Difference between revisions of "Naquian"

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m (Subordinate clauses)
m (Derivational morphology)
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*''-ācaz'' = nominalizer (~ Thens. ''-ācos'')
*''-ācaz'' = nominalizer (~ Thens. ''-ācos'')
*''-ātl, -ālli, -ātliz'' = adjectivizer
*''-ātl, -ālli, -ātliz'' = adjectivizer
*''-imiz'' = adjectivizer
*''-imin, -imi, -imiz'' = adjectivizer
*''-pan, -pā, -paz'' = nominalizer
*''-pan, -pā, -paz'' = nominalizer

Revision as of 16:44, 1 June 2019

Naquian/Swadesh list
in uētacaz nāquimiz
Pronunciation[/in weːtakas naːkʷimis/]
Created byIlL
  • Naquian
Early form
Old Naquian
Language codes
ISO 639-3qnq
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Naquian (/ˈnɑːkwiən/ NAH-kwee-ən) is a classical language of Tricin which served as the working language of the Naquian empire. It is a Quame language with a Nāhuatl, Latin and Proto-Germanic flavor. It has a rich body of literature, and is notable for being the language with the first extensive grammatical treatise in history.

It is related to Thensarian, a Talman classical language.


  • k kw q qw > tx qu c c

Remove a lot of r's but not all of them

Cr Cl > Cl > laterals

Keep initial p/ph

Or: Nahuatl phonology but not phonotactics? e.g. initial zp, zt, zc, zqu, ztz, ztx, ztl but not zm, zn, zl > m, n, l

  • *sl > ztl-
  • pl tl kl > tl

quateh = flower

Final -t > -tl

Assimilated mz, nz, lz, rz nouns

Pseudo Hungarian descendant?

ammitī, ammiuī, ... = to live



Naquian changes the voiced series of Proto-Naquic into the aspirated series and loses the velar-uvular distinction in dorsal stops.

Naquian uses about 22 consonant phonemes. The null initial is pronounced [h]. Two vowels that come in hiatus with each other may be separated by [ɦ], except that after /i/ or /o/ one tends to use /j/ or /w/ instead.

Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Glottal
central lateral plain labialized plain labialized
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ [ŋ]
Plosive tenuis p /p/ t /t/ c /k/ qu /kʷ/ h /ʔ/ hu /ʔʷ~wˀ/
ejective ph /pʼ/ th /tʼ/ ch /kʼ/ quh /kʷʼ/
Fricative z /s/ x /ʃ/ [h~ɦ]
Affricate tenuis tz /ts/ tl /tɬ/ tx /tʃ/
ejective tzh /tsʼ/ tłh /tɬʼ/ txh /tʃʼ/
Approximant r /r/ l /l/ y /j/ u /w/
  • /t/, /k/, /kʷ/ become /d~θ/, /g~x/, /gʷ~xʷ/ between vowels.


A word may not end in a consonant cluster; usually an epenthetic vowel i is inserted to resolve a consonant cluster.

The following geminates are allowed: /mː nː lː jː sː ʃː pː tː kː kwː tsː tɬː tʃː tʼː kʼː tsʼː tɬʼː tʃʼː/. Geminates are common, often resulting from older rC clusters.

Nasal-stop clusters are allowed.


Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i /i/ ī /iː/ u /u/ ū /uː/
Mid e /ɛ/ ē /eː/ o /ɔ/ ō /oː/
Open a /a/ ā /aː/

Diphthongs: ea oa ei ou /ea oa ei ou/


Naquian has penultimate stress like Classical Nahuatl.




The definite article is in.

TODO: declension

Nouns are inflected in two numbers (singular, plural) and two cases (nominative, genitive).

flower (r-stem): quatār, quatariz, quatarin, quatarīni, quataritl, quataripeh

Example, "name": ueliz (nom sg), uelīz (gen sg), uelīn (nom pl), uelīni (gen pl); uelitl (const sg); uelipeh (const pl)

"fire" (w-stem): ztūz, ztūīz, ztūīn, ztūīni, ztūitl, ztūipeh

Example, "song": cālli (nom sg), cāllia (gen sg), cāllih (nom pl), cāllīni (gen pl); cāllitl (const sg); cālipeh (const pl)


  • quarātl, quarālli, quarātliz = moral


  • nā = I
  • uī = thou
  • txā = we (exc)
  • quon = we (inc)
  • zen = blotp



  • past with separate conjugation
  • present w/ redup
  • present subjunctive with no redup
  • past subjunctive marked with -tē-


  • active
  • mediopassive

Personal affixes


past tense: cheppātī, cheppāzī, cheppē, cheppēz, cheppamir, cheppantir, cheppaquir, cheppauir

present tense: cecheppān, cecheppār, cecheppā, cecheppāz, cecheppāmeh, cecheppanti, cecheppaqui, cecheppatl

present subjunctive: cheppān, cheppār, cheppā, cheppāz, cheppāmeh, cheppanti, cheppaqui, cheppātl

past subjunctive: cheppātēn, cheppātēr, cheppātē, cheppātēz, cheppātēmeh, cheppātēnti, cheppātēqui, cheppātētl


past tense: cheppāuetī, cheppāuezī, cheppauē, cheppauēz, cheppauemir, cheppauentir, cheppauequir, cheppauetlir

present tense: cecheppāuen, cecheppāuer, cecheppāue, cecheppāuez, cecheppāuemeh, cecheppauenti, cecheppauequi, cecheppauitl

present subjunctive: cheppāuen, cheppāuer, cheppāue, cheppāuez, cheppāuemeh, cheppauinti, cheppauequi, cheppāuitl

past subjunctive: cheppāuetēn, cheppāuetēr, cheppāurtē, cheppāuetēz, cheppāuetēmeh, cheppāuetēnti, cheppāuetēqui, cheppāuetētl


  • cheppācon, cheppācō, cheppācoz = active participle
  • cheppānin, cheppāni, cheppāniz = passive participle

Derivational morphology

  • -ācaz = nominalizer (~ Thens. -ācos)
  • -ātl, -ālli, -ātliz = adjectivizer
  • -imin, -imi, -imiz = adjectivizer
  • -pan, -pā, -paz = nominalizer


  • zeinuhin = 1st
  • titzaron = 2nd
  • naxxaron = 3rd
  • laupharon = 4th



Constituent order

OVS, postpositions, noun-gen, adj-noun.

Subordinate clauses

  • ne = complememtizer (related to -n in Thensarian relativizer rin)

See also