Eighth edition lekma

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The conlang named lekma /ˈleχmɐ/ is an experimental language, on a waypoint in making a miniature,
for learning about languages to make it, also for making it to learn about languages.
Part of speech.
There is noun, noun whose root acts as a verb, adjective derived from the both, finally particle derived from the verbal root.
Adjectives indicate what a subject is. Verbs express what a subject does or is.
Structure is as follows.
A main clause constructs particle + agentive/subjective noun + verb + object, a subject/topic may follows.
A clause of a verb + a complement is either indication of what the subject does or is, or acts as a noun.
A clause of a verb + a complement + a noun is a noun.
A clause of a verb + a complement + suffix, acting as an adjective, modifies a noun.
Frontings.
A connective noun/focused word/interjection in the usage, that are before the main clause.
Also an adjective clause/conditional noun is in front of main clause in a clause + clause construction.
± Morpheme inventory *under development
  • s- /sɨ/,allomorpheme;/s/,
  • n- /nɨ/,allomorpheme;/n/,
  • a- /ä/
  • ∅- /ʔ/
  • -a /ɦä/
  • -e /ɦe/
  • -s /s/
  • -as /ɦäs/
  • -es /ɦes/
  • -n /n/
  • -en /ɦen/
  • -ns /ns/
  • -ens /ɦens/
  • -l /l/
  • -t /t/
  • -d /t/
  • -ls /ls/
  • -ts /t͡s/
  • -ds /des/
  • -el /el/
  • -et /et/
  • -at /ät/
  • -ad /äde/
  • -els /els/
  • -ets /et͡s/
  • -ats /ät͡s/
  • -ads /ädes/
  • -nd /indɐ/
  • -nt /int/
  • -nds /indɐs/
  • -nts /intes/

Phoneme inventory

Consonants Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post­al-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
Plosive b t d k g ʔ
Affricate t͡s ʈ͡ʂ t͡ɕ
Fricative f s ʃ ʂ ʝ χ ɦ
Approximant ʋ
Trill ʀ
Lateral approximant l
Vowels Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i y iː yː ɨ ɯ u
Mid-open e ø eː øː ɐ ʌ o
Open ä äː

Phonotactics *under development

± phonotactics *development
C V C/CC
root words are either CVC or CVCC k:allophones; t ʔ ɦ l;ʎ;ɾ sr ɲ ŋ ä:allophones;â á:ae;ai;oa e é:ei;é;ea i î í o ö:eu;oi ó:ou u ü ú:allophones;;ue;ua;uo ɲ ŋ h tz cz t ns −vowel length lk −vowel length ks sk

Declension *under development

noun root gloss
the agent of a transitive verb the subject/locative of an intransitive verb the direct/indirect object of a verb possessive form plural form plural possessive form
uac/ʋɐk/ sac/sɐk/ nac/nɐk/ uac/ʋɐk/[ʔɐk] uacs/ʔäks/ sacen/säːgen/,nacen/näːgen/,uacen/ʔäːgen/ uacens/ʔäːgens/ I
uue/ʋyː/ sue/syː/ nue/nyː/ uue/ʋyː/[ʔyː] uues/ʋyːs/[ʔyːs] suen/syːen/,nuen/nyːen/,ʋuen/ʔyːen/ uuens/ʔyːens/ You
hia/ɦiä/ sia/siä/ nia/niä/ hia/ɦiä/ hias/ɦiäs/ sian/siän/,nian/niän/,hian/ɦiän/ hians/ɦiäns/ They (singular)

Conjugation *under development

verb root indicative form subjunctive form connective form noun-like form gloss
present/habitual the motion is futural -ing, /if the motion is incomplete the motion is completed
sel/sel/ ser/sel/ seat/seɦät/ sad/säːt/ selnd/selindɐ/ selnt/selint/ be
bal/bäl/ bar/bäl/ baat/päɦät/ bad/päːt/ balnd/pälindɐ balnt/pälint/ have
tel/tel/ ter/tel/ teat/teɦät/ tad/täːt/ telnd/telindɐ/ telnt/telint/ hang,raise

Made texts

*under development


Swadesh list *under development

± reading basis /visual basis
  • I: ʋɐk /uac
  • you (singular): ʋyː /uue
  • he: ɦäŋ /han
  • we: /uacen
  • you (plural): ʋyːen /uuen
  • they: ɦiä /hia
  • this : tog,ɦiä /toc,hia
  • that: àe,kosa /hae,cos
  • here: tocma /tcm
  • there: kkaema /aem
  • who: hhia,lhia /lia
  • what: kva /kva
  • where: kvime /kvm
  • when: kvatzuí /kvn
  • how: kvamuí /kvi
  • not: né /nei
  • all: àen /aen
  • many: àens /aens
  • some: de àen /duiaen
  • few: làes /leas
  • other: né daes /neidae
  • one: éna,ená,ésa,esá /ina,isa
  • two: tzue /dva
  • three: mal /mal
  • four: cut /cut
  • five: unal /hal
  • big: lhens /uncertain
  • long: naelhens /uncertain
  • wide: daesbala /uncertain
  • thick: bala /uncertain
  • heavy: né fie /neifias
  • small: uncertain /nal
  • short: kul /uncertain
  • narrow: tis /tsm
  • thin: kadtis /uncertain
  • woman: lhúa /lua
  • man (adult male): lhúa /lua
  • man (human being): hhan/lhúo /luo
  • child: uncertain /tisluo
  • wife: uncertain /mama dae kús
  • husband: uncertain /tata dae kús
  • mother: máma /mam
  • father: táta /tat
  • animal: this /uncertain
  • fish: fisk /fsk
  • bird: tofie /tfl
  • dog: cúon /chn
  • louse: uncertain /lus
  • snake: uncertain /lam
  • worm: hhom /orm
  • tree: uncertain /bim
  • forest: uncertain /bsk
  • stick: baunel /uncertain
  • fruit: fam /flm
  • seed: fam /sem
  • leaf: hhüo /lif
  • root: lád /lad
  • bark (of a tree): uncertain /blk
  • flower: uncertain /lili
  • grass: ladlili /uncertain
  • rope: sinn /uncertain
  • skin: bäl /uncertain
  • meat: salk /slk
  • blood: salk /uncertain
  • bone: lám /uncertain
  • fat (noun): bét /fat
  • egg: ais /uncertain
  • horn: kol /krn
  • tail: lámen /lam
  • feather: fie /fli
  • hair: tetr /khr
  • head: uncertain /cab
  • ear: olhen /orh
  • eye: ain /oin
  • nose: nes /nez
  • mouth: uncertain /lif
  • tooth: tzann /fnc
  • tongue (organ): tzann /zau
  • fingernail: tzann /fau
  • foot: uncertain /bam
  • leg: uncertain /bam
  • knee: baim /uncertain
  • hand: tec /tek
  • wing: fiem /fli
  • belly: mac /uncertain
  • guts: mac /uncertain
  • neck: nec /uncertain
  • back: tzüc /ruc
  • breast: bec /fec
  • heart: kel /kor
  • liver: kel /uncertain
  • to drink: sifel /drk
  • to eat: nem /nhm
  • to bite: tzaunel /tnf
  • to suck: sifel /uncertain
  • to spit: nemel /uncertain
  • to vomit: tue dae nems /uncertain
  • to blow: bolel /uncertain
  • to breathe: nesel /uncertain
  • to laugh: hrak /rch
  • to see: vis /ver
  • to hear: sanhel /oir
  • to know: can /cna
  • to think: canel /dik
  • to smell: nesel /uncertain
  • to fear: bai /uncertain
  • to sleep: bei /slf
  • to live: súmel /uncertain
  • to die: né súmel /meisumel
  • to kill: sral /uncertain
  • to fight: sral /uncertain
  • to hunt: sral /uncertain
  • to hit: láb /lfn
  • to cut: kul /uncertain
  • to split: tuinde kut,tua tzues /dval
  • to stab: binn /uncertain
  • to scratch: skilel /uncertain
  • to dig: binn /nem
  • to swim: uncertain /svi
  • to fly: uncertain /fei
  • to walk: salkel /uncertain
  • to come: hhim /clm
  • to lie (as in a bed): lob /uncertain
  • to sit: sidel /set
  • to stand: hrec /tnd
  • to turn (intransitive): silkel /uncertain
  • to fall: feiel /fei
  • to give: túe /tue
  • to hold: hrantel /uncertain
  • to squeeze: tzecal /uncertain
  • to rub: vask /uncertain
  • to wash: vask /uncertain
  • to wipe: vaskel /vsk
  • to pull: tec /uncertain
  • to push: tec,ffon /uncertain
  • to throw: tue toc náe /uncertain
  • to tie: ticel /bnd
  • to sew: ffinticel /uncertain
  • to count: teltzif /uncertain
  • to say: srua /seu
  • to sing: séunel /seu
  • to play: bil /sfl
  • to float: lom /flt
  • to flow: ae /flt
  • to freeze: íelel /iel
  • to swell: rcol /uncertain
  • sun: hrá /uncertain
  • moon: daehrá /mun
  • star: lucz /trl
  • water: súm /sumi
  • rain: lein /rcn
  • river: léne /len
  • lake: léne /len
  • sea: léneen /len
  • salt: sala /slt
  • stone: shè /stn
  • sand: sahr /snd
  • dust: hroma /uncertain
  • earth: thi /nulmaf
  • cloud: küt /sku
  • fog: küt /foc
  • sky: séo /sulmaf
  • wind: fendas /vnd
  • snow: nívas /snu
  • ice: íelen /ais
  • smoke: féu /feo
  • fire: féu /feo
  • ash: daeféu /uncertain
  • to burn: tocféu tue /feol
  • road: vei /vec
  • mountain: uncertain /mon
  • red: hrot /rod
  • green: léu /crn
  • yellow: col /clb
  • white: hrát /vit
  • black: dal /blc
  • night: dal /nkt
  • day: dis /dac
  • year: iálen /zuames
  • warm: nôk /vrm
  • cold: íels /chl
  • full: buk /ful
  • new: bil /uncertain
  • old: né bil /uncertain
  • good: hhim /bim
  • bad: né hhim /uncertain
  • rotten: tocel nae /uncertain
  • dirty: mud /uncertain
  • straight: bim /uncertain
  • round: kadbal /uncertain
  • sharp (as a knife): dis /uncertain
  • dull (as a knife): dos /uncertain
  • smooth: dilel /uncertain
  • wet: suːmmɯi /summui
  • dry: sekal /sek
  • correct: bim /uncertain
  • near: tocmas /uncertain
  • far: naemas /uncertain
  • right: hris /lkt
  • left: chol /lnk
  • at: ʈ͡ʂɯi /zui
  • in: lhea /ins
  • with: mɯi /mui
  • and: e,elk /elk
  • if: o,sôm /som
  • because: fɯi /fui
  • name: námel /nam