similar to the Old English "-ward" suffix, as in 'earthward' or 'heavenward'. It can be used locally or temporally.
e.g. アㇽサ゚ㇷ/'arcah = towards the earth/groundward ; カ゚̅マィミㇷ/ŋāmēmih = towards the sky/heavenward. There is a unique construction, ア̅ダㇷ/'ādah = together (not "one-ward").
-ㇺ/-m 
This makes a noun into an adverb, like the English "-ly" suffix. It attaches to the singular genitive, although there are dual constructions:
ヤマナィミㇺ /yamanēmim - ambidextrously ("two-right-handedly"). Be sure an lā- has not been added to the front of the word, otherwise -m is just part of a vocative construction.
-...-ㇺ/lā-...-m 
vocative marker
-ィダ/-yda 
Like the English "times", this attaches to numbers. e.g. チナィダ/tinēda = twice

Independent

tm 
there
hlm/hlny/hnny 
here
`nt/`tn/ht 
now
'apnk/'idk 
then, thereupon
'al 
'surely' with imperfect, 'not' with jussives
kn 
rightly, thus
mid 
very much
'ēka(m) 
how?
'iyyi/'i 
where?
'an 
where?
lama 
why? for what
lō 
not
bal 
no, without
ying 
there is/are
'ayin 
there is/are not

Particles

-nu/ヌ 
The Question Particle Any clause can be converted into question form by adding -nu/ヌ to the first word or phrase. Because the particle is in fact attached to the element of the sentence around which the interrogation centers, the use often requires a departure from the normal word order.
wa-/ワ 
sentence conjunction
pe-/ペ 
clause conjunction
ap 
also
'ō 
or, adversative
hlm 
when, as soon as
hm 
if, or
kī 
since, because, if, when, which

Prepositions

Inseparable Prepositions

𐨦͏𐨅-/be- means in, at, among, (or 'when' with infinitive construct verbs), etc. With pronouns, it has certain conjugated forms:

Sing. Dual Pl.
1c 𐨦͏𐨁𐨌
𐨩͏𐨣͏𐨌𐨦͏𐨅
benāya
𐨣͏𐨂𐨌𐨦͏𐨌
bānu
2m 𐨐͏𐨦͏𐨌
bāka
𐨨𐨐͏𐨂𐨌𐨦͏𐨅
bekūma
𐨨𐨐͏𐨁𐨦͏𐨌
bākim
2f 𐨐𐨦͏𐨅𐨌
bēk
𐨣𐨐͏𐨁𐨦͏𐨌
bākin
3m 𐨦͏𐨆𐨌
𐨨𐨱͏𐨂͏𐨌𐨦͏𐨅
behūma
𐨨𐨱͏𐨂𐨦͏𐨌
bāhum
3f 𐨱𐨦͏𐨌
bāha
𐨣𐨱͏𐨁𐨦͏𐨌
bāhin


𐨫͏𐨅-/͏le- means to, onto, for, etc. With pronouns, it has certain conjugated forms:

Sing. Dual Pl.
1c リ̅゜
ラ゚ナヤ̅
lanayā
ラ゚ヌ̅
lanū
2m ラ゚カ̅
lakā
ラ゚クマ̅
lakumā
ラ゚ケㇺ͏
lakem
2f ラ゚キ͏
laki
ラ゚キㇴ͏
lakin
3m ロ̅゜
ラ゚フマ̅
lahumā
ラ゚ヘㇺ͏
lahem
3f ラ゚ハ̅
lahā
ラ゚ヒㇴ͏
lahin

カ-/ka- means 'like' or 'as'. The primitive Hebrew form カモ/kamo re-emerges when pronouns are attached and in poetry.

Sing. Dual Pl.
1c カモィ
kamoy
カモナヤ̅
kamonayā
カモヌ̅
kamonū
2m カモカ̅
kamokā
カモクマ̅
kamokumā
カモケㇺ͏
kamokem
2f カモキ͏
kamoki
カモキㇴ͏
kamokin
3m カモゥ
kamow
カモフマ̅
kamohumā
カモヘㇺ͏
kamohem
3f カモハ̅
kamohā
カモヒㇴ͏
kamohin


タ/ta- is the definite direct object marker. It cannot take a pronoun suffix, because pronouns are already definite.

Mixed

ミㇴ/ミッ/min-/mi+ is preposition meaning from, or than. With pronouns, it has certain conjugated forms, where the primitive Hebrew mimmē- re-emerges:

'it(ta) 
with
gal(e) 
'upon'
'im(ma) 
'with'
'od(d) 
still, yet
da 
until
taqat(a) 
under
'aqar(e) 
after
lapan(a) 
before
sabīb(e) 
around
hinn(a) 
ergative

Separable

beyna 
between
bāda 
behind

Verbs

Repeated patterns are marked, but are most often distinguished by ablaut.

Perfective
# g Sing. Dual Plural
1 c. -tiy -naya -nuw
2 m. -tā -tema -temu
f. -ti -tina
3 m. -a -uw
f. -o -tā
non-past Imperfective
# g Sing. Dual Plural
1 c. 'a- - -u na- - -ā na- - -u
2 m. ta- - -u ta- - -āna ta- - -ūna
f. ta- - -īna ta- - -nā
3 m. ya- - -u ya- - -āni ya- - -ūna
f. ta- - -u ya- - -nā
Narrative Past Imperfective
# g Sing. Dual Plural
1 c. wa- - - wana- - -
2 m. watta- - - watta- - -ā watta- - -ū
f. watta- - -ī watta- - -ā
3 m. wayya- - - wayya- - -ā wayya- - -ū
f. watta- - - wayya- - -ā
Contemplative/Jussive
# g Sing. Dual Plural
1 c. 'a- - - na- - -
2 m. ta- - - ta- - -ā ta- - -ū
f. ta- - -ī ta- - -ā
3 m. ya- - - ya- - -ā ya- - -ū
f. ta- - - ta- - -ā
Cohortative and Imperative
# g Sing. Dual Plural
1 c. 'a- - -a na- - -a
2 m. -(a)
f. -nā


The Narrative Past Imperfective is most often referred to by the old Hebrew name, the wayyiqtol. Participles follow the predicable -u/-atu normal ending pattern. Infinitives are sometimes the same as participles, but usually are distinguish by ablaut.

Form
Stem Actor Object Goal Local
Simple QaTaL- QuTāL- niQTāL- tiQTāL-
Intensive QiTTēL- QuTTēl- 'iQQaTTēL- tiQaTTēL-
Causative hiQTīL- huQTīL- hiQQaTīL- hitQaTīL-
Old Hebrew Names
Stem Actor Object Goal Local
Simple Qal Qal Passive Niphal tG-stem
Intensive Piel Pual Hiṯpael Hutpael
Causative Hiphal Hophal Hippael Hištaphel


Numerals

All forms are given in the absolute state, direct case. Numbers are treated like adjective and match their nouns in case, gender, state, and definiteness.

Cardinals

# m. f.
1 'ādu 'ādtu
2 ŋenāmi ŋettōmi

One and two are frequently used as attributive adjectives. They normally follow the noun they modifies. They may also be used substantively in the construct state.

# m. f.
3 ŋalōŋu ŋaloŋtu
4 'arbu 'arabatu
5 gamēŋu gameŋatu
6 ŋēŋu ŋeŋatu
7 ŋābu ŋabatu
8 ŋamōnu ŋamonatu
9 tīŋu tiŋatu
10 'aŋāru 'aŋatatu

The numbers 3 to 10 can also be substantive. They also have the opposite of gender-agreement. As in Hebrew, this is called chiastic agreement. That means, the masculine form is used with feminine nouns and the masculine form is used with feminine nouns. The construct form always precedes the noun it modifies. The absolute, typically in apposition, typically precedes the noun.

3 ŋaliŋyu ŋaliŋyitu

Ordinal

After 10, cardinals are used as ordinals.

Syntax

Lexicography