Calusto

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Calusto
Kaloust
𐌊𐌀𐌋𐌏𐌖𐌔𐌕
Pronunciation[ka'lu:sto]
Created byFox Saint-Just
Date2017
Language codes
CLCR---

Calusto is an a posteriori language created by user Fox Saint-Just in 2017. It is based on Indo-European languages.

Introduction

Calusto was created for a literary project, as an Indo-European language that was lost during the Roman expansion and later artificially reconstructed. Thus, despite having an alphabet derived from Old Italic script and a grammar influenced by Latin, Calusto's vocabulary includes a large amount of words common to the languages of the Silk Road, including Chinese.

Its name derives from the word 𐌊𐌀𐌋𐌏𐌖 for "mist", making the meaning of Calusto close to "misty".

Phonology

Vowels

Calusto has long and short vowels.

Front Central Back
Close i iː y yː1 u uː
Close-mid e e: ø o o:
Open-mid ɛ ɛː ə2 ɔ ɔː
Open a aː

1/y:/ is very rare.
2/ə/ is not related to a specific letter or combination of letters.

Consonants

→ PoA
↓ Manner
Labial Labiodental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasals 𐌌 m 𐌍 n 𐌍𐌝 ɲ1
Plosives Voiceless 𐌐 p 𐌕 t 𐌊 k
𐌒
Voiced 𐌁 b 𐌃 d 𐌂 ɡ
Affricates 𐌕𐌆 ts
𐌆 dz
𐌙 t̠ʃ
𐌃𐌚 d̠ʒ1
Fricatives Voiceless 𐌘 ɸ 𐌔 s 𐌑 ʃ
𐌚 ʒ
𐌗 x 𐌇 h
Voiced 𐌅 v
𐌈 θ
𐌔 z 𐌂𐌇 ɣ1
Liquids 𐌓 r
𐌋 l
𐌋𐌝 ʎ1
Approximants 𐌝 j

1 Used only in loanwords.

Stress

Generally, words ending in consonant are stressed on the third to last syllable, while words ending in vowels are stressed on the penultimate one.

Orthography

Phonotactics

Morphophonology

Morphology

Calusto has three genders (masculine, feminine, neuter) and five cases (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative).

Declensions

Nouns and adjective follow a system of five declensions. Few names follow an irregular declension.

The -os declension includes names and adjectives that are mostly masculine. The paradigm is given for the word 𐌔𐌖𐌍𐌏𐌔 ("son").

Singular Plural
Nominative 𐌔𐌖𐌍𐌏𐌔
synos
𐌔𐌖𐌍𐌉
syni
Accusative 𐌔𐌖𐌍𐌏𐌍
synon
𐌔𐌖𐌍𐌏𐌖𐌔
synous
Genitive 𐌔𐌖𐌍𐌉
syni
𐌔𐌖𐌍𐌏𐌌
synom
Dative 𐌔𐌖𐌍𐌏
syno
𐌔𐌖𐌍𐌉𐌔
synis
Ablative 𐌔𐌖𐌍𐌏𐌃
synod
𐌔𐌖𐌍𐌏𐌉𐌔
synois

The -a declension includes names and adjectives that are mostly feminine. The paradigm is given for the word 𐌙𐌄𐌓𐌀 ("face").

Singular Plural
Nominative 𐌙𐌄𐌓𐌀
čera
𐌙𐌄𐌓𐌀𐌄
čerae
Accusative 𐌙𐌄𐌓𐌀𐌍
čeran
𐌙𐌄𐌓𐌀𐌔
čeras
Genitive 𐌙𐌄𐌓𐌀𐌔
čeras
𐌙𐌄𐌓𐌀𐌌
čeram
Dative 𐌙𐌄𐌓𐌄
čere
𐌙𐌄𐌓𐌉𐌔
čeris
Ablative 𐌙𐌄𐌓𐌀𐌃
čerad
𐌙𐌄𐌓𐌀𐌉𐌔
čerais

The consonantic declension is the widest one, as it contains:

  • A consonant not already covered by the previous declensions, independently from gender
  • Names ending in -is, generally derived from Greek and/or Latin
  • Despite its name, nouns and/or adjectives ending in -e or -i
  • Nouns ending in -as or ā

The paradigm is given for the first three cases, with the words 𐌂𐌅𐌄𐌓 ("beast"), 𐌐𐌔𐌖𐌗𐌏𐌔𐌉𐌔 ("psychosis") and 𐌑𐌉𐌂𐌓𐌉 ("fast") respectively. Note that several words belonging to this declension show an oblique stem, such as names ending in (with the genitive singular ending in -atis).

Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative 𐌂𐌅𐌄𐌓
gver
𐌂𐌅𐌄𐌓𐌔
gvers
𐌐𐌔𐌖𐌗𐌏𐌔𐌉𐌔
psychosis
𐌐𐌔𐌖𐌗𐌏𐌔𐌄𐌔
psychoses
𐌑𐌉𐌂𐌓𐌉
šigri
𐌑𐌉𐌂𐌓𐌄𐌔
šigres
Accusative 𐌂𐌅𐌄𐌓
gver
𐌂𐌅𐌄𐌓𐌔
gvers
𐌐𐌔𐌖𐌗𐌏𐌔𐌉𐌔
psychosis
𐌐𐌔𐌖𐌗𐌏𐌔𐌄𐌔
psychoses
𐌑𐌉𐌂𐌓𐌉
šigri
𐌑𐌉𐌂𐌓𐌄𐌔
šigres
Genitive 𐌂𐌅𐌄𐌓𐌉𐌔
gveris
𐌂𐌅𐌄𐌓𐌉𐌄𐌔
gveries
𐌐𐌔𐌖𐌗𐌏𐌔𐌉𐌔
psychosis
𐌐𐌔𐌖𐌗𐌏𐌔𐌉𐌄𐌔
psychosies
𐌑𐌉𐌂𐌓𐌉𐌔
šigris
𐌑𐌉𐌂𐌓𐌉𐌄𐌔
šigries
Dative 𐌂𐌅𐌄𐌓𐌄
gvere
𐌂𐌅𐌄𐌓𐌄𐌉𐌔
gvereis
𐌐𐌔𐌖𐌗𐌏𐌔𐌄
psychose
𐌐𐌔𐌖𐌗𐌏𐌔𐌄𐌉𐌔
psychoseis
𐌑𐌉𐌂𐌓𐌄
šigre
𐌑𐌉𐌂𐌓𐌄𐌉𐌔
šigreis
Ablative 𐌂𐌅𐌄𐌓𐌄𐌉
gverei
𐌂𐌅𐌄𐌓𐌄𐌉𐌔
gvereis
𐌐𐌔𐌖𐌗𐌏𐌔𐌄𐌉
psychosei
𐌐𐌔𐌖𐌗𐌏𐌔𐌄𐌉𐌔
psychoseis
𐌑𐌉𐌂𐌓𐌄𐌉
šigrei
𐌑𐌉𐌂𐌓𐌄𐌉𐌔
šigreis

The -ou declension includes neuter nouns and can be considered the descendant of the Indo-European u-stem. The paradigm is given for the word 𐌌𐌀𐌍𐌏𐌖 ("human being").

Singular Plural
Nominative 𐌌𐌀𐌍𐌏𐌖
manou
𐌌𐌀𐌍𐌏𐌖𐌔
manous
Accusative 𐌌𐌀𐌍𐌏𐌖𐌍
manoun
𐌌𐌀𐌍𐌏𐌖𐌔
manous
Genitive 𐌌𐌀𐌍𐌏𐌖𐌅
manouv
𐌌𐌀𐌍𐌏𐌖𐌔
manoum
Dative 𐌌𐌀𐌍𐌏𐌖𐌉
manoui
𐌌𐌀𐌍𐌏𐌖𐌉𐌔
manouis
Ablative 𐌌𐌀𐌍𐌏𐌖𐌉
manoui
𐌌𐌀𐌍𐌏𐌖𐌉𐌔
manouis


Syntax

Constituent order

Noun phrase

Verb phrase

Sentence phrase

Dependent clauses

Example texts

Other resources