Contionary:apa

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Kirtumur

Etymology

From Proto-Kyrdan *ap- (“to climb”). Cognate with Kērsalur uapatha “to ascend”, Cirdamur aba, Old Sērsal isab “uphill”, Old Ķyrdum abudan “beginning”.

Pronunciation

(Umunesal) IPA: [ˈɑ.pɑ]

Noun

apa v intransitive

  1. to move upward
    talaur inikipe – he/she didn’t go up that road.
  2. to become higher in pitch or frequency
    hur wiša eyapapate – the sound got louder and louder.
  3. to climb
    yimauz enehapapau ušamei – we used to climb this moutain easily.

Declension

Active Intransitive (no reduplication)
Verb forms singular dual plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Affirmative
Imperfective Present hape ōpe yape hapu ōpu yapu hapit ōpit yapit
Past eape eōpe eyape eapu eōpu eyapu eapit eōpit eyapit
Future hapis ōpis yapis hapisu ōpisu yapisu hapisit ōpisit yapisit
Aorist eap eōp eyap eapu eōpu eyapu eapit eōpit eyapit
Perfect Present hapet ōpet yapet hattu ōttu yattu hattit ōttit yattit
Past eapet eōpet eyapet eattu eōttu eyattu eattit eōttit eyattit
Irrealis Present Subjunctive pōp paōp peyap pōpu paōpu peyapu pōpit paōpit peyapit
Future hepōp hepaōp hepeyap hepōpu hepaōpu hepeyapu hepōpit hepaōpit hepeyapit
Optative kurap kurōp kurip kurapu kurōpu kuripu kurapit kurōpit kuripit
Imperative apeya
Negative
Imperfective Present ŋipe ŋōpe kipe ŋipu ŋōpu kipu ŋipit ŋōpit kipit
Past iŋipe eŋōpe ikipe iŋipu eŋōpu ikipu iŋipit eŋōpit ikipit
Future ŋipis ŋōpis kipis ŋipisu ŋōpisu kipisu ŋipisit ŋōpisit kipisit
Aorist iŋip eŋōp ikip iŋipu eŋōpu ikipu iŋipit eŋōpit ikipit
Perfect Present ŋipet ŋōpet kipet ŋittu ŋōttu kittu ŋittit ŋōttit kittit
Past iŋipet eŋōpet ikipet iŋittu eŋōttu ikittu iŋittit eŋōttit ikittit
Irrealis Present Subjunctive paŋip paŋōp pakip paŋipu paŋōpu pakipu paŋipit paŋōpit pakipit
Future hepaŋip hepaŋōp hepakip hepaŋipu hepaŋōpu hepakipu hepaŋipit hepaŋōpit hepakipit
Optative kurŋip kurŋōp kurkip kurŋipu kurŋōpu kurkipu kurŋipit kurŋōpit kurkipit
Imperative ma apeya
Infinitives Affirmative Negative
Imperfective apa apakha
Aorist apei apeikha
Future apeis apeiska
Perfect attei atteikha
Participles Imperfective Perfective
(affirmative) (negative) (affirmative) (negative)
Active apin apimi apanu apōmu
Middle apis apisma apēs apēsma
Passive apēni apēmi apauni apeumi
Antipassive apun apuma apōn apōma


Derived terms

  • ekhapin – start
  • esape – upwards