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My conlangs (a better intro to follow, one of these, really, I mean it!)


Other Nahenic:

Ín Duári
Dzvada Vezhua Dlin
Late Ma'nijr

Other people's conlangs:

Fén Ghír


Other Links


Current Projects Conlanging Lab

Nankôre Imperative Forms

The auxiliaries iná and itá have special forms for the imperative. They cliticize to their host verb:
Stative: =è

  • Kiruè! "Stand next to me!"

Active: =te

  • Iarate "Hit him!"

Minhast Units of Measurement

  • Distance
  1. sespir 1 hand
  2. nagikk 1 foot
  3. karyaħt 1 cubit
  4. šunum 1 step (1 yard)
  5. šanum 12
  6. duxtum 24
  7. mentum 48
  8. kaħtum 96
  9. sixtum 108
  10. gextum 120
  11. muntum 240
  12. kantum 480
  13. tastum 960
  14. šiktum 1,812
  15. sentum 3,624 (~1.72 miles)
  16. hantum 26,744 (~13 miles, 1.5 aytum)
  17. aytum 43,488 (~26 miles, 12*2 hantum)

Gull Speaker Day/Week/Month Terminology (prototype)

Culture note: in ancient times the month’s end coincided with the new moon, resulting in months with variable days. This system coincided interestingly with the Islamic calendar, which is also lunar based. However, unlike the Islamic calendar, the Minhast have since the beginning of their history added intercalation days to synchronize the year to the Winter Solstice. Primitive astronomers derived the intercalation days from a notch located in Aškamat min Hūr ("Plumed Falcon Mountain"). These intercalated days were then distributed among each month of the year.

That is no longer the case and was standardized by the Gull Speakers to its current form during the early 17th century. The month is divided into two 14-day weeks, and a final 3-day or 4-day week (Ittunan, lit. “it slides”, i.e. the period of derived intercalation). The individual days of this final week follow the formula Pešša + CONN + cardinal number, starting at the day of the Saxtisuyyuenan where any intercalation, calculated in relation to the Winter Solstice from a notch in .

Days of the week (arruhādi - “half-moon” ): Xāri (“Owl”)/Iknahinwānan (“it has moon-left”)/Simmia (“moonless night”) Azur Mankaš Ekta’ Nuyyuen Tayy Ussab Nebba Kus Ra’un Ma’ta, Matta Uyyuz Pextāt Saxtarruhādian (lit. “It has become the half-moon”) Šanāxim Xāri (“second Xāri”) Šanāxim Azur Šanāxim Mankaš Šanāxim Ekta’ Šanāxim Nuyyuen Šanāxim Tayy Šanāxim Ussab Šanāxim Nebba Šanāxim Kus Šanāxim Ra’un Šanāxim Ma’ta/Matta Šanāxim Uyyuz Šanāxim Pextāt Saxtisuyyuenan (“It has become the full moon”) Pešša I (Peššam Šūmī) Pešša II (Peššam Šānī) Pešša III (Peššam Duxt) Names of each week: Iknan “new moon” (It has left) Arruhādi “half moon” Suyyuen “full moon”


Minhast Diachronic Notes

Minhast Diachronic Changes Article

Intra-Nahenic Diachronics

Minhast Morphosyntax Notes

Development of the Minhast Passive Voice [DRAFT]

In comparison to the transitive pronominal affixes, the affixes for the intransitive verb are much simpler, although the passive forms demonstrate quite a bit of unexpected variability. Most noticeable in the passive forms is the occurrence of lenition, a morphophonemic alternation that occurs nowhere else in the Minhast verb, or nouns for that matter. Moreover, the passive forms show considerable polysemy. Diachronic developments explain the source for these otherwise aberrant features. Based on early Classical Minhast texts, as well as the pre-Modern Stone Speaker dialects, an additional pronominal form has been reconstructed, -ya-[2], which functioned as the nominative case for an indefinite third person form (c.f. English "one", French "on", Spanish "se", etc).

From Proto-Minhast, the reconstructed indefinite pronominal affix appears in the verb complex of *wušun- "to hit":

** Wušunyakeyahara unadi
/wuʃunyakɛya'hara u'nadi/
wušun-yake-ya-hara una=di

Someone hit me (lit. Someone's doing the hitting of me)

This reconstructed pronominal form merged with the accusative segment of the portmanteau pronominal affixes, triggering lenition of velars and palatalization of dentals[3]. Eventually, the meaning of indefinite "one" was lost and the verb was re-analyzed as a stative verb, leading to the replacement of the Transitivizer -u with the Detransitivizer -an. Soon after, or perhaps even simultaneously with these developments, the Inchoative marker -saxt- surfaced, most likely due to analogy with stative verbs. The final result is a passive voice where the Inchoative is applied in semantically transitive verbs which then licenses the passive pronominal affixes, e.g.:


I got hit (lit. I became the one someone hit)

In those uncommon instances where an independent pronoun is used, the simple Absolutive form is used, eg. 1S.ABS yak, 2S.ABS tah, 3S.ABS kua, etc:

Yak saxtušnexaran
/yak saxtuʃ'nɛxaran/
yak saxt-ušn-ex-ar-an

I got hit (lit. I became the one hit)

Just as a patient demoted by antipassivation can be retained in the clause with a postpositional clitic, in this case the Dative clitic =aran, the demoted agent of a passivized clause can be retained with a postpositional clitic, namely the Ablative clitic =yār

Duyyār saxtušnešexaran
/du:'ja:r saxtuʃnɛ'ʃexaran/
dūy=yār saxt-ušn-eš-ex-ar-an

I got smacked by the salmon's tail.

Despite the degree of polysemy in the passive pronominal affixes, ambiguity is resolved via the S/O pivot; in fact it is the preservation of the S/O pivot that is the primary motivation for using the passive voice:

Saxtimassašpuhapxarammā, ruwwaššundekarundūr.
/saxtɪmassaʃpuhapxa'ram:a: ruw:aʃ:un'dɛkarun'du:r/
saxt-massap-šuhap-x-ar-an-mā ruwwas-xunde-ek-ar-un-dūr

I had been wounded by (the enemy's) sword, (so) then he tended to my wounds.

The forms of the Absolutive and the Passive are listed below in Table X:

Person Absolutive Passive/Indefinite Subject
1st Sg. -k- -x-
2nd Sg. -ta- -šši-
3rd Masculine - Common Sg. -Ø- -i-
3rd Feminine Sg. -šši-
3rd Neuter Animate Sg. -Ø-, -s- -šši-
3rd Neuter Inanimate Sg. -m- -nni-
1st Plural Inclusive -hak- -hax-
1st Pl Exclusive -mm- -nni-
2nd Pl. -tam- -tanni-
3rd Common Pl. -km- -kni-
3rd Neut. Anim. Pl. -i- -i-
3rd Neut. Inanim Pl. -mah-, -ma- -šša-

Minhast Dialectal Comparisons

The following all mean, "Yes, the markings of my clan" (see story "The Detective and the Deer")

Modern Standard:

- Eyla, huzzaktešim baktemtakkemt
- eyla, huzzakteš=min baktet-makkem=de
- yes clan=CONN tattoo-3P.COMM+3P.INAN=ERG

Osprey Speaker:

- Ayle,izzakšim baktektemme
- ayle,izzakš=min baktet-kemm=e
- yes clan=CONN tattoo-3P.COMM+3P.COMM=ERG

Upper Minhast:

- Ēlā, huzzakteš min baktemtakkemmide
- ēlā, huzzakteš min baktet-makkem=de
- yes clan CONN tattoo-3P.COMM+3P.INAN=ERG

Gull Speaker:

- Ellay, uzzaktešin baktetunkemp
- ellay, uzzakteš=min baktet-unkem=de
- yes clan=CONN tattoo-3P.COMM+3P.INAN=ERG
  • For whatever reason, the Osprey speakers treat tattoo ("baktet") as an animate noun. Like the IE languages that retain gender distinctions, gender can be discordant in Minhast too.
  • The ergative also is used as a genitive marker, as in Yup'ik (Iiirc Inupiaq shares this feature, hence why I presume other Eskimoan languages share this feature)

Minhast Noun Incorporation

  • This is an example of Minthun's Classificatory NI (Class IV) being exploited by Minhast. Here, it is essentially creating the equivalent of a locative noun in other languages, e.g. English "Within the interior of the beast...", which is essentially an Inessive-like case construction. Here, nua means "side", and has been incorporated into the verb complex. The implicit head is suharak (deerskin), which was mentioned in a previous line in the passage, which is what the Locative applicative naħk- is referring to. This construction is equivalent to saying "Next to it", "By its side", etc.
Tayyamakim tayyapte naħkixripuxnutartimmahabu
tayyamak min tayyap=de naħk-xr-pux-nua-tar-timmah-ab-u

Thunder-balls explode next to it.
  • Putting this here before I forget, more NI stuff. Many (most?) of the NI forms of Minhast nouns are irregular, the majority of which exhibit what I call "truncation". I've never seen this term in the NI literature before, but here's an example from the Sora language (Munda family, India). The first example shows the analytic version of the sentence "Will they eat the buffalo/ Do they eat buffalo?". The second example shows the noun incorporated-version of the same sentence:
bɔŋtɛlәnәdɔŋ jomtɛji pɔ
bɔŋtɛl-әn-әdɔŋ jom-t-ɛ-ji pɔ
buffalo-/әn/3-ACC eat-NPST-3S-PL.S Q

Will they eat the buffalo/ Do they eat buffalo?
jombɔŋtɛnji pɔ
jom-bɔŋ-t-ɛ-n-ji pɔ
eat-buffalo-NPST-3S-INTR-PL.S Q

Will they eat the buffalo/ Do they eat buffalo?

Notice in the independent form of buffalo, bɔŋtɛl, loses its final syllable in its incorporated form, -bɔŋ-. Minhast exhibits extensive truncation when nouns undergo incorporation, e.g. sussagarānī > -suggan- (big toe), hispawak > -hispak- (birch), izzesparak > -spark- (canoe).

Nouns of three syllables or more are almost always truncated, and the pattern of truncation is unpredictable; syllable loss may occur in initial, medial, or final positions, although nouns with tri-syllabic roots tend to lose either their medial or final syllables and retain the initial syllable, but exceptions abound, such as allāga > -lgagg- (conch) .

EDIT: Muro's term for this behaviour is weak suppletion

- Sora examples taken from "NOUN INCORPORATION: A NEW THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE" (Alessio Muro, 2009)

Anyar (talk) 23:41, 10 February 2019 (CET)


Early (i.e. first) test sentences:

  1. "Isasro ka munek ki bára emtol yal" = He did not hit or shout at any visitor yesterday.
  2. "Manetór ki pidá daşélek mi" = He was indeed stung from the poison ivy/He experienced pain (from) the poison plant indeed.
  3. "Manjate ki nihlave" = He likes apples.
  4. "Os kánáto bihók şilmá" = I sow wheat every day.
  5. "Os kánárato bihók şilmá" = I used to sow wheat every day.

Verb Template for Vadi

Agent Patient
Person Singular Plural
First Second Masc Fem Neuter Animate Neuter Inanimate First Second Third M F Anim Inanim
First -- júla jáka -- julta jikata
Second uláji -- uláka ulajta -- ulkata
Third --- kaji kúla káka katáji kulta katá
M kataji katúla katáta katajta katulta kakta
F kataji katúla katáta katajta katulta kakta
M kataji katúla katáta katajta katulta kakta
F kataji katúla katáta katajta katulta kakta
First -- jitúla jitakta -- jitulta jitkata
Second ultaji -- ultakta ultajta -- ultakta
Third kataji katúla katáta katajta katulta kakta
M kataji katúla katáta katajta katulta kakta
F kataji katúla katáta katajta katulta kakta
M kataji katúla katáta katajta katulta kakta
F kataji katúla katáta katajta katulta kakta


Rami un Kano ("Noble Speech")

  1. Kala hikka un sala ti makán.
  2. Kani ha pillála un kai.
  3. Maha na herka ummai ni kassái.
  4. Rinu e se-senerka ami pun kerka.
  5. Na sunu, na tim, ko irara tilái nu perka-perka ki tatana.
  6. Na hala, kumu mai, ki nepakana u nana pa.

un, u, nu, ni: Connectives (why so many allomorphs?)

Nankôre reverse-engineer text

"If I were to leave Nanhoshka Kôya, I shall go to my brother's abode in Minhay, in Nannampuyyi Prefecture, where he interns at Ayyummaħħat.


User talk:Chrysophylax

How to gloss: Template:Gloss

Some helpful tools: (WYSIWYG - Use to quickly create wiki tables)


Minhast Templates







Nankôre Templates



Template Page: Go to Templates

Wiki Markup How-Tos

Example of Table markup

Complex Table with Collapsible Attribute

{| class="bluetable lightbluebg mw-collapsible"
|+ '''Verb Conjugation Table'''
! rowspan="4" | Person
! colspan="6" | Tense
! colspan="2" | Past !!colspan="2"| Present !!colspan="2"| Future
!  Singular !! Plural !! Singular!! Plural !! Singular !! Plural
! 1 
|| Example || Example || Example || Example || Example || Example
! 2 
|| Example || Example || Example || Example || Example || Example
! Class I 
|| Example || Example || Example || Example || Example || Example
! Class II 
|| Example || Example || Example || Example || Example || Example
! Class III 
|| Example || Example || Example || Example || Example || Example


Verb Conjugation Table
Past Present Future
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1 Example Example Example Example Example Example
2 Example Example Example Example Example Example
Class I Example Example Example Example Example Example
Class II Example Example Example Example Example Example
Class III Example Example Example Example Example Example

Basic Table, Non-collapsible

{| class="bluetable lightbluebg"
|+ '''Verb Conjugation Table'''
!  Singular !! Plural !! Singular!! Plural
! 1 
|| Example || Example || Example || Example
! 2 
|| Example || Example || Example || Example
! Class I 
|| Example || Example || Example || Example
! Class II 
|| Example || Example || Example || Example
! Class III 
|| Example || Example || Example || Example


Verb Conjugation Table
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1 Example Example Example Example
2 Example Example Example Example
Class I Example Example Example Example
Class II Example Example Example Example
Class III Example Example Example Example

Example of linking to a within-page topic


Sample Gloss Template


|phrase = hatāʔ
| IPA = /ha.'ta:ʔ/
| morphemes = whatevs
| gloss = INTERROG-evs-NUMB
| translation = Whatever

Sample Inline Linking

[[Vadi#Ad-Hominems and Other Insults|''Waškixrapmakirimērumbustikmaban'']]

Sample Cross-Page Linking

Cross-page linking wiki syntax is no different from within-page linking. The following example comes from the Minhast page:

[[Nankôre#Deictics| Nankôre deictic particles]]

You can see this in action by clicking on Nankôre deictic particles.

Sample Paradigm Template


{| class="bluetable lightbluebg sortable mw-collapsible"
|+ '''Peshpeg Agreement Markers'''
! colspan="2"|Header #1
! colspan="2"|Header #2
! Header #3
! colspan="2" | Header #4
! Item #1
! Item #2
! colspan="2"| column span
! Row Span
! Colspan + Rowspan
! Row #1:
| style="text-align:center"|su-
| style="text-align:center"|ve-
| style="text-align:center"|ve-
| style="text-align:center"|ve-
| style="text-align:center" rowspan="2"|rowspan-
| style="text-align:center" colspan="2" rowspan="2"|d
! Row #2:
| style="text-align:center"|s-
| style="text-align:center"|v-
| style="text-align:center"|m-
| style="text-align:center"|jor-


Peshpeg Agreement Markers
  Header #1 Header #2 Header #3 Header #4
  Item #1 Item #2 column span Row Span Colspan + Rowspan
Row #1: su- ve- ve- ve- rowspan- d
Row #2: s- v- m- jor-

Basic Clade


Clade - Traditional Minhast Dialectal Grouping

Classical Minhast
Upper Minhast


Salmon Speaker

Wolf Speaker

Horse Speaker

Bear Speaker

Fox Speaker

Dog Speaker

Elk Speaker

Seal Speaker

Lower Minhast

Osprey Speaker

Egret Speaker

Gull Speaker

Stone Speaker

Actual Markup:

|label1=''Classical Minhast''
         |label1=''Upper Minhast''
                               |1=Salmon Speaker
                               |2=Wolf Speaker
                      |2=Horse Speaker
                      |3=Bear Speaker
                      |4=Fox Speaker
                      |5=Dog Speaker 
                      |6=Elk Speaker
                      |7=Seal Speaker

      }}<!-- Close node for Upper Minhast-->

   |label2=''Lower Minhast''
              |1=Osprey Speaker
              |2=Egret Speaker
              |3=Gull Speaker
              |4=Stone Speaker

   }}<!-- Close node for Lower Minhast-->

   }}<!-- Close node for Classical Minhast-->

Clade - Niccola's Crane Speakers

Minhastic Languages
Regional Historical Dialects
Upper Minhast
Mainland Dialects

Salmon Speakers ("Gaššarat", Northeastern Coast)

Dog Speakers ("Hisašarum", Northeastern Plains)

Horse Speakers ("Gannasia", Central Plateau)

Crane Speaker Dialect (Ryu Kyu) 1

Lower Minhast

Gull Speakers (Senzil and Rēgum Prefectures)

Osprey Speakers (Kings' Bay)

Stone Speakers (Neskud and Yaxparim prefectures)

Crane Speaker Dialect (Ryu Kyu) 2

NCR Modern Dialects

Modern Standard Minhast [variant of Upper Minhast]

Modern Colloquial Minhast ("City Speaker Dialect") [admixture of Upper and Lower Minhast]


  1. ^ This is a reference/footnote
  2. ^ Cognate with Common Minhast third person animate plural -i
  3. ^ The absence of lenion or palatization with the -i- affix distinguishes the impersonal third person from the inanimate plural third person affix -i-.