Difference between revisions of "Naquian"

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m (Phonology)
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|-
 
|-
 
! colspan="2" style="" |Nasal
 
! colspan="2" style="" |Nasal
| '''μ''' /m/
+
| '''m''' /m/
| '''ν''' /n/
+
| '''n''' /n/
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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! rowspan="2" style=""  |Plosive
 
! rowspan="2" style=""  |Plosive
 
! |<small>tenuis</small>
 
! |<small>tenuis</small>
| '''φ''' /p/
+
| '''p''' /p/
| '''θ''' /t/
+
| '''t''' /t/
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''χ''' /k/
+
| '''c''' /k/
| '''χυ''' /kʷ/
+
| '''qu''' /kʷ/
| '''ϙ''' /ʔ/
+
| '''h''' /ʔ/
| '''ϙυ''' /ʔʷ~wˀ/
+
| '''hu''' /ʔʷ~wˀ/
 
|-
 
|-
 
! |<small>ejective</small>
 
! |<small>ejective</small>
| '''π''' /pʼ/
+
| '''p''' /pʼ/
| '''τ''' /tʼ/
+
| '''t''' /tʼ/
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''κ''' /kʼ/
+
| '''c''' /kʼ/
| '''κυ''' /kʷʼ/
+
| '''qu''' /kʷʼ/
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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! colspan="2" style="" |Fricative
 
! colspan="2" style="" |Fricative
 
|  
 
|  
| '''σ''' /s/
+
| '''z''' /s/
| '''ϧ''' /ɬ/
+
|  
| '''ϸ''' /ʃ/
+
| '''x''' /ʃ/
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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! |<small>tenuis</small>
 
! |<small>tenuis</small>
 
|  
 
|  
| '''θσ''' /ts/
+
| '''tz''' /ts/
| '''θϧ''' /tɬ/
+
| '''tl''' /tɬ/
| '''θϸ''' /tʃ/
+
| '''tx''' /tʃ/
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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! |<small>ejective</small>
 
! |<small>ejective</small>
 
|  
 
|  
| '''τσ''' /tsʼ/
+
| '''tzh''' /tsʼ/
| '''τϧ''' /tɬʼ/
+
| '''tłh''' /tɬʼ/
| '''τϸ''' /tʃʼ/
+
| '''txh''' /tʃʼ/
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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! colspan="2" style="" |Approximant
 
! colspan="2" style="" |Approximant
 
|  
 
|  
| '''ρ''' /r/
+
| '''r''' /r/
| '''λ''' /l/
+
| '''l''' /l/
| '''ι''' /j/
+
| '''y''' /j/
 
|  
 
|  
| '''υ''' /w/
+
| '''u''' /w/
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
|
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|-
 
|-
 
! style="" |Close
 
! style="" |Close
| '''ι''' /i/
+
| '''i''' /i/
| '''ί''' /iː/
+
| '''ī''' /iː/
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''υ''' /u/
+
| '''u''' /u/
| '''ύ''' /uː/
+
| '''ū''' /uː/
 
|-
 
|-
 
! style="" |Mid
 
! style="" |Mid
| '''ε''' /ɛ/
+
| '''e''' /ɛ/
| '''έ''' /eː/
+
| '''ē''' /eː/
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''ο''' /ɔ/
+
| '''o''' /ɔ/
| '''ό''' /oː/
+
| '''ō''' /oː/
 
|-
 
|-
 
! style="" |Open
 
! style="" |Open
 
|
 
|
 
|  
 
|  
| '''α''' /a/
+
| '''a''' /a/
| '''ά''' /aː/
+
| '''ā''' /aː/
 
|
 
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|}
 
|}
  
Diphthongs: '''αι αυ η ω ει ου''' /ai au ea oa ei ou/
+
Diphthongs: '''ea oa ei ou''' /ea oa ei ou/
  
 
===Stress===
 
===Stress===

Revision as of 16:38, 7 April 2019

Naquian/Lexicon
Naquian/Swadesh list
Naquian
ιν υέθαχας νάχυιμις
Pronunciation /in weːtakas naːkʷimis/
Created by IlL
Setting Verse:Tricin
Extinct 500dd
Language family
Quame
  • Naquian
Early forms:
Old Naquian
  • Naquian
Writing system Naquian script
ISO 639-3 qnq

Naquian (/ˈnɑːkwiən/ NAH-kwee-ən) is a classical language of Tricin which served as the working language of the Naquian empire. It is a Quame language with a Nāhuatl, Latin and Proto-Germanic flavor. It has a rich body of literature, and is notable for being the language with the first extensive grammatical treatise in history.

Todo

  • k kw q qw > tx qu c c

Remove a lot of r's but not all of them

Cr Cl > Cl > laterals

Keep initial p/ph

Or: Nahuatl phonology but not phonotactics? e.g. initial zp, zt, zc, zqu, ztz, ztx, ztł but not zm, zn, zl

  • *sl > ztł-
  • pl tl kl > tl

quateh = flower

Final -t > -tl

Assimilated mz, nz, lz, rz nouns

Pseudo Hungarian descendant?

Phonology

Consonants

Naquian changes the voiced series of Proto-Naquic into the aspirated series and loses the velar-uvular distinction in dorsal stops.

Naquian uses about 22 consonant phonemes. The null initial is pronounced [h]. Two vowels that come in hiatus with each other may be separated by [ɦ], except that after /i/ or /o/ one tends to use /j/ or /w/ instead.

Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Glottal
central lateral plain labialized plain labialized
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ [ŋ]
Plosive tenuis p /p/ t /t/ c /k/ qu /kʷ/ h /ʔ/ hu /ʔʷ~wˀ/
ejective p /pʼ/ t /tʼ/ c /kʼ/ qu /kʷʼ/
Fricative z /s/ x /ʃ/ [h~ɦ]
Affricate tenuis tz /ts/ tl /tɬ/ tx /tʃ/
ejective tzh /tsʼ/ tłh /tɬʼ/ txh /tʃʼ/
Approximant r /r/ l /l/ y /j/ u /w/
Notes
  • /t/, /k/, /kʷ/ become /d~θ/, /g~x/, /gʷ~xʷ/ between vowels.

Phonotactics

A word may not end in a consonant cluster; usually an epenthetic vowel ι is inserted to resolve a consonant cluster.

The following geminates are allowed: /mː nː lː jː sː ʃː pː tː kː kwː tsː tɬː tʃː tʼː kʼː tsʼː tɬʼː tʃʼː/. Geminates are common, often resulting from older rC clusters.

Nasal-stop clusters are allowed.

Vowels

Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i /i/ ī /iː/ u /u/ ū /uː/
Mid e /ɛ/ ē /eː/ o /ɔ/ ō /oː/
Open a /a/ ā /aː/

Diphthongs: ea oa ei ou /ea oa ei ou/

Stress

Naquian has penultimate stress like Classical Nahuatl.

Orthography

Morphology

Nouns

TODO: declension

Nouns are inflected in two numbers (singular, plural) and two cases (nominative, genitive).

flower (r-stem): quatār, quatariz, quatarin, quatarīni, quataritl, quataripeh

Example, "name": ueliz (nom sg), uelīz (gen sg), uelīn (nom pl), uelīni (gen pl); uelitl (const sg); uelipeh (const pl)

"fire" (w-stem): ztūz, ztūīz, ztūīn, ztūīni, ztūitl, ztūipeh

Example, "song": cālli (nom sg), cāllia (gen sg), cāllih (nom pl), cāllīni (gen pl); cāllitl (const sg); cālipeh (const pl)

Pronouns

  • nā = I
  • uī = thou
  • txā = we (exc)
  • quon = we (inc)
  • zen = blotp

Verbs

Tenses:

  • past with separate conjugation
  • present w/ redup
  • present subjunctive with no redup
  • past subjunctive marked with -tē-

Personal affixes

past tense: cheppātī, cheppāuai, cheppai, cheppaiz, cheppamir, cheppantir, cheppaquir, cheppauir

present tense: cecheppān, cecheppār, cecheppā, cecheppāz, cecheppāmeh, cecheppanti, cecheppaqui, cecheppatl

present subjunctive: cheppān, cheppār, cheppā, cheppāz, cheppāmeh, cheppanti, cheppaqui, cheppātl

past subjunctive: cheppātēn, cheppātēr, cheppātē, cheppātēz, cheppātēmeh, cheppātēnti, cheppātēqui, cheppātētl

Derivational morphology

  • -ācaz = nominalizer (~ Thens. -ācos)

Numerals

  • zeinuhin = 1st
  • titzaron = 2nd
  • naxxaron = 3rd
  • laupharon = 4th

...

Syntax

Constituent order

OVS, postpositions, noun-gen, adj-noun.

Subordinate clauses

See also