Ahāmatya

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Vasa Ahāmatya Manān Etjelletyandaljān
[ˈva.sa a.haːˈmat.ja ˈma.na:n ɛˌtjɛl.lɛt.janˈda.lja:n]
Creator: Daniel Quigley
Spoken in: Mana Etjelletyandalja
World: Leaves Stories
Total Speakers: ~ 10,000,000
Basic word order: Subject-Object-Verb
Morphological Type: Synthetic
Morphosyntactic Alignment: Nominative-Accusative
Inspirations: Sanskrit, Finnish, Russian, Latin, English, Quenya, Ancient Greek, Classical Persian
Status: In Progress
Link to full documentation: *forthcoming*

Vasa Ahāmatya Manān Etjelletyandaljān is an a priori artistic constructed language in development by Daniel Quigley, providing the framework for which the author’s creative works and worldbuilding are guided. Vasa Ahāmatya Manān Etjelletyandaljān or just Ahāmatya is the standardized, formal, and literary register of language of Mana Etjelletyandalja, in contrast to the variable dialects collectively referred to as Vasa Vrjāmatya Manān Etjelletyandaljān or just Vrjāmatya.

Ahāmatya is a relatively conservative language. Loan words have found their way into Vrjāmatya, but are mostly deliberately avoided in Ahāmatya. If one were to use a non-native word, then one would do so either indirectly via some periphrastic construction, or by simply employing the nearest approximation available in the language.

Ahāmatya is typologically a synthetic, fusional language. Nouns and modifiers are inflected for number and case. Other modifiers, such as adverbs, are not inflected in the same way, though similarities may be found in certain contexts. Nouns exhibit a class distinction, of which may be determined either by the phonology or the morphology. Verbs are inflected for aspect, time, valency, and mood. Some particles are inflected for number and case. Ahāmatya is a Nominative-Accusative aligned language, and has relatively free word order because of its case-marking, though word order tends towards S-O-V.

Introduction

Setting

The people of Mana Etjelletyandalja are rather homogeneous in language, culture, and identity, though there exists a gradient of such things in a north-south direction, running along the length of the land. Ahāmatya is the formal language, used in official capacities and as the literary language. The spoken languages of Mana Etjelletyandalja are collectively referred to as Vrjāmatya.

Ahāmatya and Vrjāmatya are related, both having descended from a parent language, often referred to as Vasa Ururya Manān Etjelletyandaljān. This is a little misleading, however, in that Vasa Ururya Manān Etjelletyandaljān was actually a loose collection of highly related dialects, which over time enveloped Mana Etjelletyandalja, displacing the various native languages and dialects. There is little differentiation between Ahāmatya and Vasa Ururya Manān Etjelletyandaljān. Most speakers of Vrjāmatya do not readily distinguish the one from the other, and consider them to be a continuous entity.

Etymology

The perfective participle ahāmatya is a compound consisting of aha- “together deliberately, bring together with intent, an indication of a union of things thought as one” and amatya “made, built”. The former is a prefix that may be appended to verbs or nouns, and the latter is the perfective participle of the verb mat- “do, make, form”. Therefore, the meaning may be interpreted as “well prepared, refined, put together”. Since participle forms may act either as nominals or as modifiers, it is common to see ahāmatya stand alone, in which case it is thought of as a nominal, with the implication of “(that which is) well prepared, refined, put together”, where the items in parentheses are understood.

The full form, Vasa Ahāmatya Manān Etjelletyandaljān is built from vasa “language, speech”, manān is the genitive form of mana "land". Etjelletyandaljān is a more difficult word to analyze. It is composed of etjellet- which is the perfective form of the transitive verb tjellet-, itself derived from the noun tjelle “sky, heaven”. tjellet-, then, has the meaning “to sky someone, to adore someone or something, to put someone or something on high”. etjelletya, then, is the participle form “(that which is) adored, put on high”. The -nda- element is the augmentive, and the -lja- is a morpheme used to convert nouns into adjectives. Mana Etjelletyandalja is the full, poetic name for the land, meaning “the most adored or most favored land”. The final -n, with the lengthened vowel, is the genitive case marker. Besides being a poetic form, the notion of putting something or someone up on high, with connotations of putting them to the sky, works in a literal sense and refers to the magnificent mountains that dominate the skies and run the length of the land. These mountains are an important cultural and historical agent.

Taken altogether, Vasa Ahāmatya Manān Etjelletyandaljān translates to “the refined language of the most revered land”.

Goals

The driving goal of Ahāmatya is to provide a framework for the author’s creative works and worldbuilding. To that end, Ahāmatya ought to be a naturalistic constructed language, and ought to be pleasant to look at and to hear (admittedly, this is wholly subjective, and others may disagree with to the extent to which this was fulfilled).

Development, Inspiration, Forthcoming

The history of Ahāmatya as a constructed language is traceable to its earliest incarnations some ten or so years, the oldest, unchanged words being ive "bird", mana "land", and tura "strong". Since the development of the language has been a continuous evolution, with starts and stops, it is difficult to put an exact timeline of evolution. It is an on-going process, and will likely remain so.

Because much of the creative works and worldbuilding for which Ahāmatya guides concern themselves with cultural contact, exchange, and conflict, the two dominant languages of the world, Ahāmatya and Eḥeiθymme, are deliberately designed to be dissimilar, with regards to the make-up and feel of the language. The inspirations of the language include, but are not limited to, Sanskrit, Finnish, Russian, Latin, English, Quenya, Ancient Greek, and Classical Persian. While some overlap exists in the inspirations for Ahāmatya and Eḥeiθymme, any overt similarities are deliberately avoided.

A more in-depth and detailed documentation is forthcoming, which includes in-universe terminology for grammatical categories and descriptions. The author hopes to someday have the creative works published.

Phonology

Consonants

Ahāmatya has five major places of articulation and six manners of articulation. Furthermore, there exists a distinction between palatalized consonants and non-palatalized consonants, and in the context of labial nasals and stops, aspirated consonants and non-aspirated consonants. Ahāmatya, then, has thirty-three consonants in total, seven of which exist as allophones. Consonants in parentheses are allophones of their unvoiced counterparts.

Consonant Inventory of Ahāmatya
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
hard soft hard soft soft hard soft hard soft
Nasal m = [m] mh = [mh] n = [n] nj = [nj] ŋ = [ŋ] ŋj = [ŋj]
Stop unvoiced p = [p] ph = [ph] t = [t] tj = [tj] k = [k] kj = [kj]
voiced (b) = [b] (bh) = [bh] (d) = [d] (dj) = [dj] (g) = [g] (gj) = [gj]
Fricative unvoiced f = [f] s = [s] sj = [sj] x = [x] h = [h] hj = [hj]
voiced v = [v] vj = [vj] (ɣ) = [ɣ]
Trill r = [r] rj = [rj]
Semi-Vowel w = [w] y = [j]
Liquid l = [l] lj = [lj]

Vowels and Diphthongs

Ahāmatya has four short vowels and four long vowels, a distinction manifested as the long vowels' sound being held twice as long as short vowels' sound.

The short vowels are following: i, e, a, u. The long vowels are following: ī, ē, ā, ū. Note that, when spoken, there is some variation in the actual pronunciation of /ɛ:/, and may be more accurately pronounced as [e:].

Ahāmatya has six diphthongs, all of which have length equivalent to long vowels. The diphthongs are the following: ei, ai, ui, iu, eu, au.

Vowel and Diphthong Inventory of Ahāmatya
Short Long
Front Back Front Back
High i = [i] u = [u] ī = [i:] ū = [u:]
Mid e = [ɛ] ~ [e] ē = [ɛ:] ~ [e:]
Low a = [a] ā = [a:]
Diphthongs ei = [ej], ai = [aj], ui = [uj], iu = [ju]
, eu = [ew], au = [aw]


There are some contexts in which a vowel sequence is not a diphthong. This usually occurs when a long vowel is then appended to by a short vowel. This is represented by an acute diacritic replacing the macron over the long vowel. This has an effect of reducing the length of the long vowel to a short vowel, and both vowels in the sequence carry their own distinct syllabification. This may be seen in the following:

  • āiái = a-i
  • āuáu = a-u

Prosody and Stress

There are as many syllables in an Ahāmatya word as there are separate vowels and diphthongs. Additionally, a cliticized [m, n, v, l, s] may carry its own syllable weight.

Stress is predictable, and manifests as primary and secondary stress. Secondary stress is placed upon the first syllable of a word, provided that that syllable is not a prefix, clitic, a reduplicated element, or augment. In that case, the secondary stress finds where the first syllable of the word is that is not one of those items, i.e., the root, and then provides the stress at that location. Primary stress falls upon the penultimate syllable.

Syllable structure generally follows two explicit rules, which themselves are detailed on various levels.

1. A consonant before a vowel, or a consonant cluster at the beginning of a word, forms the syllable onset.

  • A singular consonant forms the onset of the syllable.
 tjelle [ˈtjɛl.lɛ] CVC.CV "sky"
 tala [ˈta.la] CV.CV "high"
 ive [ˈi.vɛ] V.CV "bird"
  • A consonant cluster of arbitrary length (maximum four) at the beginning of a word forms the onset of the syllable.
 vrjāmatya [vrja:ˈmat.ja] CCVV.CVC.CV "original, natural"
 mrja [ˈmrja] CCV "spirit"
  • A word affixed with an arbitrary number of prefixes retains its syllabic structure independent of those syllables appended to it, and the affix retains its own syllabic structure.
 epprja [ɛpˈprja] VC.CCV "in front of a cat"
 phelarya [phɛlˈar.ja] CVC.VC.CV "beside the friend"
  • Word initial clusters formed via the cliticization of [m, n, v, l, s] may either meld into that consonant cluster, forming the coda of the word initial syllable, or may carry syllabic weight themselves.
 v-mrja [ˈvmrja] CCCV "in the spirit"
 v-mrja [vˈmrja] C.CCV "in the spirit"
 s-vlja [ˈsvlja] CCCV "as the wolf"
 s-vlja [sˈvlja] C.CCV "as the wolf"

2. Consonant clusters tend to be broken word internally.

  • Lengthened consonants are always separated, with the first consonant joined with the preceding vowel forming the coda of that syllable, and the second consonant joined to the following vowel, forming the onset of that syllable.
 tjelle [ˈtjɛl.lɛ] CVC.CV "sky"
 anna [ˈan.na] VC.CV "beneficial"
 emmatta [ˌɛmˈmat.ta] VC.CVC.CV "dear flower"
  • Word internal clusters are regularly separated, and the first consonant of the combination is joined with the preceding vowel, forming the coda of that syllable.
 mandrya [ˈman.drja] CVC.CCV "power"
  • Cluster onsets in syllables of the form CrV, CrjV, ClV, CljV are considered a single unit, and are not separated, and are thus exempt from the above rule.
 atamrjamma [a.taˈmrjam.ma] V.CV.CCVC.CV "in the company of a (dear) spirit"
 epprja [ɛpˈprja] VC.CCV "in front of a cat"
 yavendra [ˌjaˈvɛn.dra] VC.CCV "and of vowels"

Finally, of note, is that there exist two diphthongs that, if they were to exist in a non-stressed syllable, they will then collapse into a long vowel (or short vowel, in the context of plurality, see below). Which diphthong collapses into which vowel is shown here:

  • eiī
  • aiē

Morphology

Nouns

Ahāmatya nouns can be declined into six cases, three numbers, and four classes.

Class

Ahāmatya nouns exhibit a kind of noun class system. Nouns have four classes: Class I nouns, called "a-theme" nouns; Class II nouns, called "e-theme" nouns; Class III nouns, called "u-theme" nouns; Class IV nouns, called "other" nouns. "a-theme", "e-theme", and "u-theme" are so-named because the vowels "a", "e", and "u" that appear as the final sound in their respective nouns in the singular root. "other" is so-named as a catch-all for words that are not "a-theme", "e-theme", or "u-theme". The phonological environment determines whether a noun is Class I or Class II, and is readily predictable. Class III nouns tend to be derived. Class IV nouns are almost always derived, and feature variable endings.

The thematic vowel in the ultimate syllable is determined by the vowel in the penultimate syllable and the consonants in the coda of that syllable and/or the onset of the ultimate syllable. Barring a few exceptions, this is a predictable machination. The consonants at the boundary of the penultimate and the ultimate vowel can be divided into four categories: continuative short, continuative long, terminative short, and terminative long.

  • Continuative short consonants are: m, f, n, s, ŋ, x, l, h
  • Continuative long consonants are: mm, v, nn, ss, ɤ, ll
  • Terminative short consonants are: p, t, k, y, w, r
  • Terminative long consonants are: pp, b, t, tt, d, k, kk, g, rr, palatalized consonants, aspirated consonants, non-geminate consonant clusters.

The penultimate vowel, followed by one of the above mentioned boundary consonants, will determine the ultimate vowel, and thus, its class. This is illustrated in the table below. Vowels listed along the leftmost column are penultimate vowels. If one of these is followed by one of the four consonant boundary types, then the ultimate vowel, i.e., the theme vowel, is given.

Determination of Noun Class I and Noun Class II
Penultimate Vowel Continuative Short Continuative Long Terminative Short Terminative Long
i a e a e
e a a a a
a a a a a
u a a a a
ī e e e e
ē a a a a
ā a a a a
ū a a a a
ei e e e a
ai e e e a
ui e e e a
iu e a a a
eu e a a a
au e a a a

Number

Number in Ahāmatya nouns is represented by the noun root existing as a singular stem, a comprehensive plural stem, or a paucal plural stem. These are appended to by the case marker.

The singular is the unmarked form of the noun.

  • ive- "bird"
  • mana- "land"
  • vrunnu- "robin"

The comprehensive plural is marked by -i. If the stem ends in a diphthong which would collapse into a long vowel in non-stressed syllables, then it does so, but into a short vowel. The comprehensive plural has an intrinsic meaning of "all of that about which I am speaking in this context".

  • ivei-ivi- "birds"
  • manai-mane- "lands"
  • vrunnui- "robins"

The paucal plural is marked by -u. The paucal plural has an intrinsic meaning of "some or a few of that about which I am speaking in this context".

  • iveu- "some birds"
  • manau- "some lands"
  • vrunnuu-vrunnū- "some robins"

Case

There are six cases in Ahāmatya. Many cases are also used as objects of the preposition, most of which are predictable.

Nominative Case

The nominative case indicates the subject of a transitive and intransitive verb, the predicate (this is variably marked also by an additional morpheme), and the object of some prepositions The nominative case is marked by -n, and has an allomorph in -r, which manifests in the usual way.

  • Iven nenna. "The bird is sleeping."
  • Iven henelān vuhra. "The bird is eating the pig."

In the instance of a predicate-like construction of the form X is Y, the X and Y are marked by the nominative, but X has an additional affix -avjas after the nominative marking. This may be understood as an additional nominative case in full as -navjas or -ravjas.

  • Ivenavjas ururyandan. "The bird is old."
  • Iudēravjas ettan ururyanden. Those birds are old ducks.

The nominative case indicates a number of objects of the preposition, usually in some relationship independent of motion or physical location.

  • aphra-ljān "against the water"
  • aha-lavraiden "with, together with, the rings"
  • an-atalaiyen "as the king"
  • hai-vamelan "via the shore"
  • san-mwān "like the butterfly"
  • v-eimen "in (a state of) love"
  • vrja-mettan "with, together with the trees"

Accusative1 Case

The accusative1 case is one of two accusative cases in Ahāmatya, and indicates the object of an imperfective aspect verb, and the object of some prepositions. The accusative1 case is marked by -i. This may cause additional vowel sound change in the usual way where applicable.

  • Iven henele vuhra. "The bird is eating the pig."
  • Ljumruran vrunnui eta. "The cormorant was speaking to the robin."

The accusative1 case indicates objects of the preposition involving motion with respect to some region.

  • i-mette "into the forest"
  • ehda-sridde "toward, prior to the summer"
  • phel-kjele "after, beside the mountain"
  • le-ljái "out of, from the water"

Accusative2 Case

The accusative2 case is one of two accusative cases in Ahāmatya, and indicates the object of a perfect aspect verb, and the object of some prepositions. The accusative2 case is marked by -ir. This may cause additional vowel sound change in the usual way where applicable.

  • Iven heneler uvuxa. "The bird had eaten the pig."
  • Ljumruran vrunnuir ēta. "The cormorant had eaten the robin."

The accusative2 case indicates objects of the preposition involving motion or location with respect to some boundary of a region.

  • ehda-luimir "until first spring"
  • ui-ember "upon the face"
  • lu-ljáir "under the water"
  • ar-maner "around, surrounding the land"
  • nai-maner "over the land"

Dative Case

The dative case indicates the indirect object of a verb, and the object of some prepositions. The dative case is marked by -a.

  • Vrunnur ljumrurā eveya. "The robin had mourned for the cormorant."
  • Atalairdan lavraidi ivea avra. "The emperor is giving the ring to the bird."

The dative case indicates objects of the preposition involving motion or location with respect to the surrounding of some boundary of a region.

  • nur-sriddā "through/during the summer"
  • mal-Elyā "on behalf of Elya"

Genitive Case

The genitive case indicates ownership irrespective of time, origin of/from a location, partitive, topic of/about, some predicativity, composition or substance, and the object of some prepositions. The genitive case is marked similarly to the nominative case, with the exception of lengthening the final vowel before the -n or -r.

When describing that something is composed of a substance, the Genitive is used in concert with the suffix -uda.

  • lavraide kaludān "stone ring; ring of stone"
  • kavra memudān "wool cloth; cloth made of wool"

The genitive case indicates objects of the preposition involving relationships between nouns.

  • ehba-idūr "without light"
  • amha-aryēn "with/having friends"

Vocative Case

The vocative case indicates that which is directly addressed. A noun in the vocative case is the citation form of the word in a reference. The vocative case is unmarked, or, to be more precise, is marked with -∅.

Summary Table

Class I, Class II, and Class III nouns have a fairly regular and predictable declination.

Class I, Class II, and Class III Nouns in Ahāmatya
ive- "bird" mana- "land" vrunnu- "robin"
Singular Comprehensive Plural Paucal Plural Singular Comprehensive Plural Paucal Plural Singular Comprehensive Plural Paucal Plural
Nominative iven ivir iveur manan manen manaur vrunnur vrunnuir vrunnūr
Accusative1 ivi ivī ivevi mane mani manavi vrunnui vrunnuí vrunnúi
Accusative2 ivir ivīr ivevir maner manīr manavir vrunnuir vrunnuír vrunnúir
Dative ivea ivia iveva manā manea manava vrunnua vrunnuya vrunnúa
Genitive ivēn ivīr iveúr manān manēn manaúr vrunnūr vrunnuír vrunnūr
Vocative ive ivi iveu mana mane manau vrunnu vrunnui vrunnū


Class IV nouns are variable in their form, but nouns ending in or in -i are the most represented of this class.

Class IV Nouns in Ahāmatya
ljā- "water" aili- "jay"
Singular Comprehensive Plural Paucal Plural Singular Comprehensive Plural Paucal Plural
Nominative ljān ljáir ljáur ailir ailīr ailiur
Accusative1 ljái ljái ljavi ailī ailī ailivi
Accusative2 ljáir ljēr ljavir ailīr ailīr ailivir
Dative ljā ljáiya ljava ailia ailía ailiva
Genitive ljān ljēr ljaúr ailīr ailīr ailíur
Vocative ljā ljái ljáu aili ailī ailiu

Prepositions

Prepositions in Ahāmatya are enclitics with respect to nouns, of which are their objects of the preposition. Such enclitics are syntactic words, but are dependent entirely on their host word and the host word's case.

Prepositions with Respect to Noun Cases in Ahāmatya
Case Nominative Accusative1 Accusative2 Dative Genitive
Preposition aphra- against i- into ehda- until nur- through, during ehba- without
aha- with, together with ehda- toward, prior to ui- upon mal- on behalf of amha- with, having
an- as phel- beside, by lu- under
hai- via, by way of le- out of, after ar- around
san- like, as nai- over
v- in (a state of)
vrja- with, together with

Verbs

Verbs in Ahāmatya are inflected for aspect, time, mood, voice, and person. Aspect and time combine to yield eight tenses. Verbs may be derived from nouns and adjectives into either transitive or intransitive verbs.

The general template of a verb in Ahāmatya is the following:

Stem Tense Other
Preverbs Root Aspect Time Mood Voice Person

Note that, although presented here concatenatively, components of tense may be nonconcatenative.

Tense

Ahāmatya distinguishes between two aspects: the Imperfective aspect indicates a continuous action, and is unmarked, or marked by -∅-; the Perfect aspect indicates a completed action prior to some event in context, and is marked by augmenting the root vowel of the verb.

Time is distinguished between Past time, marked by -n- indicating actions in the past, and Non-Past time, marked by -t-, indicating actions not in the past. Within Non-Past time are present and future times, where the future is identical to the present with the addition of an explicit prefix le-, itself a cliticized form of an independent word. Aspect and time combine to yield tense. Additionally, there exists a Gnomic, or "timeless", time, which is used in concert with aspect to indicate general truths or aphorisms independent of a contextual time. Verbs in the gnomic are marked by lengthening the root vowel.

  • The Imperfective Gnomic Tense indicates an ongoing or incomplete action independent of time. It is the composition of imperfective aspect and gnomic time.
  • The Imperfective Past Tense indicates an ongoing or incomplete action in the past time. It is the composition of imperfective aspect and past time.
  • The Imperfective Non-Past Present Tense indicates an ongoing action in the non-past present time. It is the composition of imperfective aspect and non-past time.
  • The Imperfective Non-Past Future Tense indicates an ongoing action in the non-past future time. It is the composition of imperfective aspect and non-past time.
  • The Perfect Gnomic Tense indicates an action which was completed prior to another completed action independent of time. It is the composition of perfect aspect and gnomic time.
  • The Perfect Past Tense indicates an action which was completed prior to another completed action. It is the composition of perfect aspect and past time.
  • The Perfect Non-Past Present Tense indicates an action which was completed prior to another action in the present time. It is the composition of perfect aspect and non-past time.
  • The Perfect Non-Past Future Tense indicates an action which was completed prior to another action in the future time. It is the composition of perfect aspect and non-past time.


Tense Construction in Ahāmatya, mat- "to do"
Gnomic Time Past Time Non-Past Time
Present Time Future Time
Imperfective Aspect māt- matn-mand- matt- le-matt-
Perfect Aspect amāt- amatn-amand- amatt- le-amatt-

Mood

Ahāmatya has two distinctly marked moods:

  • The Indicative mood indicates factual statements, inquiry of simple questions, and the statement of beliefs, and is marked by -a-
  • The Subjunctive mood indicates imaginary or hypothetical actions, conveys opinions or emotions, or conveys requests, and is marked by -(u)ra-

In both the indicative and subjunctive moods for the gnomic tenses, the final -a is replaced with -i.

Tense, Mood Construction in Ahāmatya, mat- "to do"
Gnomic Time Past Time Non-Past Time
Present Time Future Time
Imperfective Aspect indicative māti- manda- matta- le-matta-
subjunctive mātri- mandra- mattura- le-mattura-
Perfect Aspect indicative amāti- amanda- amatta- le-amatta-
subjunctive amātri- amandra- amattura- le-amattura-

Voice

Ahāmatya has two voices:

  • The active voice indicates that the subject is performing the action denoted by the verb, and is unmarked, or marked by -∅-
  • The passive voice indicates that the subject is acted upon by the verb, and is marked by -(h)ehba-, and displaces the final vowel from the mood
Tense, Mood, Voice Construction in Ahāmatya, mat- "to do"
Gnomic Time Past Time Non-Past Time
Present Time Future Time
Imperfective Aspect indicative active māti∅- manda∅- matta∅- le-matta∅-
passive māthehba- mandhehba- mattehehba- le-mattehehba-
subjunctive active mātri∅- mandra∅- mattura∅- le-mattura∅-
passive mātrehba- mandrehba- matturhehba- le-matturhehba-
Perfect Aspect indicative active amāti∅- amanda∅- amatta∅- le-amatta∅-
passive amāthehba- amandhehba- amattehba- le-amattehba-
subjunctive active amātri∅- amandra∅- amattura∅- le-amattura∅-
passive amātrehba- amandrehba- amatturhehba- le-amatturhehba-

Conjugation

Verbs in Ahāmatya are inflected for three grammatical persons. The forms of the person marking are dependent on the aspect and transitivity of the verb, the rules governing sound change notwithstanding. Person conjugation for the gnomic tenses are unique, and are thus presented separately.

Imperfective and Imperative Endings

The person endings for imperfective transitive and intransitive verbs take the following form:

Singular Comprehensive Plural Paucal Plural
1st transitive -n -s -
intransitive -nen -nes -
2nd transitive -va -vna -
intransitive -neva -nevna -
3rd transitive -a -a -
intransitive -na - -

The imperative is not a true mood in Ahāmatya, as it is only an extension of person marking, and only exists for imperfective non-past verbs. Such person endings take the following form:

Singular Comprehensive Plural Paucal Plural
1st transitive -nni - -
intransitive -nni - -
2nd transitive -vani - -
intransitive -nevani - -
3rd transitive -ani - -
intransitive -nani - -

Perfect Endings

The person endings for perfect transitive and intransitive verbs take the following form:

Singular Comprehensive Plural Paucal Plural
1st transitive -ra -rra -
intransitive -nera -nerra -
2nd transitive -m -mma -
intransitive -nem -nemma -
3rd transitive -ya -ya -
intransitive -neya -neya -

Gnomic Endings

The person endings for gnomic verbs take the following form:

Singular Comprehensive Plural Paucal Plural
1st transitive - - -
intransitive - - -
2nd transitive - - -
intransitive - - -
3rd transitive - - -
intransitive - - -

Middle Voice Endings

To account for reflexivity, Ahāmatya has a kind of "middle voice" extant as person endings, which have the the following forms:

Singular Comprehensive Plural Paucal Plural
1st transitive - - -
intransitive - - -
2nd transitive - - -
intransitive - - -
3rd transitive - - -
intransitive - - -

Preverbs

Verb Forms

Derivations From Verbs

Derivations To Verbs

Comprehensive Example

Modifiers

Adjectives

Adverbs

Particles

Derivational Morphology

Syntax

Constituent order

Noun phrase

Verb phrase

Sentence phrase

Dependent clauses

Example texts

Other resources