Gathrírn

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Gathrírn
Gathrírn
Pronunciation [gaˈθɾin]
Created by
Setting
Native speakers -  (2013)
Language family
  • Gathrírn
Writing system Latin
ISO 639-3

Gathrírn is an a priori language inspired by Celtic languages. As such, it features extensive vowel and consonant mutations, as well as a relatively complex inflectional system. Its phonetic system is also remarkable in having up to four varieties of one phoneme.


Background

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plain Palat. Labial. Gemin. Plain Palat. Labial. Gemin. Plain Labial. Plain Palat. Labial. Gemin.
Nasal Voiced m m: n n: ɲ ŋ
Voiceless
Plosive Voiced b b: d d: ɟ g g:
Voiceless p p: t t: c k k:
Fricative Voiced ð z ʑ ɣ
Voiceless f ɸ f: θ s s: ɕ x h
Approximant Voiced ʋ ʋʲ j ɥ w
Voiceless ʍ
Trill Voiceless r̥ʷ
Flap or tap Voiced ɾ ɾʲ ɾʷ
Lateral app. Voiced l l: ʎ
Voiceless l̥ʷ

Vowels

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i y u
Near-close ʏ ʊ
Close-mid e ø o
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Near-open æ
Open a

Phonotactics

Orthography

Grammar

Morphology

Mutations

Consonant mutations

Similar to Cletic languages, nouns in Gathrírn undergo several types of mutations. There are six consonant-initial mutations: fricativisation, palatalisation, labialisation, voicing, devoicing, and nasalisation or mixed type. Word-final consonants also change.


Vowel mutations

Vowel mutations apply when declining nouns.

Nouns

Nouns in Gathrírn have three numbers (singular, dual, plural) and five cases (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, locative). There are four declensions.

The basic paradigm of suffixes is regular:

Case Singular Dual Plural
Nominative -is -(Vmut.)-Ø
Genitive -ur -urh -(Vmut.)-ur
Dative -en -enh -(Vmut.)-en
Accusative -er -erh -(Vmut.)-er
Locative -on -olh -(Vmut.)-on

First declension

Second declension

Third declension

Fourth declension

Adjectives

Adjectives typically end in one of the four adjectival endings: -eg, -it, -in (passive participle), or -aic active participles). The first three types also form comparative and superlative forms but the last types cannot. As expected, adjectives decline and have to agree with the noun in number and case.

Comparative and superlative

The comparative and superlative degrees are as follows:

  • -eg:
    • -eim
    • -ied
  • -it:
    • -yst
    • -yft
  • -in:
    • -yrn
    • -ynd


Additionally, the elative degree is formed by adding the prefix nae- in front of the adjective in its basic form.

Pronouns

Verbs

Verbs are inflected for three persons and three numbers in five moods and several tenses.


Syntax