IPA for Zjiiama Knrawi

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The charts below show the way in which the IPA represents Zjiiama Knrawi pronunciations. English approximations are loose in some cases and are only intended to give a general idea of the pronunciation. For more information, see Help:IPA.

This page is only for the variety of Knrawi spoken on Zjiiama Island. For other varieties see Knrawi IPA guides.

IPA Keys
Aelatha
Attian
Avendonian
Ayeri
Biscayan
Brittainese
Cet
Cha
Evonish
Favlona
Guimin
Gwaxol
Hantza
High Valyrian
Iaskyon
Jukpë
Kaikiwan
Kihā́mmic
Knrawi
Kunarek
Lôppic
Maryan Coptic
Messinese
Mihousapeja
Moshurian
Owaex
Pomorian
Qafesona
Rangyayo
Soc'ul'
Trây
Umbrean
IPA Example Translation (near) equivalent
Consonants
f huf small face
ufh middle face
fjmm to hold face
ɣ ay red agave (Spanish)
ɣˀ mupyy wrong agave (Spanish)
ɣʷ iciui hermit agua (Spanish)
h ceh many have
j shaia house yet
ʝ yui honey rayo (Spanish)
k hyk sugarcane scout
nkh far cow
kja sand cow
tjic to cook ski
kʲʰ chin song key
kʲˣ cji black key
guq small island square
kʷʰ uqh snake queen
kʷˣ yqj to grow queen
m iim because man
mm̀ to steal man
n jna star not
guváan event not
ŋ thga wind sang
ŋˀ suiggi back sang
p puskj yam spin
cuph snake burrow pin
p͡fˣ guvpj posture Pferd (German)
r marg south rayo (Spanish)
knyirra spouse rayo (Spanish)
s cniz to try sing
zherg cloud sing
zjnr to eat sing
ʃ sefḿ fear shin
ʃʰ shera thunder shin
t riti eye start
nth water tart
t͡sˣ tjay sick tart
t͡ʃ cmm sky chart
t͡ʃʰ chuh raw chart
t͡ʃˣ cjuq net chart
v vuin corner have
qvvs ball have
w rtiu where wing
x jua all loch
sjari city he
xʲʰ shiupii wheat noodles he
wmaa time white
z tjer soft zoo
suar marten zoo
ɰ aythá jasper agave (Spanish)
ɰˀ ayyai mosquito agave (Spanish)
ʔ ua fish uh-oh
ʔ̞ aa language uh-oh
IPA Example Translation (near) equivalent
Vowels
a agu face father
to say father
ɒ kjaw to puncture bot
ɒː i lizard bot
ə sheya large island about
i it head beet
kr to die beet
zjeyu shore boat
u cuy angry boot
auu dog boot
Tones
˥ ik to see
˩ ìy to break
˥˩ shû east

Differences from standard Knrawi

  • /n/ and /ŋ/ do not assimilate.
  • /k̟,k̟ʰ,k̟ˣ,x̟,x̟ʰ,x̟ˣ/ are realized as [t͡ʃ,t͡ʃʰ,t͡ʃˣ,ʃ,ʃʰ,xʲ].
    • /k̟,k̟ʰ,k̟ˣ,x̟,x̟ʰ/ adjacent to /ɪ/ are realized as [kʲ,kʲʰ,kʲˣ,xʲ,xʲʰ].
  • /k̠,k̠ʰ,k̠ˣ,x̠/ are realized as [k,kʰ,kˣ,x].
  • /tˣ/ and [pˣ] are realized as [t͡sˣ] and [p͡fˣ].
  • /ʍ/ is realized as [xʷ].
  • /θ,θʰ,θˣ/ are realized as [s,sʰ,sˣ].
    • Labialized /θ,θʰ,θˣ/ are realized as [f,fʰ,fˣ].
  • /ɹ/ is realized as [r].
    • Labialized /ɹ/ is realized as [v] (which doesn't merge with [w]).
    • Fortified /ɹ/ is realized as [z].
  • /ɉ/ is realized as [ɰ].
    • Fortified /ɉ/ is realized as [ɣ].
    • /ɉ/ and [j,w] adjacent to high vowels are realized as [ɣ] and [ʝ,ɣʷ].
  • Fortition occurs word-finally.
    • [ʔ̞] is realized as [ʔ] word-finally.
  • Voiced geminants are glottalized.
  • Sequences of [ʔ̞] and voiced consonants are realized as glottalized consonants.
  • Syllabic consonants are realized as [əC].
    • Word-initial and pre-sonorant syllabic consonants are realized as [Cə].
    • Syllabic consonants with an identical adjacent consonant are realized as [əCˀ] or [Cˀə].
  • /ɪ,ʊ/ are realized as [i,u].
    • /ɪɪ,ʊʊ/ are realized as [iː,uː].
    • Unstressed /ɪ,ʊ/ (but not /ɪɪ,ʊʊ/) are realized as [ə,o̞].
  • /a/ is realized as [ɒ] adjacent to labiovelar consonants.
  • Unstressed /a/ and [ə] are realized as
    • [o̞] adjacent to labiovelar consonants.
    • [ə] if not [o̞].
  • Sequences of unstressed [ə] or [o̞] and stressed /a/ are realized as [aː] or [ɒː] respectively.
    • [aː] is realized as [ɒː] adjacent to labiovelar consonants except [w] or [ɣʷ].