PAH nouns comes in two genders, masculine and feminine. The tell-tale marker of the feminine gender is the -at suffix, at or near the end of the word. Unfortunately for students, the majority of feminine nouns appear masculine in the singular and dual, with only verb and adjective agreement to give them away. There are some feminine words that have the tell-tale t marker, but not the a before it, though a t can be part of the root of a masculine noun.
There are three cases in the singular and two in the dual and plural. They are called Direct, Genitive, and Indirect or Direct and Oblique.
The case cannot be distinguished in the pronominal state, except on the head of the construct-chain with the 1cs or 3ms pronominal suffixes. In those two instances, there are alternate forms of the pronominal suffixes for the oblique case.
There is also a group of nouns that ended in ע in PH, where became a kind of /e/ in PAH. This meant their declension became -o, -e, -a in the singular, -ēmi, -eymi in the dual, and -ōmi, -ēma in the pl. For example, ZRE (seed) is ziro, zire, zira, zirēmi, zireymi, zirōmi, zirēma and the very similar diro/arm.
There are some irregular nouns that are mostly masculine, but have feminine attributes: e.g. 'abu (father) is masculine, but looks semi-feminine in the dual/plural. Sing. 'abu, 'abi, 'aba Dual: 'abōtā, 'abōtay Pl.: 'abōtu, 'abōti. Note that this form is monoptotic in the singular construct, and has only one form for dual and plural construct.
Adjectives and participles do not reflect the dual, unless they are used substantively. So, you would have malku tôbu/𐨦͏𐨂𐨠͏𐨎 𐨐͏𐨂𐨫𐨨 - a good chief and malkūma tobūma/𐨨𐨦͏𐨂𐨌𐨠͏𐨆 𐨨𐨐͏𐨂𐨫𐨨 - good chiefs, but malkāmi tobīma/𐨨𐨦͏𐨁𐨌𐨠͏𐨆 𐨨͏𐨁𐨐͏𐨌𐨫𐨨 - of two good chiefs, and also tobtōmi/𐨨͏𐨁𐨠͏𐨆𐨌𐨦𐨠͏𐨆 = two good (women). Adjectives do not inflect for state.
Personal - Independent
Personal pronouns are often omitted, except in verbless clauses. There are two forms: one can exist independently and the other is a suffix attached to the construct/pronominal-state noun.
Personal - Suffix
A simple work to attach pronominal suffixes to is sūsu/horse, because of its CVVC root.
|1c||𐨯͏𐨁𐨌𐨯͏𐨂𐨌||sūsī||my horse||𐨩͏𐨣͏𐨌𐨯𐨯͏𐨂||susnāya||the horse of us two||𐨣͏𐨂𐨯𐨯͏𐨂𐨌||sūsnu||the horse of us|
|of my horse |
he greeted me
|2||𐨐͏𐨯𐨯͏𐨂𐨌||sūska||your (m) horse||𐨨𐨐͏𐨂𐨌𐨯𐨯͏𐨂||suskūma||the horse of you two||𐨨𐨐͏𐨁𐨯𐨯͏𐨂𐨌||sūskim||the horse of you all (m)|
|𐨐𐨯͏𐨅𐨯͏𐨂𐨌||sūsek||your (f) horse||𐨣𐨐͏𐨁𐨯𐨯͏𐨂𐨌||sūskin||the horse of you all (f)|
|3||𐨯͏𐨆𐨌𐨯͏𐨂𐨌||sūsō||his horse||𐨨𐨱͏𐨂͏𐨌𐨯𐨯͏𐨂𐨌||sushūma||the horse of them two||𐨨𐨱͏𐨂𐨯𐨯͏𐨂𐨌||sūshum||their (m) horse|
|of his horse |
she greeted him
|𐨱𐨯𐨯͏𐨂𐨌||sūsha||her horse||𐨣𐨱͏𐨁𐨯𐨯͏𐨂𐨌||sūshin||their (f) horse|
The relative pronoun in PAH seems to be derived from the Aramaic pronoun *šu-. The relative pronoun can act as a proclitic particle or it stands alone and receives stress on the penultimate/only syllable (as one would expect).
Near deixis in Austronesian Hebrew follows the West Semitic pattern, PS *ðV > Aram. *ða > BH ze > PAH zu
Somewhat creatively, PAH uses the East Semitic near-deixis pronoun as medio-proximal deixis.
The 3rd person personal pronoun is used as if it were a far-deitic pronoun/adjective. It is also used in verbless clauses, like all pronouns. More confusingly, huwa/hiya also functions like a relative pronoun, or better yet as "that is". "the one", "the very one", or "that one".
Interrogative and Indefinite
Unlike all the other pronouns, these inflect for personal vs. impersonal, not gender. Note, the dual and plural forms are sometimes used for emphasis against a single referent.
These forms often take enclitic pronouns. Again, there are personal and impersonal forms, not genders.
The dual and plural of mannu can be used impersonally. The construct forms are man- and mīn- in the singular and mannum- and mīnum- in the dual/plural.
These attach to the indirect/oblique case of the singular noun.
- This is similar to the Old English "-ward" suffix, as in 'earthward' or 'heavenward'. It can be used locally or temporally.
e.g. アㇽサ゚ㇷ/'arcah = towards the earth/groundward ; カ゚̅マィミㇷ/ŋāmēmih = towards the sky/heavenward. There is a unique construction, ア̅ダㇷ/'ādah = together (not "one-ward").
- This makes a noun into an adverb, like the English "-ly" suffix. It attaches to the singular genitive, although there are dual constructions:
ヤマナィミㇺ /yamanēmim - ambidextrously ("two-right-handedly"). Be sure an lā- has not been added to the front of the word, otherwise -m is just part of a vocative construction.
- vocative marker
- Like the English "times", this attaches to numbers. e.g. チナィダ/tinēda = twice
- then, thereupon
- 'surely' with imperfect, 'not' with jussives
- rightly, thus
- very much
- why? for what
- no, without
- there is/are
- there is/are not
- The Question Particle Any clause can be converted into question form by adding -nu/ヌ to the first word or phrase. Because the particle is in fact attached to the element of the sentence around which the interrogation centers, the use often requires a departure from the normal word order.
- sentence conjunction
- clause conjunction
- or, adversative
- when, as soon as
- if, or
- since, because, if, when, which
𐨦͏𐨅-/be- means in, at, among, (or 'when' with infinitive construct verbs), etc. With pronouns, it has certain conjugated forms:
𐨫͏𐨅-/͏le- means to, onto, for, etc. With pronouns, it has certain conjugated forms:
カ-/ka- means 'like' or 'as'. The primitive Hebrew form カモ/kamo re-emerges when pronouns are attached and in poetry.
タ/ta- is the definite direct object marker. It cannot take a pronoun suffix, because pronouns are already definite.
ミㇴ/ミッ/min-/mi+ is preposition meaning from, or than. With pronouns, it has certain conjugated forms, where the primitive Hebrew mimmē- re-emerges:
- still, yet
Repeated patterns are marked, but are most often distinguished by ablaut.
|1||c.||'a- - -u||na- - -ā||na- - -u|
|2||m.||ta- - -u||ta- - -āna||ta- - -ūna|
|f.||ta- - -īna||ta- - -nā|
|3||m.||ya- - -u||ya- - -āni||ya- - -ūna|
|f.||ta- - -u||ya- - -nā|
|1||c.||wa- - -||wana- - -|
|2||m.||watta- - -||watta- - -ā||watta- - -ū|
|f.||watta- - -ī||watta- - -ā|
|3||m.||wayya- - -||wayya- - -ā||wayya- - -ū|
|f.||watta- - -||wayya- - -ā|
|1||c.||'a- - -||na- - -|
|2||m.||ta- - -||ta- - -ā||ta- - -ū|
|f.||ta- - -ī||ta- - -ā|
|3||m.||ya- - -||ya- - -ā||ya- - -ū|
|f.||ta- - -||ta- - -ā|
|1||c.||'a- - -a||na- - -a|
The Narrative Past Imperfective is most often referred to by the old Hebrew name, the wayyiqtol. Participles follow the predicable -u/-atu normal ending pattern. Infinitives are sometimes the same as participles, but usually are distinguish by ablaut.
All forms are given in the absolute state, direct case. Numbers are treated like adjective and match their nouns in case, gender, state, and definiteness.
One and two are frequently used as attributive adjectives. They normally follow the noun they modifies. They may also be used substantively in the construct state.
The numbers 3 to 10 can also be substantive. They also have the opposite of gender-agreement. As in Hebrew, this is called chiastic agreement. That means, the masculine form is used with feminine nouns and the masculine form is used with feminine nouns. The construct form always precedes the noun it modifies. The absolute, typically in apposition, typically precedes the noun.
After 10, cardinals are used as ordinals.