Difference between revisions of "Vadi"

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==Morphology==
 
==Morphology==
 
<!-- How do the words in your language look? How do you derive words from others? Do you have cases? Are verbs inflected? Do nouns differ from adjectives? Do adjectives differ from verbs? Etc. -->
 
<!-- How do the words in your language look? How do you derive words from others? Do you have cases? Are verbs inflected? Do nouns differ from adjectives? Do adjectives differ from verbs? Etc. -->
Vadi is an analytic language and has very few affixes, but even these have been determined by some linguists as clitics.  Their status as bound clitics versus unbound morphemes remains unclear, but those that indicate position or direction continue to be represented as clitics in glosses, following J.F. Schumann's practice.
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Vadi is an analytic language and has very few bound affixes, but even these have been determined by some linguists as clitics.  Their status as bound clitics versus unbound morphemes remains unclear, but those that indicate position or direction continue to be represented as clitics in glosses, following J.F. Schumann's practice.
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===Nouns===
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====Number====
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Number exhibits a two-way distinction in nouns: singular and non-singular.  Singular number is explicitly marked with the determiner ''han/ha'', while plural and collectives are unmarked.  Nouns beginning with a vowel are preceded by the allomorph ''han'', while ''ha'' appears before nouns beginning with a consonant.
  
===Case Marking===
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====Case====
 
Five postpositional morphemes have been identified:
 
Five postpositional morphemes have been identified:
  
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{{Gloss
 
{{Gloss
|phrase = Júla kilái kileva mana nai, ukan hen!
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|phrase = Júla kilái kileva ha mana nai, ukan hen!
 
| IPA =  
 
| IPA =  
| morphemes = ji-úla kilái kil=eva mana nai ukan hen
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| morphemes = ji-úla kilái kil=eva ha mana nai ukan hen
| gloss = 1S.NOM+2S.ACC.GEN heart house=LOC go FUT wreak.havok EMPH
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| gloss = 1S.NOM+2S.ACC.GEN heart SG house=LOC go FUT wreak.havok EMPH
 
| translation = I will enter your house and ruin you!
 
| translation = I will enter your house and ruin you!
 
}}
 
}}
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| translation = Meat, I shall buy (some).
 
| translation = Meat, I shall buy (some).
 
}}
 
}}
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===Pronouns===
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{| class="bluetable lightbluebg"
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|-
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! Person 
 +
! Singular
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! Plural
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|-
 +
! First
 +
| ji
 +
| jita
 +
|-
 +
! Second
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| úla
 +
| ulta
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|-
 +
! Third
 +
| kani
 +
| kanta
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|-
 +
|}
 +
 +
Portmanteau forms exist for the singular pronouns:
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{| class="bluetable lightbluebg"
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|-
 +
! rowspan="5" | Agent
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! rowspan="2" | Person
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! colspan="3" | Patient
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|-
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! First
 +
! Second
 +
! Third
 +
|-
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! First
 +
| --
 +
| júla
 +
| jáni
 +
|-
 +
! Second
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| uláji
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| --
 +
| uláni
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|-
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! Third
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| kaji
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| kula
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| káni
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|-
 +
|}
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===Adjectives===
 +
===Verbs===
  
 
===Derivation===
 
===Derivation===

Revision as of 02:26, 1 August 2020


Introduction

Vadi is an extinct language once spoken in Minhay. A small parchment fragment was discovered in April 2015 in a cave outside of Peħħat, a small township in Sakkeb Prefecture. Soon larger fragments and then the wonderfully preserved Kalapái Scriptum were discovered in an isolated hut, dated as late as the mid to late 1800's CE. The Kalapái Scriptum is a collection of letters between two farmers who were embroiled in an ongoing feud regarding the property lines between their lands. The letters were written in a mixture of Vadi intermixed with words from the unrelated Peshpeg language, which is itself unrelated to Minhast. A few letters were written entirely in the the extinct Minhast Knife Speaker dialect. Also found among the letters are legal papers drawn from the Prefect of Dog Speaker Country. The farmers' letters contained several texts clearly indicating code-switching between Vadi and the Knife Speaker dialect. The portions containing the intermixed Knife Speaker and Peshpeg words were used to decipher the Vadi texts. The Dog Speaker papers did not contribute directly to the decipherment of the language, but as an external source it provided a great deal of context of the nature of the feud between the litigants. This external contextual source clarified the translation of otherwise ambiguous passages. The Kalapái Scriptum is thus popularly referred to as the "Minhast Rosetta Stone".



Phonology

Consonants

Minhast Consonantal Inventory
Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k g ʔ
Fricative v s h
Affricates
Approximants w j
Flap ɾ
Lateral Approximant l

Vowels

  Front Near- front Central Near- back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i
u
o
ɛ
a
  Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

Prosody

Stress

Stress is highly variable in Vadi, but it tends to fall on the penultimate syllable. The orthography marks stress with an acute accent, which in turn implies that the vowel is lengthened, although exceptions abound. When a penultimate syllable is marked with an acute accent, one can generally assume that vowel lengthening has also occurred, although at times it may be an orthographic relic from a time when the vowel was lengthened in the past, but in modern speech has been shortened.

Intonation

Phonotactics

Morphophonology

Morphology

Vadi is an analytic language and has very few bound affixes, but even these have been determined by some linguists as clitics. Their status as bound clitics versus unbound morphemes remains unclear, but those that indicate position or direction continue to be represented as clitics in glosses, following J.F. Schumann's practice.

Nouns

Number

Number exhibits a two-way distinction in nouns: singular and non-singular. Singular number is explicitly marked with the determiner han/ha, while plural and collectives are unmarked. Nouns beginning with a vowel are preceded by the allomorph han, while ha appears before nouns beginning with a consonant.

Case

Five postpositional morphemes have been identified:

Postpositional Clitics
Case Postposition
Dative-Benefactive =li
Ablative =ta
Locative =éva
Instrumental =eta
Comitative =kalí


Body part nouns may precede a head noun already marked with one of the case clitics to add more locational, directional, or positional precision. For example, the noun kilái "heart", often combines with a noun marked with the locative clitic =eva to convey an inessive sense:

Júla kilái kileva ha mana nai, ukan hen!
ji-úla kilái kil=eva ha mana nai ukan hen
1S.NOM+2S.ACC.GEN heart SG house=LOC go FUT wreak.havok EMPH

I will enter your house and ruin you!

Core arguments take no marking. In transitive clauses, only word order distinguishes the subject and indirect object:

Ji kusara iaviti nai.
ji kusara iaviti nai.
1S meat buy FUT

I shall buy meat.

An object may come before the subject only if it the particle ipan is inserted between it and its clause, followed by an audible pause:

Kusara ipan, ji iaviti nai.
kusara ipan ji iaviti nai.
meat TOP 1S buy FUT

Meat, I shall buy (some).

Pronouns

Person Singular Plural
First ji jita
Second úla ulta
Third kani kanta

Portmanteau forms exist for the singular pronouns:

Agent Person Patient
First Second Third
First -- júla jáni
Second uláji -- uláni
Third kaji kula káni

Adjectives

Verbs

Derivation

Derivational affixes occur in greater frequency, but the texts from the Scriptum suggest the overwhelming number of these affixes are no longer productive. For this reason, the general consensus among Vadists is that these affixes have been fossilized. A prefix pesa- occurs among some verbs that tends to give them causative meaning. For this reason some have speculated this is a borrowing from the Minhast causative prefix išp-. This view is problematic however, because this prefix sometimes appears to intensify the meaning of the root. Moreover, it is also found attached to some nouns, but its addition does not appear to affect the semantics of the noun.

Causative pesa-:

Anu úla pesadíka, hen.
Anu úla pesa-díka nai hen
PN 2P CAUS-run.off FUT EMPH

(Prefect) Annu will drive you out!

Intensive pesa-:

Ji pesakúna, kaman uláta, ji nokan pesakúdi.
ji pesa-kúna nai, kaman uláta ji nokan pesa-akúdi.
1P CAUS-go FUT head úla=ABL 2S rock CAUS-throw.

I will climb (that mountain) above you (so that) I can rain down rocks (upon you).

Nominal pesa-:

Pesarona hokun.
pesa-rona hokun
CAUS-snake eat.

Snakes will eat (you).

Contrast this with the actual use of the Minhast causative išp-, by Prefect Annu (Minhast, Dog Speaker Dialect):

Tašpintaknataheknessuš, tašpintaknaknessuš. Marantaħmankilmakš, yattax! Ikšitamaškidustitaħmāš!
ta-šp-nt-ikna-tahek-ness-u=š ta-šp-nt-ikna-k-ness-u=š maran-tahem-an-kilmakš yattax kš-tamašk-dust-tahem-an=š
NEG-CAUS-INT-go-2S.ACC+1S.NOM-FUT-TRNS=IRR NEG-CAUS-go-FUT-TRNS=IRR pest-2P.NOM-MIR.NEG DEPR CESS-stalk.while.hunting-REC.ADVS-2P.NOM-INTR=IRR

I don't plan on throwing you off your land, and I'm not planning on throwing him off his land. You two pests should leave each other alone!

Other derivational affixes, both prefixes and suffixes, are more common, some appear to be highly productive and suggest they can be spontaneously generated:

  • -kai: a deverbal for creating place nouns, e.g. iavati-kai "a place for buying", i.e. marketplace.
  • -pallái: another deverbal for creating place nouns, e.g. tukin-pallái "a place for sitting", i.e. hearth, dining room.
  • -kattá: a deverbal affix deriving agent nouns, e.g. iavati-kattá "one who buys, a buyer"

Some affixes may be chained, as in tukimpallaikattá < tukin-pallai-kattá "a place for sitting ones", i.e. "dinner guests, diners". However, affix chaining is rather uncommon.


Syntax

Vadi, as an analytic language, relies on word order to indicate the case roles of the core arguments of a clause, to delineate the constituents of a noun phrase, and to indicate the pivot in multiclausal sentences. The language is primarily SOV, although the verb phrase may be placed in different locations within the clause. However, the S-argument invariable precedes the O-argument in transitive clauses. Tense particles always occur in clause-final position.

Constituent order

Noun phrase

Possessums precede their heads.

Verb phrase

Sentence phrase

Dependent clauses

Example texts

uláji tábila nikku úla hai, petta ulátane
/u:'lad͡zi 'ta:bɪla nɪk:u haɪ, petta u'la:tane/
úla-ji tábi-la nikku hai, petta úla-tane
2S.NOM+1S.ACC.GEN land-PL seize try PST, thief 2S-EMP

You tried to seize my lands, you are a thief indeed!
Ka úla mai naha ji tábila, ji puni úla merkeva nai!
/ka 'u:la maɪ 'naha d͡zi 'ta:bɪla d͡zi 'pu:ni 'u:la 'mɛrkɛva 'naɪ/
ka úla mai naha ji tábi-la nikku e, ji puni úla merkeva nai
if 2S come here 1S land-PL seize SJV, 1S RSLT 2S kill FUT

If you come here to seize my land, I will kill you!
Júla nánani.
/d͡z'u:la 'na:nani/
ji-ula nanani
1S.NOM+2S.ACC RV~disgust

You truly disgust me.
Valí ulaki úla píhala nai.
/va'li u'laki 'u:la 'pihala naɪ/
valí ulaki úla píhala nai
perhaps authorities 2S seize FUT

Perhaps the authorities shall arrest you.

OVS -> matrix clause SC -> dependent clause

SVO -> matrix clause, COND SOV -> dependent clause, RSLT

OSV

Other resources