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My conlangs (a better intro to follow, one of these, really, I mean it!)

Late Ma'nijr
Dzvada Vezhua Dlin

Other people's conlangs:

Fén Ghír


Commentary on Some Random Stuff

Minhast Morphosyntax Notes
Development of the Passive Voice [DRAFT]

In comparison to the transitive pronominal affixes, the affixes for the intransitive verb are much simpler, although the passive forms demonstrate quite a bit of unexpected variability. Most noticeable in the passive forms is the occurrence of lenition, a morphophonemic alternation that occurs nowhere else in the Minhast verb, or nouns for that matter. Moreover, the passive forms show considerable polysemy. Diachronic developments explain the source for these otherwise aberrant features. Based on early Classical Minhast texts, as well as the pre-Modern Stone Speaker dialects, an additional pronominal form has been reconstructed, -ya-, which functioned as the nominative case for an indefinite third person form (c.f. English "one", French "on", Spanish "se", etc).

From Old Minhast, the reconstructed indefinite pronominal affix appears in the verb complex of *wušun- "to hit":

** Wušunyakyaharuna

Someone hit me (lit. Someone did the hitting of me)

This reconstructed pronominal form merged with the accusative segment of the portmanteau pronominal affixes, triggering lenition of velars and palatalization of dentals. Eventually, the meaning of indefinite "one" was lost and the verb was re-analyzed as a stative verb, leading to the replacement of the Transitivizer -u with the Detransitivizer -an. Soon after, or perhaps even simultaneously with these developments, the Inchoative marker -saxt- surfaced, most likely due to analogy with stative verbs. The final result is a passive voice where the Inchoative is applied in semantically transitive verbs which then licenses the passive pronominal affixes, e.g.:


I got hit (lit. I became the one hit)

In those uncommon instances where an independent pronoun is used, the simple Absolutive form is used, eg. 1S.ABS yak, 2S.ABS tah, 3S.ABS kua, etc:

Yak saxtušnexaran
/yak saxtuʃ'nɛxaran/
yak saxt-ušn-ex-ar-an

I got hit (lit. I became the one hit)

Just as a patient demoted by antipassivation can be retained in the clause with a postpositional clitic, in this case the Dative clitic =aran, the demoted agent of a passivized clause can be retained with a postpositional clitic, namely the Ablative clitic =yār

Duyyār saxtušnešexaran
/du:'ja:r saxtuʃnɛ'ʃexaran/
dūy=yār saxt-ušn-eš-ex-ar-an

I got smacked by the salmon's tail.

Despite the degree of polysemy in the passive pronominal affixes, ambiguity is resolved via the S/O pivot; in fact it is the preservation of the S/O pivot that is the primary motivation for using the passive voice:

Saxtimassašpuhaxxarammā, ruwwaššundekarun.
/saxtɪmassaʃpuhax:a'ram:a:, ruw:aʃ:un'dɛkarun/
saxt-massap-šuhap-x-ar-an-mā ruwwas-xunde-ek-ar-un
INCH-wound-sword-1S.PASS-PST-INTR-SUBORD help-wound-1S.ACC+3S.NOM-PST-TRN

I had been wounded by (the enemy's) sword, (so) then he tended to my wounds.

The forms of the Absolutive and the Passive are listed below in Table X:

Person Absolutive Passive
1st Sg. -k- -x-
2nd Sg. -ta- -šš-
3rd Masculine - Common Sg. -Ø- -yy-
3rd Feminine Sg. -l-
3rd Neuter Animate Sg. -Ø-, -s- -šš-
3rd Neuter Inanimate Sg. -m- -yy-
1st Plural Inclusive -hak- -hax-
1st Pl Exclusive -mm- -yy-
2nd Pl. -tam- -tayy-
3rd Common Pl. -km- -x-
3rd Neut. Anim. Pl. -i- -yy-
3rd Neut. Inanim Pl. -mah-, -ma-

Some Dialectal Comparisons

The following all mean, "Yes, the markings of my clan" (see story "The Detective and the Deer")

Modern Standard:

- Eyla, huzzaktešim baktemtakkemt
- eyla, huzzakteš=min baktet-makkem=de
- yes clan=CONN tattoo-3P.COMM+3P.INAN=ERG

Osprey Speaker:

- Ayle,izzakšim baktektemme
- ayle,izzakš=min baktet-kemm=e
- yes clan=CONN tattoo-3P.COMM+3P.COMM=ERG

Upper Minhast:

- Ēlā, huzzakteš min baktemtakkemmide
- ēlā, huzzakteš min baktet-makkem=de
- yes clan CONN tattoo-3P.COMM+3P.INAN=ERG

Gull Speaker:

- Ellay, uzzaktešin baktetunkemp
- ellay, uzzakteš=min baktet-unkem=de
- yes clan=CONN tattoo-3P.COMM+3P.INAN=ERG
  • For whatever reason, the Osprey speakers treat tattoo ("baktet") as an animate noun. Like the IE languages that retain gender distinctions, gender can be discordant in Minhast too.
  • The ergative also is used as a genitive marker, as in Yup'ik (Iiirc Inupiaq shares this feature, hence why I presume other Eskimoan languages share this feature)
Noun Incorporation
  • This is an example of Minthun's Classificatory NI (Class IV) being exploited by Minhast. Here, it is essentially creating the equivalent of a locative noun in other languages, e.g. English "Within the interior of the beast...", which is essentially an Inessive-like case construction. Here, nua means "side", and has been incorporated into the verb complex. The implicit head is suharak (deerskin), which was mentioned in a previous line in the passage, which is what the Locative applicative naħk- is referring to. This construction is equivalent to saying "Next to it", "By its side", etc.
Tayyamakim tayyapte naħkixripuxnutartimmahabu
tayyamak min tayyap=de naħk-xr-pux-nua-tar-timmah-ab-u

Thunder-balls explode next to it.
  • Putting this here before I forget, more NI stuff. Many (most?) of the NI forms of Minhast nouns are irregular, the majority of which exhibit what I call "truncation". I've never seen this term in the NI literature before, but here's an example from the Sora language (Munda family, India). The first example shows the analytic version of the sentence "Will they eat the buffalo/ Do they eat buffalo?". The second example shows the noun incorporated-version of the same sentence:
bɔŋtɛlәnәdɔŋ jomtɛji pɔ
bɔŋtɛl-әn-әdɔŋ jom-t-ɛ-ji pɔ
buffalo-/әn/3-ACC eat-NPST-3S-PL.S Q

Will they eat the buffalo/ Do they eat buffalo?
jombɔŋtɛnji pɔ
jom-bɔŋ-t-ɛ-n-ji pɔ
eat-buffalo-NPST-3S-INTR-PL.S Q

Will they eat the buffalo/ Do they eat buffalo?

Notice in the independent form of buffalo, bɔŋtɛl, loses its final syllable in its incorporated form, -bɔŋ-. Minhast exhibits extensive truncation when nouns undergo incorporation, e.g. sussagarānī > -suggan- (big toe), hispawak > -hispak- (birch), izzesparak > -spark- (canoe).

Nouns of three syllables or more are almost always truncated, and the pattern of truncation is unpredictable; syllable loss may occur in initial, medial, or final positions, although nouns with tri-syllabic roots tend to lose either their medial or final syllables and retain the initial syllable, but exceptions abound, such as allāga > -lgagg- (conch) .

EDIT: Muro's term for this behaviour is weak suppletion

- Sora examples taken from "NOUN INCORPORATION: A NEW THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE" (Alessio Muro, 2009)

Anyar (talk) 23:41, 10 February 2019 (CET)
Verb Template for Vadi
Header text Header text Header text Header text Header text Header text Header text Header text Header text
Active-Transitive -- Asp1 Pt √ Vb Tns Asp2 Class Agt
Active-Intransitive -- Asp1 Pt √ Vb Tns Asp2 Class Agt
Stative-Intransitive Stative Asp1 -- √ Vb Tns Asp2 Class Pt

Active-Transitive Active-Intransitive Stative-Intransitive
-- -- Stative
Asp1 Asp1 Asp1
Pt -- --
√ Vb √ Vb √ Vb
Tns Tns Tns
Asp2 Asp2 Asp2
Class Class Class
Agt Agt Pt


User talk:Chrysophylax

How to gloss: Template:Gloss

Some helpful tools: (WYSIWYG - Use to quickly create wiki tables)







Template: Gloss

Template Page: Go to [[Category:Templates]]

Scratch Pad

Example of linking to a within-page topic


Sample Gloss Template


|phrase = hatāʔ
| IPA = /ha.'ta:ʔ/
| morphemes = whatevs
| gloss = INTERROG-evs-NUMB
| translation = Whatever

Sample Paradigm Template


{| class="bluetable lightbluebg sortable mw-collapsible"
! colspan="2"|Header #1
! colspan="2"|Header #2
! Header #3
! colspan="2" | Header #4
! Item #1
! Item #2
! colspan="2"| column span
! Row Span
! Colspan + Rowspan
! Row #1:
| style="text-align:center"|su-
| style="text-align:center"|ve-
| style="text-align:center"|ve-
| style="text-align:center"|ve-
| style="text-align:center" rowspan="2"|rowspan-
| style="text-align:center" colspan="2" rowspan="2"|d
! Row #2:
| style="text-align:center"|s-
| style="text-align:center"|v-
| style="text-align:center"|m-
| style="text-align:center"|jor-


  Header #1 Header #2 Header #3 Header #4
  Item #1 Item #2 column span Row Span Colspan + Rowspan
Row #1: su- ve- ve- ve- rowspan- d
Row #2: s- v- m- jor-

Basic Clade


Clade - Traditional Minhast Dialectal Grouping

Classical Minhast
Upper Minhast


Salmon Speaker

Wolf Speaker

Horse Speaker

Bear Speaker

Fox Speaker

Dog Speaker

Elk Speaker

Seal Speaker

Lower Minhast

Osprey Speaker

Egret Speaker

Gull Speaker

Stone Speaker

Actual Markup:

|label1=''Classical Minhast''
         |label1=''Upper Minhast''
                               |1=Salmon Speaker
                               |2=Wolf Speaker
                      |2=Horse Speaker
                      |3=Bear Speaker
                      |4=Fox Speaker
                      |5=Dog Speaker 
                      |6=Elk Speaker
                      |7=Seal Speaker

      }}<!-- Close node for Upper Minhast-->

   |label2=''Lower Minhast''
              |1=Osprey Speaker
              |2=Egret Speaker
              |3=Gull Speaker
              |4=Stone Speaker

   }}<!-- Close node for Lower Minhast-->

   }}<!-- Close node for Classical Minhast-->

Clade - Niccola's Crane Speakers

Minhastic Languages
Regional Historical Dialects
Upper Minhast
Mainland Dialects

Salmon Speakers ("Gaššarat", Northeastern Coast)

Dog Speakers ("Hisašarum", Northeastern Plains)

Horse Speakers ("Gannasia", Central Plateau)

Crane Speaker Dialect (Ryu Kyu) 1

Lower Minhast

Gull Speakers (Senzil and Rēgum Prefectures)

Osprey Speakers (Kings' Bay)

Stone Speakers (Neskud and Yaxparim prefectures)

Crane Speaker Dialect (Ryu Kyu) 2

NCR Modern Dialects

Modern Standard Minhast [variant of Upper Minhast]

Modern Colloquial Minhast ("City Speaker Dialect") [admixture of Upper and Lower Minhast]