Chlouvānem/218 Sample Sentences

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This page includes 218 sample sentences, all glossed, in Chlouvānem. Explanations, unless tied to a particular sentence, are not given; the pages on Chlouvānem morphology and especially Chlouvānem syntax treat grammatical structures included here with more details.

Source: http://web.archive.org/web/20120427054736/http://fiziwig.com/conlang/syntax_tests.html

1–25

1.

hånna grætē.
sun.DIR.SG. shine.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The sun shines.

2.

hånna grætī lā vi.
sun.DIR.SG. shine.SUBJ.IMPF-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. with. be.IND.PRES.EXP.3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The sun is shining.

3.

hånna gryautek.
sun.DIR.SG. shine.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The sun shone.

4.

hånna grætiṣya.
sun.DIR.SG. shine.IND.FUT-EXP-3.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The sun will shine.

5.

hånna ugruta.
sun.DIR.SG. shine.IND.PERF-EXP-3.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The sun has been shining.

6.

hånna grætteprigerē.
sun.DIR.SG. shine-INF-move_backwards.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The sun is shining again.

7.

hånna menire ugrutālta.
sun.DIR.SG. tomorrow. shine.IND.FUTINT-EXP-3.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The sun will shine tomorrow.

8.

hånna chlæręe grætē.
sun.DIR.SG. be_bright-ADV. shine.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The sun shines brightly.

9.

chlærire hånna grætē.
be_bright.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR. sun.DIR.SG. shine.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The bright sun shines.

10.

kaminæne hånna āññogē.
now. sun.DIR.SG. rise.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The sun is rising now.

11.

yaiva lelyē gorblaikate.
all.DIR. people-DIR.PL. shout.IND.PAST-EXP-3PL.EXTERIOR-AGENT.
All the people shouted.

12.

lelyē mæn sora gorblaikate.
people-DIR.PL. TOPIC. some.DIR. shout.IND.PAST-EXP-3PL.EXTERIOR-AGENT.
Some of the the people shouted.

13.

lelyē mæn taili magdani gorblaikate.
people-DIR.PL. TOPIC. many. ADV-two. shout.IND.PAST-EXP-3PL.EXTERIOR-AGENT.
Many of the people shouted twice.

14.

hånyadaikirāhe lelyē laibe gærblāhaite.
be_happy.IND.PRES-EXP-3PL.COMMON.INTERIOR. people-DIR.PL. often. shout.IND.PRES-EXP-3PL.EXTERIOR-AGENT.
Happy people often shout.

15.

phēcæñcañīh āmmųk.
small_cat.DIR.SG. jump_upwards.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The kitten jumped up.

16.

phēcæñcañīh eṇom āmmųk.
small_cat.DIR.SG. table-DAT.SG. jump_upwards.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The kitten jumped onto the table.

17.

lilyā ñekire phēcæñcañīh bīdāmek.
1SG.GEN.DIR. be_small.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR small_cat.DIR.SG. walk_away.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
My little kitten walked away.

18.

dašajeldē.
rain-do.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
It's raining.

19.

daša yanabuñjñek.
rain.DIR.SG. run_from_above.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The rain came down.

19-alt.

daša yanastāṭ.
rain.DIR.SG. fall_from_above.IND.PAST.EXP.3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The rain fell down.[1]

20.

daše phēcæñcañīh ħildegde.
rain-LOC.SG. small_cat.DIR.SG. play.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT.
The kitten is playing in the rain.

21.

daša ajāṃrirā.
rain.DIR.SG. stop.IND.PERF-EXP-3.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The rain has stopped.

22.

halše daša jāṃririṣya.
soon. rain.DIR.SG. stop.IND.FUT-EXP-3.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
Soon the rain will stop.

22-alt.

halše daša ajāṃrālirā.
soon. rain.DIR.SG. stop.IND.FUTINT-EXP-3.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
Soon the rain will stop.[2]

23.

halše daša jaṃrirī dhomyu.
soon. rain.DIR.SG. stop.SUBJ.IMPF-EXP-3.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. hope.IND.PRES-EXP-1SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
I hope the rain stops soon.

24.

prevyāṣe ejulā nanāyausirāhe chokvāk lilaika.
long_time_ago. here. be_wild.IND.PRES-EXP-3PL.COMMON.INTERIOR. animal-DIR.PL. live.IND.PAST-EXP-3PL.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
Once wild animals lived here.

25.

ṭhivęe kamitayāsmik.
be_slow-ADV. look_around.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT.
Slowly (s)he looked around.[3]

26–50

26.

bislāvi!
go_away.OPT.IMPF-EXP-2SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
Go away!

27.

talaumim!
go_there.OPT.IMPF-EXP-1PL.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
Let's go!

28.

pršcānaise ħolunsūyi.
RECOMMEND. go-NECESS-IND.PRES-EXP-2SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
You should go.

29.

lunati hånyadaikiriṣyam.
go.SUBJ.PRES-EXP-1SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. be_happy-IND.FUT-EXP-1SG.COMMON.INTERIOR.
I will be happy to go.

30.

halše tailīsālta.
soon. arrive-IND.FUTINT-EXP-3.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
(S)he will arrive soon.[4]

31.

sāmini haitah bisapra.
child-GEN.SG. ball.DIR.SG. roll_away.MONODIR.IND.PERF-EXP-3.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The baby's ball has rolled away.

32.

saṃhārivā gimmālęe pūnde.
boy-DIR.DU. be_tied_together-ADV. work.IND.PRES-EXP-3DU.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The two boys are working together.

33.

mišanaise nenē mulkṣah bīgrætiṣya.[5]
probably. this.PROXIMAL.DIR.SG mist.DIR.SG. fade_away_outwards.IND.FUT-EXP-3.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
This mist will probably clear away.

34.

šoedhirāhe junyai yavijulā ukṣṇyāhai.
be_lovely.IND.PRES-EXP-3PL.COMMON.INTERIOR. flower-DIR.PL. everywhere. grow.IND.PRES-EXP-3PL.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
Lovely flowers are growing everywhere.

35.

pršcānaise nanū ṭhivęe yayulsūmiṃte.
RECOMMEND. more. be_slow-ADV. eat-NECESS-IND.PRES-EXP-1PL.EXTERIOR-AGENT.
We should eat more slowly.

36.

vivāmi nuppęe tailīses.
too_much. be_fast-ADV. come.IND.PERF-EXP-2SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
You have come too soon.

37.

nanū yæyaniltęe dodhulsūyite.
more. be_neat-ADV. write-NECESS-IND.PRES-EXP-2SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT.
You must write more neatly.

38.

ñæñuchlire amaha chi viṣṭimē.
be_externally_beautiful.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR. palace.DIR.SG. really. stand_opposite_to.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
Directly opposite stands a wonderful palace.

39.

kāltarvāni thudam arāṣla.
Kāltarvān-GEN. dog.DIR.SG. lose.IND.PERF-EXP-3.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
Kāltarvān[6]'s dog is lost.

40.

lilyā phēcam murkire.
1SG.GEN.DIR. cat.DIR.SG. be_black.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR.
My cat is black.

41.

sāmini jārdāka unurba.
child-GEN.SG. doll.DIR.SG. break.IND.PERF-EXP-3.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The little girl's doll is broken.[7]

42.

īvaunaise pūpudbhavayu.
deeply. sleep.FREQ-IND.PRES-EXP-1SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
I usually sleep soundly.

43.

sāmin ṣastirvamu pripañcaika.
child.DIR.PL. Ṣastirvam-ACC. run_after.IND.PAST-EXP-3PL.AGENT.EXTERIOR.
The children ran after Ṣastirvam.[8]

44.

ħærviṣe tarlāmahų kāvelīsam ħuħildnānute.
after. school-ABL.SG. go_out.MONODIR.IND.PERF-EXP-1SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. play.POTENT.IND.PRES-EXP-1SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT.
I can play after school.

45.

murjeinete pogom pūrṣābhe.
visit.SUBJ.PERF-EXP-1PL.EXTERIOR-AGENT. village-DAT.SG. go_with_vehicle.MULTIDIR.IND.PAST-EXP-3PL.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
We went to the village for a visit.

45-alt.

murjeinete pogom vasābhe.
visit.SUBJ.PERF-EXP-1PL.EXTERIOR-AGENT. village-DAT.SG. go_with_vehicle.MONODIR.IND.PAST-EXP-3PL.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
We went to the village for a visit.[9]

46.

maitu tatedāmābhe.
river-ACC.SG. reach.IND.PAST-EXP-1PL.EXTERIOR-AGENT.
We arrived at the river.

47.

sān uñumiram.
2SG.INFORMAL-TRANSL. wait.IND.PERF-EXP-1SG.COMMON.INTERIOR.
I have been waiting for you.

48.

jāṇāmahīn javyāt kamimirtaika.
camper.DIR.PL. fire-EXESS.SG. sit_around.IND.PAST-EXP-3PL.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The campers sat around the fire. (static)

48-alt.

jāṇāmahīn javyāt kamimirtiraika.
camper.DIR.PL. fire-EXESS.SG. sit_around.IND.PAST-EXP-3PL.COMMON.INTERIOR.
The campers sat around the fire. (dynamic)

49.

phēcæñcañįs lā sāmin lat ūmirtek.
small_cat-ESS.SG. with. child.DIR.SG. 1SG.EXESS. sit_near.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
A little girl with a kitten sat near me.[10] (static)

49-alt.

phēcæñcañįs lā sāmin lat ūmirtirek.
small_cat-ESS.SG. with. child.DIR.SG. 1SG.EXESS. sit_near.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR.
A little girl with a kitten sat near me.[11] (dynamic)

50.

sāmin geirat ūtyāk (demyān) bunān ñumirek.
child.DIR.SG. door-EXESS.SG. stand_near.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. (REFL.GEN-TRANSL.) father-TRANSL.SG. wait.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The child waited at the door for her/his father.[12]

51–75

51.

poge nanū gęṇṭire jāyimų lære phēcæñcañīh reiṣlek.
village-LOC.SG. more. be_old.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR. girl-ABL.SG. yesterday. small_cat.DIR.SG. lose.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
Yesterday the oldest girl in the village lost her kitten.

51-alt.

poge nanū gęṇṭire jāyimų lære phēcæñcañīh arāṣla.
village-LOC.SG. more. be_old.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR. girl-ABL.SG. yesterday. small_cat.DIR.SG. lose.IND.PERF-EXP-3.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
Yesterday the oldest girl in the village lost her kitten.[13]

52.

nenǣ poge gṇyāvirei dām?
this.PROXIMAL-LOC.SG. village-LOC.SG. give_birth.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR. INTERR.
Were you born in this village?

53.

sāmyā glūkam[14] hulābdān mūmikē dām?
2SG.INFORMAL.GEN.DIR. female's_brother.DIR.SG. well. dance.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. INTERR.
Can your brother dance well?[15]

54.

dralkam kaudāmek dām?
man.DIR.SG. go_away.MONODIR.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. INTERR.
Did the man leave?

55.

sāmi (demye) ñæltei[16] takǣlin dām?
2SG.INFORMAL.DIR. (REFL.GEN-ERG). male's_sister-ERG.SG. come.IND.PRES.EXP.2SG.EXTERIOR-BENEF. INTERR.
Is your sister coming for you?

56.

menire taħulonnai dām?
tomorrow. come.POT.IND.PRES-EXP-2SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. INTERR.
Can you come tomorrow?[17]

57.

tandaikinų kityāk bisavasa dām?
winter-ABL.SG. neighbour-DIR.PL. go_away_by_vehicle.MONODIR.IND.PERF-EXP-3.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. INTERR.
Have the neighbours gone away for the winter?

58.

daše koɂanah lejegde dām?
rain-LOC.SG. koɂanah.DIR.SG. sing.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT. INTERR.
Does the koɂanah bird sing in the rain?[18]

59.

vāndaranom muṣyā lenta vasi dām?
concert-DAT.SG. 1PL.GEN. together. go_by_vehicle.MONODIR.IND.PRES-EXP-2SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. INTERR.
Are you going with us to the concert?

60.

lætmiya nanāye larṣei dām?
whenever. forest-LOC.SG. travel.IND.PAST-EXP-2SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. INTERR.
Have you ever travelled in the jungle?

61.

maite nålemi vyaṣojrū yanoṭābhe.
river-LOC.SG. few. vyaṣojrā-ACC.SG. sail_downwards.MONODIR.IND.PAST-EXP-1PL.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
We sailed down the river for several vyaṣojrai.[19]

62.

podhanah pa yaivita tarlire.
hunting.DIR.SG. about. everyone.DIR. know.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR.
Everybody knows about hunting.

63.

yuñcehånnų nin hånnęs lā yartāme ñaryāsām tævasābhe.
solstice-ABL.SG. after. sun-ESS.SG. with. morning-LOC.SG. mountain-DAT.PL. start_motion_by_vehicle.IND.PAST-EXP-1PL.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
On a sunny morning after the solstice we started for the mountains.

64.

bṛdhi kamillātyai pa lælicham huppirek.
monkey-GEN.SG. trick.DIR.PL. about. Lælicham.DIR. laugh.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR.
Lælicham[20] laughed at the monkey's tricks.

65.

šernændhaṇḍęs lā gęṇṭalila ajñīt sāṭṭyāk.
walking_stick-ESS.SG. with. old_person.DIR.SG. fence-EXESS.SG. stand_beside.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
An old man[21] with a walking stick stood beside the fence.

66.

rasyami ṭūṇṭa įstimāhai molnyān grembek.
squirrel-GEN.SG. lair.DIR.SG. hang_down-IND.PRES-EXP-3PL.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. branch-ERG.PL. hide.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The squirrel's nest was hidden by drooping boughs.

67.

ñikirāhe dūdhai kaiṭe šūtaika ñuminaise tandayeni nailire hånnan ñumiraika.
be_little.IND.PRES-EXP-3PL.COMMON.INTERIOR. seed.DIR.PL snow-LOC.SG. lie_under-IND.PAST-EXP-3PL.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. patiently. spring-GEN.SG. be_warm-IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR. sun-TRANSL.SG. wait.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR.
The little seeds waited patiently under the snow for the warm spring sun.

68.

yaukaih āntelāṇṭāhai taili ñikirāhe jāyīk pogajavyāt kamimūmikaika.
wreath_of_flowers-ACC.PL. wear_around_head.IND.PRES-EXP-3PL.EXTERIOR-AGENT. many. be_little.IND.PRES-EXP-3PL.COMMON.INTERIOR. girl-DIR.PL. bonfire-EXESS.SG. dance_around.IND.PAST-EXP-3PL.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
Many little girls with wreaths of flowers on their heads danced around the bonfire.

68-alt.

taili ñikirāhe jāyimūn yaukai āṃlāṇṭāhai ānane jāyim pogajavyāt kamimūmikaika.
many. be_little.IND.PRES-EXP-3PL.COMMON.INTERIOR. girl-ERG.PL. wreath_of_flowers.DIR.PL. wear_around_head.IND.PRES-EXP-3PL.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. this.DIR.PL. girl.DIR.SG. bonfire-EXESS.SG. dance_around.IND.PAST-EXP-3PL.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
Many little girls with wreaths of flowers on their heads danced around the bonfire.[22]

69.

haihi snīrṣæñcih laṃghom šustāṭ.
basket-GEN.SG. cover.DIR.SG. floor-DAT.SG. fall_down.IND.PAST.EXP.3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The cover of the basket fell to the floor.

70.

taite lahīla saṃhāram nalunye jāṃrirek.
line-LOC.SG. first. boy.DIR.SG. entrance-LOC.SG. stop.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR.
The first boy in the line stopped at the entrance.

71.

ñikire sūrṇa ñæliħæltye ē āñjulā tailtarlire gęṇṭire hulin lilek.
be_small.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR. hut.DIR.SG. hilltop-LOC.SG. be.IND.PAST.EXP.3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. over_there. much-know-IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR. be_old-IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR. woman.DIR.SG live-IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
On the top of the hill in a little hut lived a wise old woman.

72.

babhrāṃrye amahajānābhe væse pakṣaṇṭrē laibe peithābhe.
land-LOC.SG. inhabit.IND.PAST-EXP-1PL.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. while. open_fields-LOC.SG. often. walk.MULTIDIR.IND.PAST-EXP-1PL.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
During our residence in the country we often walked in the pastures.

73.

martų sāmyā dįdhalūvi yamiya luniṣya?
city-ABL.SG. 2SG.INFORMAL.GEN.DIR. guest-DIR.PL. when.INTERR. arrive.IND.FUT-EXP-3.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
When will your guests from the city arrive?

74.

maita mæn memait ūmbuñjñē buñjñas nalejñuñcom najhninaise næljire.
river.DIR.SG. TOPIC. river_mouth-EXESS.SG. run_close_to.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. water_course.DIR.SG. east-DAT.SG. sharply. turn.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR.
Near the mouth of the river, its course turns sharply towards the East.

75.

lalla ñaryābhan nanire inai khlutek.
tall. mountain-EXESS.DU. be_fertile.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR. valley.DIR.SG. lay_between.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
Between the two lofty mountains lay a fertile valley.

76–100

76.

ūnikirāhe lalla kamarke tīppat ginukṣṇiraika.
be_red.IND.PRES-EXP-3PL.COMMON.INTERIOR. tall. poppy-DIR.PL. wheat-EXESS.SG. grow_among.IND.PRES-EXP-3PL.COMMON.INTERIOR.
Among the wheat grew tall red poppies.

77.

imbirūmi ṣṭrāṣpirāhe lǣcai šerbaraṃrūndhaika.
oak-GEN.PL. be_robust.IND.PRES-EXP-3PL.COMMON.INTERIOR. root-DIR.PL. tear_away_from_below.IND.PAST-EXP-3PL.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The strong roots of the oak trees were torn from the ground.

78.

hånna tēnemān ħildāhaite samiṃsām hališugryautek.
sun.DIR.SG. branch-EXESS.PL. play.IND.PRES-EXP-3PL.EXTERIOR-AGENT. child-DAT.PL. shine_down_through.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The sun looked down through the branches upon the children at play.

79.

samvālyuñci prātas lųsaire mayimęs e lilyāt palyat behamek.
west-GEN.SG. wind.DIR.SG. be_tender.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR. caress-ESS.SG. like. 1SG.GEN-EXESS. face-EXESS.SG. blow_along_surface.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The west wind blew across my face like a friendly caress.

79-alt.

samvālyuñci prātas lųsaire mayimęs e lilǣ palye behamek.
west-GEN.SG. wind.DIR.SG. be_tender.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR. caress-ESS.SG. like. 1SG.GEN-LOC. face-LOC.SG. blow_along_surface.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The west wind blew across my face[23] like a friendly caress.

80.

bęntęs inombeh laṃghat bepārlek.
thread-ESS.SG. spool.DIR.SG. floor-EXESS.SG. roll_along_surface.MULTIDIR.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The spool of thread rolled across the floor.

81.

ukṣṇirāhe vāṇēm lā pliṭa yanaprāgdeire āntimek.
grow.IND.PRES-EXP-3PL.COMMON.INTERIOR. plant-ESS.PL. with. box.DIR.SG. windowsill-LOC.SG. stay_on.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
A box of growing plants stood in the window.

82.

lili taili hånyadaikiru.
1SG.DIR. much. be_happy.IND.PRES-EXP-1SG.COMMON.INTERIOR.
I am very happy.

83.

ānane aimba vælskūkirāhe.
these.DIR. orange.DIR.SG. be_juicy.IND.PRES-EXP-3PL.COMMON.INTERIOR.
These oranges are juicy.

84.

jarei mailtvąa nanūkokirāhe.
sea-GEN.SG. water.DIR.PL. be_salty.IND.PRES-EXP-3PL.COMMON.INTERIOR.
Sea water is salty.

85.

ūnimai laili mumūyakį jalirā.
street-DIR.PL. person-GEN.PL. abundance-ESS.SG. be.IND.PRES-EXP-3PL.EXTERIOR-LOC.
The streets are full of people.

86.

pēmbāvi yālvire.
sugar.DIR.SG. be_sweet.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR.
Sugar tastes sweet.

87.

javyāh meṣyire.
fire.DIR.SG. be_hot_to_contact.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR.
The fire feels hot.

88.

dakhītah emibą birdek.
young_girl.DIR.SG. one-ESS. seem.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The little girl seemed lonely.

89.

prevyāṣe ñikire saṃhārami būnā karimbaliląs nīk.
once. be_small.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR. boy-GEN.SG. father.DIR.SG. sailor-ESS.SG. be.IND.PAST.EXP.3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
The little boy's father had once been a sailor.

90.

lilyai snīrṣmi arāṣliram.
1SG.GEN-GEN. blanket-GEN.SG. lose.IND.PERF-EXP-1SG.COMMON.INTERIOR.
I have lost my blanket.

91.

ṭūṇṭa koɂanei javilæne āndṛk.
lair.DIR.SG. koɂanah-ERG.SG. apple_tree-LOC.SG. build.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
A koɂanah bird[24] has built his nest in the apple tree.

92.

lalla hånne ūniṃdilsat sāṭmertābhe hånnelūdyu yųlābhete.
high. sun-LOC.SG. roadside-EXESS.SG. sit_beside.IND.PRES-EXP-1PL.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. lunch-ACC.SG. eat.IND.PAST-EXP-1PL.EXTERIOR-AGENT.
At noon we ate our lunch by the roadside.

93.

yamei chaukārī lāma ñikire saṃhāram nali bhagvāmu āntedṛk.
HONOR. Chaukārī.DIR. HONOR. be_small.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR. boy.DIR.SG. for. knife-ACC.SG. build.IND.PAST-EXP-3SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT.
Mr. Chaukārī[25] made a knife for his little boy.

94.

ānnī leli maivais taili hånyadaikirī berdāhai.
those-GEN. person-GEN.SG. voice-DIR.PL. much. be_happy.SUBJ.IMPF-EXP-3.COMMON.INTERIOR. seem.IND.PRES-EXP-3PL.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
Their voices sound very happy.

95.

nyūramyah amyære vi dam?
Nyūramyah.DIR.SG. today. be.IND.PRES.EXP.3SG.PATIENT.INTERIOR. INTERR.
Is today Nyūramyah[26]?

96.

yaiva nūlyai jñūmų ustura dam?
all.DIR. leaf-DIR.PL. tree-ABL.SG. fall.IND.PERF-EXP-3.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. INTERR.
Have all the leaves fallen from the tree?

97.

kandrave ahåltālires dam?
bell-LOC.SG. be_ready.IND.FUTINT-EXP-2SG.COMMON.INTERIOR. INTERR.
Will you be ready on time?

98.

nenyau pahāmu lilǣ varve sæsmiṣyeste dam?
this-ACC. message-ACC.SG. 1SG.GEN-LOC. body-LOC.SG. send.IND.FUT-EXP-2SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT. INTERR.
Will you send this message for me?

99.

lan ñomiri dam?
1SG.TRANSL. wait.IND.PRES-EXP-2SG.COMMON.INTERIOR. INTERR.
Are you waiting for me?

100.

nenē damani lahīla phēcæñcañīh vi dam?
this.DIR. litter-GEN.SG. first. kitten.DIR.SG. be.IND.PRES.EXP.3SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR. INTERR.
Is this the first kitten of the litter?

101–125

101.

sāmi nali nenē junyoe vivāmi sūrṣire dam?
2SG.INFORM.DIR. for. this.DIR. pair_of_shoes.DIR.SG. too_much. be_big.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR. INTERR.
Are these shoes too big for you?

102.

maita yanūḍat švadhire?
river.DIR.SG. how_much. be_wide.IND.PRES-EXP-3SG.COMMON.INTERIOR.
How wide is the river?

103.

tatemindmai.
listen.OPT.IMPF-EXP-2SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT.
Listen.

104.

ejulyom lat sāṭmirtirmai.
hither. 1SG.EXESS. sit_beside.OPT.IMPF-EXP-2SG.COMMON.INTERIOR.
Sit here by me.

105.

menire sām nenyau mbulju natenædhmai.
tomorrow. until. this-ACC. secret-ACC.SG. keep_inside.OPT.IMPF-EXP-2SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT.
Keep this secret until tomorrow.

106.

muhįs lā talāvi.
1PL.ESS. with. come.OPT.IMPF-EXP-2SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
Come with us.

107.

sįs lā laltaih dårbhamaite.
2SG.INFORM.ESS. with. friend-ACC.PL. lead.OPT.IMPF-EXP-2SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT.
Bring your friends with you.

108.

thyatimai.
be_careful.OPT.IMPF-EXP-2SG.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
Be careful.

109.

lunāyu målvite.
tea-ACC.SG. take.OPT.IMPF-EXP-2SG.EXTERIOR-AGENT.
Have some tea.

110.

kælem demyā thudam no hulābdān laltyāt nīdat.
Kælem.DIR. REFL.GEN.DIR. dog.DIR.SG. and. good. friend-DIR.DU. be.IND.PAST-EXP-3DU.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
Kælem[27] and his dog were great friends.

111.

lilemāvya jalgudām no ñæltāglūkivā jali.
Lilemāvya.DIR. Jalgudām.DIR. and. sister-brother-DIR.DU. be.IND.PRES-EXP-3DU.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
Lilemāvya and Jalgudām[28] are brother and sister.

112.

sāmi lili no gimmālęe peithiṣyara.
2SG.INFORM.DIR. 1SG.DIR. and. together. go.MULTIDIR.IND.FUT-EXP-1DU.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
You and I will go together.

113.

yaiva geire prāgdeire no uldaika.
all. door-DIR.PL. window-DIR.PL. and. open.IND.PAST-EXP-3PL.PATIENT.EXTERIOR.
They opened all the doors and windows.

114.

Footnotes

  1. ^ The verb yanasturake, when referring to rain, denotes a stronger intensity of the rain shower than yanabuñjñake, as used in sentence 19.
  2. ^ Denotes a stronger certainty than sentence 22.
  3. ^ She in the source.
  4. ^ He in the source.
  5. ^ Or jilniltęe nenē mulkṣah bislæchliriṣya, with no change of meaning.
  6. ^ I used Kāltarvān, a Chlouvānem given name, instead of Henry used in the source.
  7. ^ The word sāmin used here is not gender-specific, so that it might also be translated as "the little kid's doll".
  8. ^ As with sentence 39, I used Ṣastirvam, a Chlouvānem name, instead of Jack as in the source.
  9. ^ The verb vaske used in this sentence instead of pūrṣake in sentence 45 denotes that, in the time frame relevant to the sentence, the subject (we) had not returned from the village yet, or is an ongoing action, in which case would be better translated as "We were going to the village for a visit."
  10. ^ See note to sentence 41.
  11. ^ See note to sentence 41.
  12. ^ Her father in the source.
  13. ^ In sentence 51, the girl has since found her kitten; in sentence 51-alt, she hasn't.
  14. ^ Chlouvānem has different words for siblings: glūkam denotes a female person's brother, while praškas is a male person's older brother and nālis a male person's younger brother. In this sentence, sāmyā is also an informal 2SG, and different forms would be used in formal contexts, depending on the relative rank of speaker and listener.
  15. ^ Note how Chlouvānem differs from English in that such a sentence actually translates as "Does your brother dance well?": the adverb qualifying "dance" prevents the verb from being put in the potential junya. Had the sentence been "Can your brother dance?", then the potential mūmomiknānē would have been used instead of mūmikē (see also sentence 56).
  16. ^ As with the first note to sentence 53, Chlouvānem has three different words for "sister": ñæltah for a male person's sister, buneya for a female person's older sister, and kalineh for a female person's younger sister. Also like that sentence, sāmi is informal 2SG, and the pronoun or pronominal locution would be different in formal sentences.
  17. ^ In such a sentence, the present tense instead of the future or future intentional denotes that the thing the speaker asks for is the possibility, in that moment, that the listener can come the following day.
  18. ^ Robin in the source. The koɂanah is a small bird native to the rainforests of the southern Chlouvānem Inquisition, famous for its birdsong.
  19. ^ Several miles in the source; one vyaṣojrā, a common Chlouvānem unit of length, equals 1,12212 km = 0,6973 mi.
  20. ^ Tom in the source.
  21. ^ The actual translation, gęṇṭalila, is gender-unspecified, as most such terms in Chlouvānem.
  22. ^ Sentence 68-alt is a bit longer than sentence 68 but reduces any possibility of ambiguity; in sentence 68, the fact that "to wear around the head" is cast in the agent-trigger voice, as syntactically required by it being attributively applied to "girls", is ambiguous as agent-trigger voice, with verbs of "wearing", usually denotes the act of putting on a certain piece of clothing, as opposed to the state of wearing one, denoted by the patient-trigger voice. If the context is not clear enough, sentence 68 could be interpreted as "Many little girls, while putting wreaths of flowers on their heads, were dancing around the bonfire".
  23. ^ In this case, using the locative or the exessive is a simple stylistic variation, without any change in meaning.
  24. ^ See note to sentence 58.
  25. ^ Mr. Jones in the source; note that the Chlouvānem word is a given name, not a surname, as usual before lāma.
  26. ^ Monday in the source.
  27. ^ Pip in the source; Kælem is an affectionate diminutive of the given name Kāltarvān.
  28. ^ John and Elizabeth in the source.