IPA for Zjiiama Knrawi
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The charts below show the way in which the IPA represents Zjiiama Knrawi pronunciations. English approximations are loose in some cases and are only intended to give a general idea of the pronunciation. For more information, see Help:IPA.
This page is only for the variety of Knrawi spoken on Zjiiama Island. For other varieties see Knrawi IPA guides.


Differences from standard Knrawi
 /n/ and /ŋ/ do not assimilate.
 /k̟,k̟ʰ,k̟ˣ,x̟,x̟ʰ,x̟ˣ/ are realized as [t͡ʃ,t͡ʃʰ,t͡ʃˣ,ʃ,ʃʰ,xʲ].
 /k̟,k̟ʰ,k̟ˣ,x̟,x̟ʰ/ adjacent to /ɪ/ are realized as [kʲ,kʲʰ,kʲˣ,xʲ,xʲʰ].
 /k̠,k̠ʰ,k̠ˣ,x̠/ are realized as [k,kʰ,kˣ,x].
 /tˣ/ and [pˣ] are realized as [t͡sˣ] and [p͡fˣ].
 /ʍ/ is realized as [xʷ].
 /θ,θʰ,θˣ/ are realized as [s,sʰ,sˣ].
 Labialized /θ,θʰ,θˣ/ are realized as [f,fʰ,fˣ].
 /ɹ/ is realized as [r].
 Labialized /ɹ/ is realized as [v] (which doesn't merge with [w]).
 Fortified /ɹ/ is realized as [z].
 /ɉ/ is realized as [ɰ].
 Fortified /ɉ/ is realized as [ɣ].
 /ɉ/ and [j,w] adjacent to high vowels are realized as [ɣ] and [ʝ,ɣʷ].
 Fortition occurs wordfinally.
 [ʔ̞] is realized as [ʔ] wordfinally.
 Voiced geminants are glottalized.
 Sequences of [ʔ̞] and voiced consonants are realized as glottalized consonants.
 Syllabic consonants are realized as [əC].
 Wordinitial and presonorant syllabic consonants are realized as [Cə].
 Syllabic consonants with an identical adjacent consonant are realized as [əCˀ] or [Cˀə].
 /ɪ,ʊ/ are realized as [i,u].
 /ɪɪ,ʊʊ/ are realized as [iː,uː].
 Unstressed /ɪ,ʊ/ (but not /ɪɪ,ʊʊ/) are realized as [ə,o̞].
 /a/ is realized as [ɒ] adjacent to labiovelar consonants.
 Unstressed /a/ and [ə] are realized as
 [o̞] adjacent to labiovelar consonants.
 [ə] if not [o̞].
 Sequences of unstressed [ə] or [o̞] and stressed /a/ are realized as [aː] or [ɒː] respectively.
 [aː] is realized as [ɒː] adjacent to labiovelar consonants except [w] or [ɣʷ].