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Naquian/Swadesh list
Created byIlL
Native tomāNāqui, northern Txapoalli
  • Naquian
Early form
Old Naquian
  • Naquian script
Language codes
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Naquian (/ˈnɑːkwiən/ NAH-kwee-ən; natively zinNāqui) is a classical language of Tricin which served as the working language of Ancient māNāqui (from Proto-Quame *snākʷi 'homeland') or the Naquian empire. It is a Quame language with a Proto-Germanic, Indo-Iranian and Nahuatl flavor. It has a rich body of literature, and is notable for being the language with the first extensive grammatical treatise in history.

The modern Naquic languages are the most morphologically and syntactically conservative extant Quame languages (they are at least as close to Classical Naquian as Spanish is to Latin); Talmic languages underwent various major phonological and typological shifts.


Some cluster reflexes

  • φl φr bl br tl tr kl kr kʷl kʷr ql qr qʷl qʷr → ł rh wl wr tł: tr tzl tzr qul qur cl cr cl cr
  • sl sr → ł rh
  • initial φ → w (<u->)
  • b → p
  • t d t' → t t th
  • ṭ ḍ ṭ' → tł tł tłh
  • k g k' → tz tz tzh
  • kʷ gʷ kʷ' → qu qu quh
  • q(ʷ) ɢ(ʷ) q(ʷ)' → c c ch
  • rC → C:

Pseudo Hmoob descendant?

ammitī, ammiuī, ... = to live

naxxamō hōntah ti mitnah = thirty days and nights (lit. thirty suns and nights)



Naquian changes the voiced series of Proto-Naquic into the aspirated series and loses the velar-uvular distinction in dorsal stops.

Naquian uses about 20 consonant phonemes. The null initial is pronounced [h]. Two vowels that come in hiatus with each other may be separated by [ɦ], except that after /i/ or /o/ one tends to use /j/ or /w/ instead.

Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Glottal
central lateral plain labialized plain labialized
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ [ŋ]
Plosive tenuis p /p/ t /t/ c /k/ qu /kʷ/ h /ʔ/ hu /ʔʷ~wˀ/
ejective ph /pʼ/ th /tʼ/ ch /kʼ/ quh /kʷʼ/
Fricative z /s/ x /ʃ/ [h~ɦ]
Affricate tenuis tz /ts/ tl /tɬ/ tx /tʃ/
ejective tzh /tsʼ/ tlh /tɬʼ/ txh /tʃʼ/
Approximant r /ɹ/ l /l/ y /j/ u /w/
  • /t/, /k/, /kʷ/ become /d/, /g/, /gʷ/ between vowels.
  • /lː/ is pronounced /ɬ:/


  • Proto-Quame alveolar stops turn into tl tlh, but *ṭ' becomes th?
  • /ʃ/ is from "ruki"
  • /tʃ(ʼ)/ arises from iotation of /k(ʼ)/, /t(ʼ)/ and /ts(ʼ)/.


A word may not end in a consonant cluster; usually an epenthetic vowel i is inserted to resolve a consonant cluster.

The following geminates are allowed: /mː nː lː jː sː ʃː pː tː kː kwː tsː tɬː tʼː kʼː tsʼː tɬʼː/. Geminates are common, often resulting from older Cy clusters.

Cr clusters turn to Cl clusters

Nasal-stop clusters are allowed.

The following initial clusters are allowed:

  • cl qul chl quhl
  • zt ztz ztł ztz zc zqu


Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i /i/ ī /iː/ u /u/ ū /uː/
Mid e /ɛ/ ē /eː/ o /ɔ/ ō /oː/
Open a /a/ ā /aː/

Diphthongs: ai au ei ou /ai au ei ou/

Nasal vowels: ą ę į ǫ


Naquian has penultimate stress like Classical Nahuatl.




Nouns are inflected in two numbers (singular, plural) and three cases (nominative, dative, genitive). Adjectives agree with nouns in gender, number and case.

Both nouns and adjectives have strong and weak forms. Strong forms serve as the first case-marked element of a noun phrase marked for case, and all elements after it are weak:

  • 'a pen': pen-S
  • 'the pen': the-S pen-W
  • 'a good pen': good-S pen-W
  • 'the good pen': the-S good-W pen-W

The definite article in only has strong forms.

Genitive phrases of the form 'a/the X's Y, the Y of a/the X' can be formed in two ways:

  • when X is indefinite: either "X-S.GEN the-S Y-W" or "X-S.GEN Y-W"
  • when X is definite: either "the-S.GEN X-W.GEN the-S Y-W" or "the-S X-W Y-W" (more archaic),

where the second definite article and Y are marked with the appropriate case.

For example:

nia cāllin huactzōnitl
DEF.SG.F.GEN.S song-SG.GEN.W anatomy-SG.NOM.W
'The Anatomy of Song' (title of a book by Etsoj Jopah)

but the same meaning can be expressed with nia cāllin in huactzōnitl.

Declension paradigms



  • indef. mārǫ, mārīz
  • def. in mārotl, in mārīz
  • const. mārotl, mārīz


  • indef. arīłłoz, arīłłų
  • def. in arīłłotl, in ariłłouh
  • const. arīłłotl, ariłłouh

Feminine: camnanōtl (< camas/r/n) 'woman'


tehtaz = child

  • indef. tehtaz, tehtin
  • def. in tehtatl, in tehtauh


flower (r-stem):

  • indef. quatār, quatarin
  • def. in quataritl, in quatariuh


  • Example, "name": ueliz, uelīn; in uelitl, in ueliuh
  • Example, "song": cālli (indef sg), cāllir (indef pl); in cāllitl (def sg) in cāliuh (def pl)


"fire" (w-stem): ztūz, ztūīz, ztūīn, ztūīni, ztūitl, ztūh


Strong decl:

  • sg: quarātl, quarālli, quarātliz
  • pl: quarātlīz, quarātlir, quarātlį

Weak decl:

  • sg: quarātotl, quarātotl, quarātotl
  • pl: quarātōuh, quarātīuh, quarātōuh


  • nā = I
  • uīr = thou
  • tzā = we (exc)
  • quǫ = we (inc)
  • zę = blotp



  • past with separate conjugation
  • present w/ redup
  • present subjunctive with no redup
  • past subjunctive marked with -tē-


  • active
  • mediopassive

Personal affixes


past tense: cheppātī, cheppāuī, cheppǫ, cheppōz, cheppamir, cheppantir, cheppaquir, cheppauir

present tense: cecheppą, cecheppār, cecheppą, cecheppāz, cecheppāmeh, cecheppanti, cecheppaqui, cecheppatl

present subjunctive: cheppą, cheppār, cheppą, cheppāz, cheppāmeh, cheppanti, cheppaqui, cheppātl

past subjunctive: cheppānį, cheppānēr, cheppānę, cheppānēz, cheppānēmeh, cheppānēnti, cheppānēqui, cheppānētl


past tense: cheppāuetī, cheppāuezī, cheppauę, cheppauēz, cheppauemir, cheppauentir, cheppauequir, cheppauetlir

present tense: cecheppāuen, cecheppāuer, cecheppāuę, cecheppāuez, cecheppāuemeh, cecheppauenti, cecheppauequi, cecheppauitl

present subjunctive: cheppāuen, cheppāuer, cheppāuę, cheppāuez, cheppāuemeh, cheppauinti, cheppauequi, cheppāuitl

past subjunctive: cheppāuenēn, cheppāuenēr, cheppāuenę, cheppāuenēz, cheppāuenēmeh, cheppāuenēnti, cheppāuenēqui, cheppāuenētl


  • cheppāncǫ, cheppaicō, cheppāzcoz = active participle
  • cheppānį, cheppānī, cheppāniz = passive participle

Derivational morphology

  • -caz = nominalizer (~ PTal *-ākos)
  • -ātl, -ālli, -ātliz = adjectivizer
  • -imį, -imi, -imiz = adjectivizer
  • -pą, -pā, -paz = nominalizer


  • zeinuhį = 1st
  • titzarą = 2nd
  • naxxarą = 3rd
  • laupharą = 4th



Constituent order

SVO, postpositions, gen-noun, adj-noun, noun-rel.

Subordinate clauses

  • neh = complementizer (related to -n in Thensarian relativizer rin)

See also