Lôppic

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Lôppic
lôpizô tařak
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-accusative
Head direction
Initial Mixed Final
Primary word order
Object-subject-verb
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Lôppic
lôpizô tařak
Pronunciation: {{{pronunciation}}}
Spoken in: {{{spoken}}}
Region: North America
Total speakers: 900,094 (native)
Ranking: <200
Language family: Panlaffic languages
Writing system: {{{writing}}}
Official status
Official language in: {{{official}}}
Regulated by: {{{regulator}}}
Language codes
ISO 639-1 lp
ISO 639-2 lpi
SIL lpi
See also: LanguageLists of languages

General information

Kihāmát on Google Maps.

The Lôppic language (Lôppic Latin: Lô lôpizô tařak, pronounced [ˈlo loˈpizo ˈtaʁɐk]) is the main language spoken on the Island of Laāláûī, in Kihāmát, and is recognised as the island's official regional language. An inflected fusional nominative-accusative language, Lôppic has two numbers, three genders and seven cases. The language is the second most spoken in the country after Kihā́mmic and both belong to the isolated Panlaffic language family, indigenous to the country's eight islands. There are five extant Panlaffic languages other than Lôppic and Kihā́mmic.

Phonology and orthography

See also: IPA for Lôppic

Like all Panlaffic languages, Lôppic can be written either in Panlaffic script or in the Standardised Romanised Panlaffic Alphabet. For ease of use the Romanised alphabet is used throughout this article.

Consonants

Grapheme IPA Description Notes
P p [p] voiceless bilabial plosive -
L l [l], [ɫ] alveolar lateral approximant, velarised alveolar lateral approximant [l] becomes [ɫ] before another consonant
M m [m], [ɱ] bilabial nasal, labiodental nasal [m] becomes [ɱ] before f and v
N n [n], [ŋ] alveolar nasal, velar nasal [n] becomes [ŋ] before g and k
D d [d] voiced alveolar plosive -
H h [h], [ɦ] voiceless glottal fricative, voiced glottal fricative [h] becomes [ɦ] before y, after k and between two vowels
Ȟ ȟ [ç] voiceless palatal fricative -
K k [k] voiceless velar plosive -
Ǩ ǩ [x] voiceless velar fricative -
R r [ɾ], [ɹ] alveolar tap, alveolar approximant [ɾ] becomes [ɹ] at the start of a word
Ř ř [ʁ] voiced uvular fricative -
B b [b], [β̞] voiced bilabial plosive, voiced bilabial approximant [b] becomes [β̞] when intervocalic
Þ þ [θ], [ð] voiceless dental fricative, voiced dental fricative -
V v [v] voiced labiodental fricative -
Z z [z] voiced alveolar fricative -
Ž ž [ʒ] voiced palato-alveolar fricative -
F f [f] voiceless labiodental fricative -
G g [g], [ɣ] voiced velar plosive, voiced velar fricative [g] becomes [ɣ] when intervocalic
S S [s] voiceless alveolar fricative -
Š š [ʃ] voiceless palato-alveolar fricative -
Č č [t͡ʃ] voiceless palato-alveolar affricate -
T t [t] voiceless alveolar plosive -
Y y [j] palatal approximant -

Vowels

Grapheme IPA Description
A a [a], [ɐ], [ə] open front unrounded vowel, near-open central vowel, mid central vowel
Ā ā [ɑː], [ɑˑ], [ɑ] open back unrounded vowel
à ã [ɐ̃] nasalised near-open central vowel
E e [ɛ], [e], [ə] open-mid front unrounded vowel, close-mid front unrounded vowel, mid central vowel
[ẽ] nasalised close-mid front unrounded vowel
O o [ɒ], [ə] open back rounded vowel, mid central vowel
Ô ô [o], [ə] close-mid back rounded vowel, mid central vowel
Ō ō [ɔː], [ɔˑ], [ɔ] open-mid back rounded vowel
Õ õ [õ] nasalised close-mid back rounded central vowel
I i [i], [ɪ], [ɪ̈] close front unrounded vowel, near-close near-front unrounded vowel, near-close central unrounded vowel
Ī ī [iː], [iˑ], [i] close front unrounded vowel
Ĩ ĩ [ɛ̃] nasalised open-mid front unrounded vowel
U u [ʊ], [ʊ̈] near-close near-back vowel, near-close central rounded vowel
Û û [u], [ʊ], [ʊ̈] close back rounded vowel, near-close near-back vowel, near-close central rounded vowel
Ū ū [uː], [uˑ], [u] close back rounded vowel
Ũ ũ [ũ] nasalised close back rounded vowel

Digraphs

Grapheme IPA Description Notes
LY ly [ʎ] palatal lateral approximant -
NY ny [ɲ] palatal nasal -
DZ dz [d͡z] voiced alveolar affricate -
DS ds [d͡z] voiced alveolar affricate -
DY dy [ɟ] voiced palatal plosive -
[d͡ʒ] voiced palato-alveolar affricate -
KG kg [kː] geminated voiceless velar plosive -
GK gk [gː] geminated voiced velar plosive -
TZ tz [t͡s] voiceless alveolar affricate -
TS ts [t͡s] voiceless alveolar affricate -
TY ty [c] voiceless palatal plosive -

Vowel reduction

Depending on whether or not a vowel is stressed in Lôppic, its pronunciation may change, just as in English, Portuguese and Russian. Stressed means that the vowel is a primary or strong secondary stress point, semi-stressed means that it neighbours a stress point, unstressed means that there is at least one other vowel between it and a stress point. The table below shows how pronunciation may change according to stress.

Stressed Semi-stressed Unstressed
A a [a] [ɐ] [ə]
Ā ā [ɑː] [ɑˑ]
à ã [ɐ̃]
E e [ɛ], [e] [ə]
Ẽ ẽ [ẽ]
O o [ɒ] [ə]
Ô ô [o] [ə]
Ō ō [ɔː] [ɔˑ] [ɔ]
Õ õ [õ]
I i [i] [ɪ] [ɪ̈]
Ī ī [iː] [iˑ] [i]
Ĩ ĩ [ɛ̃]
U u [ʊ] [ʊ̈]
Û û [u] [ʊ] [ʊ̈]
Ū ū [uː] [uˑ] [u]
Ũ ũ [ũ]

Alphabet

The Kihā́mmic Coat of Arms

All the Panlaffic languages have traditionally been written in the Panlaffic alphabet, with Lôppic using a specific variant. However, nowadays, chiefly due to the Internet, the Romanised alphabet is gaining use. Unlike in Kihā́mmic the stresses of word are not indicated with stress marks.

Romanised alphabet
P p L l A a Ā ā Ã ã M m N n E e Ẽ ẽ D d H h Ȟ ȟ K k Ǩ ǩ O o Ô ô Ō ō Õ õ R r Ř ř
[pe] [le] [a] [ɑː] [ɐ̃] [me] [ne] [e] [ẽ] [de] [he] [çe] [ke] [xe] [ɒ] [o] [ɔː] [õ] [ɹe] [ʁe]
B b Þ þ I i Ī ī Ĩ ĩ V v Ə ə Z z Ž ž F f G g S s Š š Č č U u Û û Ū ū Ũ ũ T t Y y
[be] [ɛθ] [ɪ] [iː] [ɛ̃] [ve] [ə] [ze] [ʒe] [ɛf] [ge] [se] [ʃe] [t͡ʃe] [ʊ] [u] [uː] [ũ] [te] [je]

Note that "Ə" is sometimes used when Kihā́mmic names are used in Lôppic.

Note also that letters do not decline and when used in writing (in the Romanised alphabet) are always capitalised. If declension is necessary the word "lef" [letter (of the alphabet)] is used preceding the letter, e.g. "lef G".

Grammar

Cases

There are seven cases in the Lôppic language:

  1. Nominative
  2. Accusative
  3. Genitive
  4. Ablative
  5. Allative (or dative-allative)
  6. Instrumental
  7. Locative

Nouns

Masculine

Masculine nouns end in consonants, -ô and -õ. Pluralisation in masculine nouns adds the infix -am- or -m-, some nouns add -an- or -n- instead.

Translation → building moon, Moon church
Case ↓ Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative hot hotam ônô ônamô ačõ ačamõ
Accusative hota hotama ônôm ônamôm ačôm ačamôm
Genitive hotī hotamī ônī ônamī ačônī ačamôn
Ablative hota hotama ôna ônama ačôna ačamôna
Allative hotô hotamô ônô ônamô ačônô ačamônô
Instrumental hotû hotamû ônû ônamû ačônû ačamônû
Locative hote hotame ône ôname ačône ačamône

Feminine

Feminine nouns end in -a, -ã, -e and -. Pluralisation in feminine nouns adds the infix -m- or -am-. Some nouns add -n- or -an- instead.

Translation → grass war wind planet
Case ↓ Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative lafa lafma grã gramã fāve fāvme aǩẽ aǩmẽ
Accusative lafai lafmai grãu gramãu fāvei fāvmei aǩẽu aǩmẽu
Genitive lafī lafmī grĩ gramĩ fāvī fāvmī aǩĩ aǩmĩ
Ablative lafan lafman granã gramanã fāva fāvma aǩã aǩmã
Allative lafô lafmô grõ gramõ fāvô fāvmô aǩõ aǩmõ
Instrumental lafû lafmû grũ gramũ fāvû fāvmû aǩũ aǩmũ
Locative lafe lafme grẽ gramẽ fāven fāvmen aǩen aǩmen

Neuter

Neuter nouns end in -û, -ũ, -ī and -ĩ. Pluralisation in neuter nouns adds the infix -tr- or -atr-. Some nouns add -dr- or -adr- instead.

Translation → eye god bone part
Case ↓ Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative čû čatrû dāžũ dāžtrũ takī taktrī haskĩ haskatrĩ
Accusative čû čatrû dāžũ dāžtrũ takī taktrī haskĩ haskatrĩ
Genitive čī čatrī dāžĩ dāžtrĩ takīn taktrīn haskīn haskatrīn
Ablative ča čatra dāžã dāžtrã taka taktra haskã haskatrã
Allative čô čatrô dāžõ dāžtrõ takô taktrô haskõ haskatrõ
Instrumental čûn čatrûn dāžûn dāžtrûn taku taktru haskũ haskatrũ
Locative če čatre dāžẽ dāžtrẽ take taktre haskẽ haskatrẽ

Diminutives and augmentatives

Diminutives add -ũ (m), -ûna (f) or -ûnû (n) unless the word ends in a vowel, in which case - (m), -kna (f) or -knû (n) is added.

Augmentatives add -at(ô/a/û) but add -mt(ô/a/û) when the word ends in a vowel.

Adjectives do not change according to diminutives or augmentatives.

Articles


Panlaffic languages
Kihā́mmic branch Church Kihā́mmicKihā́mmic
Gánəmannic branch GánəmannicKétassicKyánnicLôppicLower FnórricUpper Fnórric
Engtáffic branch AngátticEngtáfficPōllic
Other Panlaffic alphabetPanlaffic cases