Af Mexee/Verbs

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Verb Classes

There are three main classes of verbs: the suffix, prefix, and adjectival conjugations.

Class I: Suffix Conjugation

The suffix conjugation is the most common and productive verb class. It can be divided into 5 conjugation groups:

  1. Conjugation 1: Root verbs
  2. Conjugation 2: -(a)m- (anticausative) verbs
  3. Conjugation 3 (A, B, C): -ish- (causative) verbs
  4. Conjugation 4 (A, B, C): -at- (middle) verbs
  5. Conjugation 5 (A, B): -p- (inchoative) verbs
  • Note: Affixes can be combined - e.g. cunsiismi "to be made to eat" (stem: cun-siis-(a)m-), maghacaawsami "to be caused to name (to one's benefit)" (stem: maghac-aap-(i)s-a-(a)m-). When any derivational suffix is added to -ish- (or derivatives such as -siish-), the -sh- always becomes -s-. Affixes generally combine in the order -oo/aa- + -p- + -(si)ish- + -at/o- + -(a)m-.

Conjugation 1

Root verbs with no extra affixes. e.g. keeni "to bring" (stem: keen-)

(Note: –́ = penultimate high tone, or final if monomoraic)

Class I Conjugation 1
Infinitive
–́ i
keéni
Verbal Noun (f.)
-íd (-íth-)
keeníd
Present Affirmative Present Subjunctive Past Affirmative Past Negative Imperative Affirmative Imperative Negative
1S
-a
keena
keenó
-i
keeni
-ín
keenín
2S
-ta
keenta
-tó
keen
-ti
keenti
–́
kéen
–́ in
keénin
3SM
-a
keena
keenó
-i
keeni
3SF
-ta
keenta
-tó
keen
-ti
keenti
1P
-na
keenna
-nó
keen
-ni
keenni
2P
-tíin
keentíin
-tíin
keentíin
-téen
keentéen
–́ a
keéna
-ína
keenína
3P
-áan
keenáan
-áan
keenáan
-éen
keenéen

Conjugation 2

Verbs derived from lexically causative verbs with the passive/anticausative affix -(a)m-. When derived from a Conjugation 3 verb, the -sh- becomes a -s-, giving the combined affix -(i)s(a)m- Note that in dropping environments, either the -i- or -a- of -(i)s(a)m- may be dropped - e.g. karisma or karsama "it cooks" (the latter is more common). -(a)m- can also combine with -at- (though more rarely) to form -am-, where the -a- is NOT dropped. There are two competing paradigms for Conjugation 2 verbs: the first treats them as a Conjugation 1 verb, with the -(a)m affix behaving as a part of the stem, while the second is a hybrid of Conjugations 1 and 4. The hybrid paradigm cannot be used when the -a- of -(a)m- is preserved in a combined affix such as -am- or -sam-.

e.g. xirmi "to close (INTR), get closed" (stem: xir-(a)m-)

Class I Conjugation 2 - Paradigm 1
Infinitive
–́ mi
xírmi
Verbal Noun (f.)
-míd (-míth-)
xirmíd
Present Affirmative Present Subjunctive Past Affirmative Past Negative Imperative Affirmative Imperative Negative
1S
-ma
xirma
-mó
xir
-mi
xirmi
-mín
xirmín
2S
-anta
xiranta
-antó
xirantó
-anti
xiranti
–́ an
xíran
–́ min
xírmin
3SM
-ma
xirma
-mó
xir
-mi
xirmi
3SF
-anta
xiranta
-antó
xirantó
-anti
xiranti
1P
-anna
xiranna
-annó
xirannó
-anni
xiranni
2P
-antíin
xirantíin
-antíin
xirantíin
-antéen
xirantéen
–́ ma
xírma
-mína
xirmína
3P
-máan
xirmáan
-máan
xirmáan
-méen
xirméen
Class I Conjugation 2 - Paradigm 2
Infinitive
–́ mi
xírmi
Verbal Noun (f.)
-míd (-míth-)
xirmíd
Present Affirmative Present Subjunctive Past Affirmative Past Negative Imperative Affirmative Imperative Negative
1S
-ma
xirma
ˊ-mó
xír
-mi
xirmi
-mín
xirmín
2S
-mata
xirmata
-mató
xirmató
-mati
xirmati
–mó
xir
ˊ–min
xírmin
3SM
-ma
xirma
-mó
xir
-mi
xirmi
3SF
-mata
xirmata
-mató
xirmató
-mati
xirmati
1P
-manna
xirmanna
-mannó
xirmannó
-manni
xirmanni
2P
-matíin
xirmatíin
-matíin
xirmatíin
-matéen
xirmatéen
–́ ma
xírma
-mína
xirmína
3P
-máan
xirmáan
-máan
xirmáan
-méen
xirméen

Conjugation 3A

Verbs derived from root verbs with the causative affix -ish- - e.g. karín "to cook" (stem: kar-ish-). The sh combines with t and n to form s and nn respectively.

Class I Conjugation 3A
Infinitive
-ín
karín
Verbal Noun (f.)
-ís
karís
Present Affirmative Present Subjunctive Past Affirmative Past Negative Imperative Affirmative Imperative Negative
1S
-(i)sha
kar(i)sha
-(i)shó
kar(i)shó
-(i)shi
kar(i)shi
-inín
karinín
2S
-isa
karisa
-isó
karisó
-isi
karisi
ˊ–ish
kárish
–ínin
karínin
3SM
-(i)sha
kar(i)sha
-(i)shó
kar(i)shó
-(i)shi
kar(i)shi
3SF
-isa
karisa
-isó
karisó
-isi
karisi
1P
-inna
karinna
-innó
karinnó
-inni
karinni
2P
-isíin
karisíin
-isíin
karisíin
-iséen
kariséen
–ísha/-́sha
karísha/kársha
-inína
karinína
3P
-(i)sháan
kar(i)sháan
-(i)sháan
kar(i)sháan
-(i)shéen
kar(i)shéen

Conjugation 3B

Verbs derived with the causative affix -siish- (from -ish- + -ish-). e.g. gaarsiin "to make reach".

Class I Conjugation 3B
Infinitive
-síin
gaarsíin
Verbal Noun (f.)
-siís
gaarsiís
Present Affirmative Present Subjunctive Past Affirmative Past Negative Imperative Affirmative Imperative Negative
1S
-siisha
gaarsiisha
-siishó
gaarsiishó
-siishi
gaarsiishi
-siinín
gaarsiinín
2S
-siisa
gaarsiisa
-siisó
gaarsiisó
-siisi
gaarsiisi
–síish
gaarsíish
–síinin
gaarsiínin
3SM
-siisha
gaarsiisha
-siishó
gaarsiishó
-siishi
gaarsiishi
3SF
-siisa
gaarsiisa
-siisó
gaarsiisó
-siisi
gaarsiisi
1P
-siinna
gaarsiinna
-siinnó
gaarsiinnó
-siinni
gaarsiinni
2P
-siisíin
gaarsiisíin
-siisíin
gaarsiisíin
-siiséen
gaarsiiséen
–siísha
gaarsiísha
-siinína
gaarsiinína
3P
-siisháan
gaarsiisháan
-siisháan
gaarsiisháan
-siishéen
gaarsiishéen

Conjugation 3C

Verbs derived from nouns/adjectives with the causative affix -aaysh- (from -aa- + -(i)sh-). e.g. bishaayn "to water, pour water (in/on)".

Class I Conjugation 3C
Infinitive
-aaýn
bishaaýn
Verbal Noun (f.)
-aaýs
bishaaýs
Present Affirmative Present Subjunctive Past Affirmative Past Negative Imperative Affirmative Imperative Negative
1S
-aaysha
bishaaysha
-aayshó
bishaayshó
-aayshi
bishaayshi
-aaynín
bishaaynín
2S
-aaysa
bishaaysa
-aaysó
bishaaysó
-aaysi
bishaaysi
ˊ–aaysh
bisháash
–aaýnin
bishaaýnin
3SM
-aaysha
bishaaysha
-aayshó
bishaayshó
-aayshi
bishaayshi
3SF
-aaysa
bishaaysa
-aaysó
bishaaysó
-aaysi
bishaaysi
1P
-aaynna
bishaaynna
-aaynnó
bishaaynnó
-aaynni
bishaaynni
2P
-aaysíin
bishaaysíin
-aaysíin
bishaaysíin
-aayséen
bishaayséen
–aaýsha
bishaaýsha
-aaynína
bishaaynína
3P
-aaysháan
bishaaysháan
-aaysháan
bishaaysháan
-aayshéen
bishaayshéen

Conjugation 4A

Verbs with the middle/autobenefactive affix -o/at-. When derived from Conjugation 3 verbs, the -sh- becomes -s-, giving the combined affix -so/sat-. Depending on the stem, there may or may not be reductions. e.g. xirán "to put on" (stem: xir-at-), karsán "to cook for oneself" (stem: kar-s-at-).

Class I Conjugation 4A - With reductions
Infinitive
-án
xirán
Verbal Noun (f.)
-ashó (-ashá-)
xirashó
Present Affirmative Present Subjunctive Past Affirmative Past Negative Imperative Affirmative Imperative Negative
1S
-ta
xirta
-tó
xir
-ti
xirti
-anín
xiranín
2S
-ata
xirata
-ató
xirató
-ati
xirati
–ó
xiró
–ánin
xiránin
3SM
-ta
xirta
-tó
xir
-ti
xirti
3SF
-ata
xirata
-ató
xirató
-ati
xirati
1P
-anna
xiranna
-annó
xirannó
-anni
xiranni
2P
-atíin
xiratíin
-atíin
xiratíin
-atéen
xiratéen
–́ ta
xírta
-anína
xiranína
3P
-táan
xirtáan
-táan
xirtáan
-téen
xirtéen
Class I Conjugation 4A - Without reductions
Infinitive
-án
karsán
Verbal Noun (f.)
-ashó (-ashá-)
karsashó
Present Affirmtive Present Subjunctive Past Affirmtive Past Negtive Impertive Affirmtive Impertive Negtive
1S
-atha
karsatha
-athó
karsathó
-athi
karsathi
-anín
karsanín
2S
-ata
karsata
-ató
karsató
-ati
karsati
–ó
karsó
–ánin
karsánin
3SM
-atha
karsatha
-athó
karsathó
-athi
karsathi
3SF
-ata
karsata
-ató
karsató
-ati
karsati
1P
-anna
karsanna
-annó
karsannó
-anni
karsanni
2P
-atíin
karsatíin
-atíin
karsatíin
-atéen
karsatéen
–́ atha
kársatha
-anína
karsanína
3P
-atháan
karsatháan
-atháan
karsatháan
-athéen
karsathéen

Conjugation 4B

Verbs derived from nouns/adjectives (generally adjectives) with the affix -oo/aath- (from -aa- + -o/at-). Class III verbs all have a Conjugation 4B counterpart, which is used inchoatively and/or continuatively. They share infinitive and imperative forms. e.g. ahaan "to be" (Class III) or "to become/remain" (Conjugation 4B, stem: eh-aath-).

Class I Conjugation 4B
Infinitive
-aán
ahaán
Verbal Noun (f.)
-aashó (-aashá-)
ahaashó
Present Affirmative Present Subjunctive Past Affirmative Past Negative Imperaative Affirmative Imperative Negative
1S
-aatha
ahaatha
-aathó
ahaathó
-aathi
ahaathi
-aanín
ahaanín
2S
-aata
ahaata
-aató
ahaató
-aati
ahaati
–oó
ah
–aánin
ahaánin
3SM
-aatha
ahaatha
-aathó
ahaathó
-aathi
ahaathi
3SF
-aata
ahaata
-aató
ahaató
-aati
ahaati
1P
-aanna
ahaanna
-aannó
ahaannó
-aanni
ahaanni
2P
-aatíin
ahaatíin
-aatíin
ahaatíin
-aatéen
ahaatéen
–aátha
ahaátha
-aanína
ahaanína
3P
-aatháan
ahaatháan
-aatháan
ahaatháan
-aathéen
ahaathéen

Conjugation 4C

Verbs derived from nouns/adjectives (generally nouns ending in -o) with the affix -oo/ooth- (from -oo- + -o/at-). e.g. caroón "to become angry" (stem car-ooth-, from caro "anger").

Class I Conjugation 4C
Infinitive
-oón
caroón
Verbal Noun (f.)
-ooshó (-ooshá-)
carooshó
Present Affirmative Present Subjunctive Past Affirmative Past Negative Imperative Affirmative Imperative Negative
1S
-ootha
carootha
-oothó
caroothó
-oothi
caroothi
-oonín
caroonín
2S
-oota
caroota
-ootó
carootó
-ooti
carooti
–oó
car
–oónin
caroónin
3SM
-ootha
carootha
-oothó
caroothó
-oothi
caroothi
3SF
-oota
caroota
-ootó
carootó
-ooti
carooti
1P
-oonna
caroonna
-oonnó
caroonnó
-oonni
caroonni
2P
-ootíin
carootíin
-ootíin
carootíin
-ootéen
carootéen
–oótha
caroótha
-oonína
caroonína
3P
-ootháan
carootháan
-ootháan
carootháan
-oothéen
caroothéen

Conjugation 5A

Verbs derived from nouns/adjectives (generally nouns) with the affix -oop- (=-oo- + -p-). e.g. duqoopi "to get old" (stem: duq-oop-)

Class I Conjugation 5A
Infinitive
-oópi
duqoópi
Verbal Noun (f.)
-oopíd (-oopíth-)
duqoopíd
Present Affirmative Present Subjunctive Past Affirmative Past Negative Imperative Affirmative Imperative Negative
1S
-oopa
duqoopa
-oopó
duqoopó
-oopi
duqoopi
-oopín
duqoopín
2S
-oowta
duqoowta
-oowtó
duqoowtó
-oowti
duqoowti
–oów
duqoów
–oópin
duqoópin
3SM
-oopa
duqoopa
-oopó
duqoopó
-oopi
duqoopi
3SF
-oowta
duqoowta
-oowtó
duqoowtó
-oowti
duqoowti
1P
-oowna
duqoowna
-oownó
duqoownó
-oowni
duqoowni
2P
-oowtíin
duqoowtíin
-oowtíin
duqoowtíin
-oowtéen
duqoowtéen
–oópa
duqoópa
-oopína
duqoopína
3P
-oopáan
duqoopáan
-oopáan
duqoopáan
-oopéen
duqoopéen

Conjugation 5B

Verbs derived from nouns/adjectives (generally nouns) with the affix -aap- (=-aa- + -p-). e.g. maghacaápi "to name" (stem: maghac-aap-).

Class I Conjugation 5B
Infinitive
-aápi
maghacaápi
Verbal Noun (f.)
-aapíd (-aapíth-)
maghacaapíd
Present Affirmative Present Subjunctive Past Affirmative Past Negative Imperative Affirmative Imperative Negative
1S
-aapa
maghacaapa
-aapó
maghacaapó
-aapi
maghacaapi
-aapín
maghacaapín
2S
-aawta
maghacaawta
-aawtó
maghacaawtó
-aawti
maghacaawti
–aáw
maghacaáw
–aápin
maghacaápin
3SM
-aapa
maghacaapa
-aapó
maghacaapó
-aapi
maghacaapi
3SF
-aawta
maghacaawta
-aawtó
maghacaawtó
-aawti
maghacaawti
1P
-aawna
maghacaawna
-aawnó
maghacaawnó
-aawni
maghacaawni
2P
-aawtíin
maghacaawtíin
-aawtíin
maghacaawtíin
-aawtéen
maghacaawtéen
–aápa
maghacaápa
-aapína
maghacaapína
3P
-aapáan
maghacaapáan
-aapáan
maghacaapáan
-aapéen
maghacaapéen

Class II: Prefix Conjugation

The prefix conjugation is a small, closed class of verbs that conjugate by means of prefixes and vowel changes. It includes the verbs aqoon "to know", ool "to be available", oran "to say/tell", and iman "to come". They have various forms due to analogy with each other and the suffix conjugation. The tables below show oossible two paradigms for each verb.

Class II: aqoón
Infinitive
aqoón
aqaáni
Verbal Noun (f.)
aqoonshó
aqaaníd
Present Affirmative Present Subjunctive Past Affirmative Past Negative Imperative Affirmative Imperative Negative
1S
aqaan
aqaana
aqaán
aqaanó
aqiin
aqaani
aqíin
aqaanín
2S
taqaan
taqaana
taqaán
taqaanó
taqiin
taqaani
taqíin
aqóon
aqáan
aqíin
aqáanin
3SM
yaqaan
yaqaana
yaqaán
yaqaanó
yaqiin
yaqaani
yaqíin
3SF
taqaan
taqaana
taqaán
taqaanó
taqiin
taqaani
taqíin
1P
naqaan
naqaana
naqaán
naqaanó
naqiin
naqiini
naqíin
2P
taqaaníin
taqaaníin
taqiiníin
taqaanéen
taqiiníin
aqoóna
aqáana
aqoonína
aqaanína
3P
yaqaaníin
yaqaanáan
yaqaaníin
yaqaanáan
yaqiiníin
yaqaanéen
yaqiiníin
  • ool is conjugated similarly to aqoon.
Class II: orán
Infinitive
orán
iraán
Verbal Noun (f.)
orashó
iraashó
Present Affirmative Present Subjunctive Past Affirmative Past Negative Imperative Affirmative Imperative Negative
1S
ara
iraatha
oró
iraathó
iri
iraathi
oranín
iraanín
2S
tara
tiraatha
or
tiraathó
tiri
tiraathi
oró
ir
oránin
iraánin
3SM
yara
yiraatha
oró
yiraathó
yiri
yiraathi
3SF
tara
tiraatha
or
tiraathó
tiri
tiraathi
1P
nara
niraatha
or
niraathó
niri
niraathi
2P
tiraathíin
ortíin
tiraathíin
tiraathéen
orátha
iraátha
oranína
iraanína
3P
yiraathíin
yiraatháan
oráan
yiraatháan
yiraathéen
Class II: imán
Infinitive
imán
imaán
Verbal Noun (f.)
imashó
imaashó
Present Affirmative Present Subjunctive Past Affirmative Past Negative Imperative Affirmative Imperative Negative
1S
ima
imaatha
imó
imaathó
imi
imaathi
imanín
imaanín
2S
tima
timaatha
timó
timaathó
timi
timaathi
imó
im
imánin
imaánin
3SM
yima
yimaatha
yimó
yimaathó
yimi
yimaathi
3SF
tima
timaatha
timó
timaathó
timi
timaathi
1P
nima
nimaatha
nimó
nimaathó
nimi
nimaathi
2P
timaathíin
timíin
timaathíin
timaathéen
imátha
imaátha
imanína
imaanína
3P
yimaathíin
yimaatháan
yimíin
yimaatháan
yimaathéen

Class III: Adjectival Conjugation

The adjectival conjugation is used for adjectives and a few stative verbs such as love and hate (which in Somali are adjectives). All Class III verbs are stative, but not all stative verbs are class 3. The citation form for Class III verbs is the third person singular short present indicative. The most basic Class III verb is eh "being" (stem: eh-). The present has two forms which are used differently. Notice that in the "long present", the stem becomes ee-. In fact, the long present endings were originally forms of the verb eh (e.g. eéya "I am" from éh aha, where aha is the original 1S prefixed present).

Class III: eh
Infinitive
aháan
Verbal Noun (f.)
ahaashó
Present Affirmative Present Negative Past Affirmative Past Negative Imperative Affirmative Imperative Negative
1S
ya
íhi
ihí
ahaay
ahaaýn
2S
tha
tíhid
tihíd
ahaayti
ah
ahaánin
3SM
ya
éh
ahá
ahaay
3SF
tha
éh
ahá
ahaayti
1P
na
níhin
nihín
ahaayni
2P
thíin
tíhithíin
tihithíin
ahaaytéen
ahaátha
ahaanína
3P
yíin
yíhíin
yihíin
ahaayéen

The verb leh "having, owning" is conjugated as eh. Other Class III verbs are conjugated similarly. e.g. cas "red" (stem: cas-).

Class III: cas
Infinitive
-aán
casaán
Verbal Noun (f.)
-aashó (-aashá-)
casaashó
Present Affirmative Present Negative Past Affirmative Past Negative Imperative Affirmative Imperative Negative
1S
-́a
cása
-́i
cási
casí
-aay
casaay
-aanín
casaaýn
2S
-́ta
cásta
-́id
cásid
-íd
casíd
-aayti
casaayti
–oó
cas
–aánin
casaánin
3SM
-́ya
cásya
cás
casá
-aay
casaay
3SF
-́ta
cásta
cás
casá
-aayti
casaayti
1P
-́na
cásna
-́in
cásin
-ín
casín
-aayni
casaayni
2P
-́tíin
cástíin
-́ithíin
cásithíin
-ithíin
casithíin
-aaytéen
casaaytéen
–aátha
casaátha
-aanína
casaanína
3P
-́yíin
cásyíin
-́íin
cásíin
-íin
casíin
-aayéen
casaayéen

Tense, Aspect, Mood, and Voice

Notes:

  • Impersonal passive (with la) is used as the regular passive as well as pseudo-passive - e.g. la i arki "I was seen", la jiifa "(someone) is sleeping".
  • Subjunctive forms can be used adjectivally. In this usage, gender and number marking is optional (hence why adjectives need not be marked for plurality).

Simple Forms

These are forms that do not use auxiliary verbs.

Simple Present

  • Used similarly to English simple present and past perfect continuous. Generally refers to a habitual action for dynamic verbs, or an ongoing action for stative verbs.
  • Indicative:
    • Affirmative: "Present Indicative" forms - e.g. us tagha "he goes"
    • Negative: + "Present Subjunctive/Negative" - e.g. máwsan taghó "he does not go"
  • Subjunctive:
    • Affirmative: "Present Subjunctive" - e.g. nin taghó "a man who goes"
      • For Class III, the present subjunctive forms are the same as the present negative except in 3S, where it is equivalent to the present indicative.
    • Negative: (an) + "Past Negative" - e.g. nin an taghín "a man who does not go"

Simple Past

  • Used for a simple action in the past.
  • Indicative:
    • Affirmative: "Past Affirmative" - e.g. us taghi "he went"
    • Negative: + "Past Negative" - e.g. máwsan taghín "he did not go"
  • Subjunctive:
    • Affirmative: "Past Affirmative" with final high tone - e.g. nin taghí "a man who went"
    • Negative: (an) + "Past Negative" - e.g. nin an taghín "a man who did not go" (note that this is identical to the present equivalent; for d=isambiguation, a compound form may be used instead)

Jussive

  • Affirmative:
    • First and second person: Clitic subject + "Present Subjunctive" with penultimate high tone - e.g. an tágno "let us go"
      • In the second person plural, -tíin may be replaced by -téen.
    • Third person: + "Present Subjunctive" - e.g. há taghó "let him go"
      • In the plural, the ending -áan can be -éen instead.
  • Negative:
    • yáa + "2S Imperative Negative" - e.g. yóosan tághin "let him not go"

Imperative

  • Only occurs in the second person.
  • Affirmative: "Imperative Affirmative" - e.g. tág "go!"
  • Negative: + "Imperative Negative" - e.g. há tághin "do not go!"

Potential

  • Used for an action/state that might occur in the future. It is optionally preceded or followed by the assumptive particle shów.
    • Classes I & II: Past affirmative with -i replaced by -e - e.g. (shów) us taghe / us taghi shów "he might go"
    • Class III: Identical to the corresponding Conjugation 4B form - e.g. us ahaathe "he might become"

Assumptive

  • Used for an action/state that is assumed to have probably occurred in the past. It is equivalent to the simple past preceded or followed by the assumptive particle shów.
e.g. shów us taghi / us taghi shów "he must have gone"

Compound Forms

These are forms that use the infinitive with auxiliary verbs.

Present Progressive

  • Used for an ongoing action. Can also be used for near future.
  • Formed from: Infinitive (minus -i if present) + Conjugation 3C present endings (actually an abbreviated form of haashi "to have/hold") - e.g. us tágaasha "he is leaving", máwsan tághaashó "he is not leaving"

Past Progressive

  • Used for an ongoing action in the past.
  • Formed from: Infinitive (minus -i if present) + Conjugation 3C past endings - e.g. us tágaashi "he was leaving", máwsan tághaaynín "he was not leaving"

Near Future

  • Used for action in the near future.
  • Formed from: Infinitive + Present tense of rapi "to want" - e.g. us tághi rapa "he is about to go", máwsan tághi rapó "he is not about to go"

Near Future in Past

  • Past equivalent of the above.
  • Formed from: Infinitive + Past tense of rapi "to want" - e.g. us tághi rapi "he was going to go", máwsan tághi rapín "he was not going to go"

Distant Future

  • Used for action in the future that is more distant or less certain. For example, something in the distant future or that you will eventually do but are procrastinating.
  • Formed from: Infinitive + Present tense of dooni "to seek" - e.g. us tághi doona "he will go (eventually)", máwsan tághi doonó "he will not go"

Distant Future in Past

  • Past equivalent of the above.
  • Formed from: Infinitive + Past tense of dooni "to seek" - e.g. us tághi dooni "he was going to go", máwsan tághi doonín "he was not going to go"

Conditional

  • Formed from: Infinitive + Past tense of leh "having/owning" - e.g. us tághi lahaay "he would go", máwsan tághi lahaaýn "he would not go"

Present Habitual

  • Used for habitual actions in the present. For dynamic verbs this is similar in meaning to the simple present, but places emphasis on the repeated nature of the action.
  • Formed from: Infinitive + Present tense of jiri "to exist" - e.g. us tághi jira "he goes regularly", máwsan tághi jiró "he does not go regularly"

Past Habitual

  • Used for habitual actions in the past. In the subjunctive, it can also mean a single action in the distant past.
  • Formed from: Infinitive + Past tense of jiri "to exist" - e.g. us tághi jiri "he used to go", máwsan tághi jirín "he did not used to go", goórtíi us tághi jirí "back when he used to go" or "back when he went"

Other Compound Forms

  • kari "to be able" (present, past) → "to be able to" - e.g. us tághi kara "he can go"
  • waayi "to not find" (present, past) → "to fail to" - e.g. us tághi waayi "he failed to go"
    • In the simple present indicative, it indicates habituality (i.e. "regularly fails to").
    • In the subjunctive, it can be used instead of the simple negative subjunctive. e.g. hadíi us tághi waayó "if he does not go", ninki tághi waayí "the man who did not go"
  • la' "to lack" (present) → "to fail to" - e.g. us tághi lá'ya "he is failing to go"
    • This is used for an ongoing action (i.e. "is failing to").
  • qapi "to have" (present, past) → "to have to" - e.g. us tághi qapa "he has to go"
  • gaari "to reach" (past) → "to almost" - e.g. us tághi gaari "he almost went"