Ašča

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Modern Attic (Ασκη γλασατι Ašča glasať /aʃtʃa glasac/ 'the Attic language' or Aščať 'the Attic one') is a Hellenic language aesthetically inspired by Slavic languages and Romani. It has been heavily influenced by Ilithian vernaculars.

It is spoken near the Black Sea in Verse:Unbegotten. It forms a continuum with Elicá which is spoken all over in Eastern Europe.

Todo

Ιατρέ, θεράπλευθι τσυχήσου Jatřè, ťheràpľuthi cičhàsu = Physician, heal thyself

Use a version of ruki (just "rui")

Homlia pi agapiať kie miesot. 'I speak of love and hate.'

Khierь! (2sg)/Khierieť! (2pl) = 'Hello!'

Jukharstia! = 'Thank you!'

Sioniamie = 'Sorry.'

Ar homlias in.../Ar homliať in... = 'Do you speak...'

Ukhomlia in atkat. = 'I don't speak Atkat.'

Agapawa sie. = 'I love you.'

Phonology (Φθογγολογια Phthongolodža)

Vowel reduction

Stress

Stress is free as in Modern Greek.

Intonation

Stolen from Russian

Morphology (Μορφολογια Morpholodža)

Different declensions from AG accent? -or < -òs, -0 < -os

Pronouns (Διαονυμε Žaonimie)

Personal (Προσαπκε διαονυμε Prosapče žaonimie)

case 1sg. 2sg. 3sg. 1pl. 2pl. 3pl.
m. f. m. f.
nom. γα ga συ si κειν čin κείνη čìnia ξαμ šam ξατι šať κείνοι čìny κείναι čine
gen. μου mu σου su κείνου čìnu κείνηι čìnie ξαμώ šamò ξατιώ šaťò κείνω čìno κείνω čìno
acc. με mie σε sie τουτ tut τούτη tùtia ξάμοτ šàmot ξάτετ šaťet τούτοι tùty τούται tùte

Nouns (Ουσιαστκοί Usiastký)

The definite suffixes come from a cliticized ἐκεῖνος 'that'.

Possessive suffixes are for the most part added directly to the noun. The resulting forms are implied to be definite.

  • nom. sg.: μάχημου, μάχησου, μάχητου, μάχητει, μάχημω, μάχηξω, μάχητω màčhamu, màčhasu, màčhatu, màčhati, màčhamo, màčhašo, màčhato 'my war (nom), thy war (nom), ...'
  • gen. sg.: màčhimu, màčhisu, etc.
  • A -ρ -r on a stressed case ending is dropped, but turns to -σ -s before suffixes beginning with τ-. For example: ιατρόρ jatròr = a doctor; ιατρόμου jatròmu = my doctor; ιατρόστου jatròstu 'his doctor'.

Possession by nouns must be double-marked. The possessed noun must take the gender-appropriate possessive suffix. (This is a result of reanalysis of the older genitive definite article του, της, των between the noun and the possessor as a possessive affix.)

  • ιατρόστου Ωάνιου jatròstu Waňu 'John's doctor'
  • ιατρόστει Αγάθηι jatròsti Agàťhe 'Agatha's doctor'
  • ιατρόστω αθλητώνω jatròsto athľatòno 'the athletes' doctor'

In case of third-from-last stress, the stress shifts to right before the possessive suffix when one is added:

  • nom. sg.: ράλεγα ràľega 'throat' > ραλεγάμου raľegàmu 'my throat'

Feminine declension

μάχη màčha - war
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative μάχη màčha μάχηνι màčhaň μάχηι màčhe μάχηιν màčhen
Genitive μάχει màčhi μάχεινηι màčhiňe μάχιω màčho μάχιωνω màčhono
τσυχή cičhà - self
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative τσυχή cičhà τσυχήνι cičhàň τσυχηί cičhè τσυχηίν cičhèn
Genitive τσυχήρ cičhàr τσυχήνηι cičhàňe τσυχιώ cičhò τσυχιώνω cičhòno
γλασα glasa - language
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative γλάσα glàsa γλάσανι glàsaň γλάσαι glàse γλασαιν glàsen
Genitive γλάσοι glàsy γλάσοινηι glàsyňe γλάσω glàso γλάσωνω glàsono


πολιτεία poľtìja - state (polity)
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative πολιτεία poľtìja πολιτείανι poľtìjaň πολιτείαι poľtìje πολιτείαιν poľtìjen
Genitive πολιτείοι poľtìji πολιτείοινηι poľtìjiňe πολιτείω poľtìjo πολιτείωνω poľtìjono


τρυγα třiga - wing
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative τρυγα třìga τρυγανι třìgaň τρυγαι třìge τρυγαιν třìgen
Genitive τρυγοι třìgy τρυγοινηι třìgyňe τρυγω třìgo τρυγωνω třìgono

Masculine o-declension

Ancient Greek neuters have merged into the masculine gender and most of them take the masculine o-declension.

Masculines that come from AG unaccented -ος or -ον nouns have a zero-marked nominative indefinite:

ώθραπ othrap - human
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative ώθραπ òthrap ώθραπον òthrapon ώθραποι òthrapy ώθραποιν òthrapyn
Genitive ωθράπου othràpu ωθράπουνου othràpunu ωθράπω othràpo ωθράπωνω othràpono
Vocative ώθραπε òthrapie ώθραποι òthrapy


δαρ dar - gift
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative δαρ dar δάρον dàron δάροι dàry δάροιν dàryn
Genitive δάρου dàru δάρουνου dàrunu δάρω daro δάρωνω dàrono
Vocative δάρε dàře δάροι dàry

-ορ nouns come from Ancient Greek -ός (accented) nouns.

ιατρόρ jatròr - doctor
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative ιατρόρ jatròr ιατρόν jatròn ιατροί jatrý ιατροίν jatrýn
Genitive ιατρού jatrù ιατρούνου jatrùnu ιατρώ jatrò ιατρώνω jatròno
Vocative ιατρέ jatřè ιατροί jatrý

Nouns in -ο come from AG second declension -όν:

τσηνό cianò - bird
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative τσηνό cianò τσηνόν cianòn τσηνοί cianý τσηνοίν cianýn
Genitive τσηνού cianù τσηνούνου cianùnu τσηνώ cianò τσηνώνω cianòno
Nominative τσηνέ ciaňè τσηνοί cianý

Masculine consonant declension

ωδρα odra - man
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative ώδρα òdra ώδραν òdran ώδορι òdoř ώδρεν òdřen
Genitive ώδορ òdor ώδρονου òdronu ώδρω òdro ώδρωνω òdrono
Nominative ώδρα òdra ώδορι òdoř

Adjectives (Επιθητοι Jepthiaty)

1st/2nd declension (-os/-ē)

κοινόρ kynòr 'common'
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine
Nominative κοινόρ kynòr κοινή kynià κοινοί kyný κοινηί kyniè
Genitive κοινού kynù κοινήρ kyniàr κοινώ kynò κοινώ kynò
άγον àgon 'infertile'
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine
Nominative àgon àgonia àgony àgonie
Genitive agònu agòni agòno agòno

-i adjectives

(adjectives from AG -ēs/-ēs/-es)


αήθει ajàthi 'immoral'
Singular Plural
Common Common
Nominative αήθει ajàthi αήθει ajàthi
Genitive αήθου ajàthu αήθω ajàtho

-iàr adjectives

(adjectives from AG -ḗs/-ḗs/-ès)

ευγινήρ judžňàr 'polite'
Singular Plural
Common Common
Nominative ευγινήρ judžňàr ευγινείρ judžnìr
Genitive ευγινού judžnù ευγινώ judžnò

Prepositions (Προθηισηι Proťhesie)

  • na (gen.) = dative
  • in (gen.) = in
  • pro (acc.) = towards (a place)

Verbs (Ρήματοι Řàmaty)

Verbs have a 2x2x2 active, passive x present, past x indicative, subjunctive structure. They have two principal parts: the present stem and the past stem. Many verbs take the suffix -k- in the past active tense, but some verbs do not.

Negative prefix: ου- u- (before a consonant other than h); ουκ- uk- or uč- (otherwise)

  • παιδεύει pežùji = 3sg teaches; ουπαιδεύει upežùji = 3sg does not teach
  • αγαπάει agapàji = 3sg loves; ουκαγαπάει ukagapàji = 3sg does not love
  • εισάγει isàdži = it imports; ουκειάγει učisàdži = it does not import

Weak vowel verbs

Weak vowel-stem verbs are the most regular classes of verbs and have several subclasses:

  1. -άναι -àne verbs (from -άειν contracting to -αν)
  2. -είναι -ìne verbs (from -έειν contracting to -ειν)
  3. -ùne verbs, with 2 subclasses:
    • -εύναι -jùne verbs (from -εύειν)
    • -ούναι -ùne verbs (from -όειν contracting to -ουν)
παιδεύναι pežùne 'to teach'
voice tense ga si ot/otia šam šať oty/ote
active present indicative pežùwa pežùjir pežùji pežùm pežùť pežùš
present subjunctive pežùjo pežùjar pežuja pežujam pežujať pežujaš
past indicative pèžuka pèžukar pèžuč pežùkam pežùkať pežùkaš
past subjunctive pežùkajo pežùkajar pežùkaja pežùkajam pežùkajať pežùkajaš
imperative - pèžuj! pežùthi! - - pežùť! -
infinitive pežùne
past infinitive pežučène
participle pežùwota, pežùra
passive present indicative pežùme pežùre pežùte pežuwònta pežùsť pežùwote
present subjunctive pežùwimo pežùwiro pežùwito pežuwìntha pežùwisť pežuwìjoto
past indicative pèžuťha pèžuťhast pežùťhač pežùťham pežùťhať pežùťhaš
past subjunctive pežùťhejo pežùťhejast pežùťheja pežùťhejam pežùťhejať pežùťhejaš
imperative - pežùre! - - pežùsť! -
infinitive pežùsthe
past infinitive pežùťhane
participle pežùmien, pežùmňa


agapane 'to love'
voice tense ga si ot/otia šam šať oty/ote
active present indicative agapawa agapajir agapaji agapam agapať agapaš
present subjunctive agapajo agapajar agapaja agapajam agapajať agapajaš
past indicative agapiaka agapiakast agapiač agapiakam agapiakať agapiakaš
past subjunctive agapiakajo agapiakajast agapiakaja agapiakajam agapiakajať agapiakajaš
imperative - agapaj! - - agapať! -
infinitive agapane
past infinitive agapiačne
participle agapawota, agapara
passive present indicative agapame agapare agapate agapanta agapasť agapawote
present subjunctive agapawime agapawire agapawite agapawintha agapawisť agapawijote
past indicative agapieťha agapieťhast agapieťhač agapieťham agapieťhať agapieťhaš
past subjunctive agapieťhejo agapieťhejast agapieťheja agapieťhejam agapieťhejať agapieťhejaš
imperative - agapare! - - agapasť! -
infinitive agapasthe
past infinitive agapieťhane
participle agapamien, agapamnia

Weak consonant verbs

ξευρσκειναι šurščine 'to find'

  • Pres. act. ind.: ξευρσκα, ξευρσκειρ, ξευρσκει, ξευρσκομ, ξευρσκετι, ξευρσκουξ šurška, šurščir, šuršči, šurškom, šuršč, šuršk
  • Pres. act. subj.: ξευρσκιω, ξευρσκηρ, ξευρσκη, ξευρσκημ, ξευρσκητι, ξευρσκηξ šurščo, šurščar, šuršča, šurščam, šuršč, šuršč
  • Past act.: ξευρηκα, ξευρηκαστ, ξευρηικι, ξευρηκαμ, ξευρηκατι, ξευρηκαξ šuřaka, šuřakast, šuřeč, šuřakam, šuřakať, šuřakaš
  • Past act. subj.: ξευρηκαϊω, ξευρηκαϊηστ, ξευρηκαϊη... šuřakajo, šuřakajast, šuřakaja, šuřakajam, šuřakajať, šuřakajaš
  • Pres. pass. ind.: ξευρσκμαι, ξευρσκεραι, ξευρσκεται, ξευρσκονθα, ξευρσκεστι, ξευρσκωται šurškme, šurščere, šurščete, šurškontha, šurščesť, šurškote
  • Pres. pass. subj.: ξευρσκοιμαι, ξευρσκοιραι, ξευρσκοιται, ξευρσκοινθα, ξευρσκοιστι, ξευρσκοιωται šurškyme, šurškyre, šurškyte, šurškyntha, šurškysť, šurškyjote
  • Past pass. ind.: šuriaťho, šuriaťhast, šuriaťhač, šuriaťham, šuriaťhať, šuriaťhaš
  • Past pass. subj.: šuriaťhajo, šuriaťhajast, šuriaťhaja, šuriaťhajam, šuriaťhajať, šuriaťhajaš
  • Active participle: šurškota, šurškura (m/f)
  • Passive participle: šurškomien, šurškomňa (m/f)

Strong verbs

Irregular verbs

είναι ine 'to be'

  • Infinitive: είναι ine
  • Present: ειμ, ειρ, εστι, σμε, στε, ειξ im, ir, jesť, smie, sťe, iš
    • Negative forms: ούκειμ, ούκειρ, ούξτι, ουξμέ, ουξτέ, ούκειξ ùčim, ùčir, ùšť, ušmiè, ušťè, ùčiš
  • Subjunctive: είω, είηρ, είη, είημ, είητι, είηξ ìjo, ìjar, ìja, ìjam, ìjať, ìjaš
  • Past: ήκα, ήκαστ, ηκι, ήκαμ, ήκατι, ήκαξ jàka, jàkast, jač, jàkam, jàkať, jàkaš
  • Participle: είωτα, είουρα ìjota, ìjura

Numerals (Αριθμοί Ařthmý)

  • 1, ..., 10: šir/mňa/šen, žo, třir/třìja, ťèsier, pièťe, šeš, šèpta, òkta, jèňa, ďèka
  • 11, ..., 19: šèdka, žòdka, třìdka, ťèsradka, piètadka, šèšadka, šèptadka, òktadka, jèňadka, ìkoř
  • 21, ..., 29: ìkoř šen, ìkoř žo, ìkoř třìja, ... ìkoř jèňa
  • 30, ..., 100: třàta, saròta, pieňèta, šešèta, šemièta, oktòta, jeňèta, šekatò

Syntax (Siotachia)

'To have'

Jest na mu mial.
be.3SG.PRES to/for 1SG.GEN apple
I have an apple.

Conjunctions

  • jo = if