Judeo-Gaelic

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Judeo-Gaelic/Wordlist

In the Unbegotten timeline, Ăn Yidiș or Judeo-Gaelic (natively: אן ייִדיש ăn Yidiș /ən 'jidiʃ/ 'the Jewish language' or א גֿאָלג'־יידאך ă Gholģ-Yidăch /ə ɣoldʒ 'jidəx/ 'Jewish Gaelic') is the sole surviving Goidelic language. It is called "Yiddish" in in-universe English. With over 10 million speakers, it is the main vernacular of the so-called "Galician Jews" (năh Yidi Galți) in Europe. On top of the inherited Gaelic vocabulary, it mainly borrows words from Hebrew and Talmudic Aramaic, but also from Greek, Persian, Brythonic, and Galatian.

Its aesthetic is "Scottish Gaelic but more Romanian and more Polish."

Todo

Fix (later) Hebrew loans

Names

Given names (non-Hebrew)

Nicknames may be formed with the diminutive -in. For example, Jacăv 'Jacob' may become Jancin, Jałcin or Jacin.

Male

  • Art, Artin 'bear'
  • Mathin (Mahin) 'bear'
  • Așlin (Ashlin): 'vision, dream'

Female

  • כּלין Calin (Colleen) 'little bride'?

Unisex

Surnames

Patronymics:

  • Gaelic: מאַק/ניק חיים mac (m)/nic (f) Chaim; a wife of a mac Chaim takes the surname מען מאַק חיים men mac Chaim.
    • Oh (m) and Ni +lenition (f) are not productive; typically names of Gaelic clans such as Oh Coiv (~ Ó Caoimh)
  • Semitic: בּן/בּר/בּת חיים, חיימי ben (m)/bar (m)/bas (f) Chaim, Chaimi
  • Riphic: חיימסאָן Chaimson
  • Persian: חיימזאַדעהּ, חיימיאַן, חיימינעג'אָד Chaimdzadăth, Chaimian, Chaimineġod

Famous people

  • סקאָט מאַק אהרון Scott McAharon (Scot mac Ahárăn) - quantum physicist and computer scientist

Todo

  • Interrogatives: Cad ă to o żean agăt? 'What are you doing?'
  • Cleft construction: żean leșắnăs ă tom ă żean anéș = It is making languages that I'm doing now.

Phonology

  • Consonants: b c ch c̦ d f g gh ġ h l ł m n p r ŗ s ș t th ț w j ż /b k χ tʃ d f g ɣ dʒ h l w m n p r ɹ s ʃ h ts~tɕ v j ʒ/
    • Final h is silent unless before a vowel. th is pronounced even when final.
  • ț z c̦ ġ l ŗ arise from Old Irish slender t d c g l r. ł arises from Old Irish non-slender l.
  • Lenitions:
    • b /b/ > bh /v/
    • d /d/ > dh /ɣ/
    • f /f/ > fh /0/
    • g /g/ > gh /ɣ/
    • c /k/ > ch /χ/
    • c̦ /tʃ/ > c̦h /ʃ/
    • m /m/ > mh /v/
    • p /p/ > ph /f/
    • s /s/ > sh /h/
    • t /t/ > th /h/
    • ț /ts/ > țh /h/
    • ġ /dʒ/ > ġh /j/
  • Vowels: a e i o u aj ej oj ea oa ie ua ă y /a e i o u ai ei oi~y eə oə iə uə ə ɨ/, vowel reduction to /ə/ common. /eə oə/ are [ei ou] dialectally.
  • Stress is transcribed if not initial
  • OIr oí > oj
  • short i > y (some other sources pls)
  • short o > ă

Allophonic vowel length

A form of the Scottish vowel length rule?

Orthography

Ăn Jidiș is written in an adapted Hebrew alphabet.

Consonants

Assume no initial lenition. The consonants are spelled as follows in non-Hebrew, non-Aramaic words:

א בּ ב גּ ג ג' ד ה הּ ז ט י(י) ל ל' מ נ ס פּ ף צ צ' ק ר ר' ש = zero b v g gh d h th ż t j l ł m n s p f ț c̦ c r ŗ ș /0 b v g ɣ dʒ h h z t j l w m n s p f ts tʃ k r (Czech ř) ʃ/.

Rafe is used for initial lenition: בֿ גֿ גֿ' דֿ זֿ טֿ כֿ מֿ סֿ פֿ ףֿ צֿ צֿ' קֿ תֿ for bh gh jh dh dzh th ch mh sh ph fh țh c̦h ch th /v ɣ j ɣ j h x v h f 0 h ʃ x h/

/j/ between two vowels is written יי.

ŗ is pronounced /ʃ/ after voiceless fricatives and stops: e.g. scŗiv /skʃiv/ 'write! (sg.)'

Vowels

Vowels are spelled as follows (in non-Hebrew, non-Aramaic words):

אַ א ע עא יי י י יא אָ אָע או אוא יַי יָי = /a ə e eə ei i ɨ iə ɔ oə u uə ai oi/

יִ is used for /i/ after י /j/.

Hebrew words are spelled similarly to (Modern) Hebrew, with the following rules:

  • "Qamaț qatan" /o/ does not use vav as a mater lectionis.
  • A dagesh on bet, gimel, kaf, pe, or tav is always written when present. Note that ת = /s/ in Hebrew and Aramaic loans.

The hyphen used looks like this: מא־מֿאַדרא mă-mhadră 'my dog'.

Other notes

By folk etymology, many native words which are coincidentally similar to Hebrew words are spelled as if they were derived from Hebrew:

  • כּלאגּ calăg (f) 'girl' "←" כּלה cală (f) 'bride' + -ăg diminutive suffix
  • אףאך afach 'however' "←" אף af 'even' + אך ach 'but'

Grammar

Verbs

Only the verbal noun and the imperative survive:

טאָם אַ ל'אַסעג נרות חנוכּה.
Tom ă łasăgh nearăs hanucă.
/tom ə 'wasəɣ 'neirəs 'hanukə/
be.PRES 1SG PRES to_light.VN candle-PL Hanukkah
I'm lighting Hanukkah candles. (or I light Hanukkah candles)
נאָהּ סקר'יבו דאָ אות אַר זי שבת!
Noh scŗivu do oas ăr żi șabăs!
PROH write-IMP.PL two character on_day Shabbat
Don't write two letters on Shabbat!

Verbs from Hebrew are usually borrowed in the deverbal noun form.

Tenses

The tenses are (pres, past/conditional, fut) x (imperfective, perfective). The auxiliary controls the tense and the preposition controls the aspect.

  • to șe ag yth = he eats; he is eating
    • vyl șe... = does he...?
    • chal șe... = he does not...
    • nachyl șe... = doesn't he...?/that he does not
    • gu vyl șe... = COMP he...
    • ă to șe... = REL he...
  • to șe nej yth = he ate/has eaten
  • bej șe ag yth = he will eat
    • bej șe... = will he...?
    • cha bhea șe... = he will not...
    • nach bhea șe... = won't he...?
    • ă vi șe... = REL he will...
  • vă șe ag yth = he was eating/he would eat
    • răv șe... = was he...?/would he?
    • cha răv șe... = he was not.../he would not...
    • nach răv șe... = was he not...?/would he not...?
  • yth! = Eat! (2sg)
  • ythu! = Eat! (2pl) (from a dialectal reflex of *ithebh)
  • noh yth(u)! = Don't eat!

For stative verbs in imperfective tenses, y mă-, y dă-, ynă-, etc. + VN is used:

  • tom y mă-chadăl = I sleep
  • tom y mă-thi = I sit
  • tom y mă-șesăv = I stand
  • tom y mă-li = I lie (somewhere)
  • tom y mă-fhiŗăch = I live (I dwell)

Conjugation

  • to, vyl, chal, and nachyl are conjugated as follows:
    • tom, toŗ, to șe/și, toġ, tohi, to șyd
    • vylim, vyliŗ, vyl șe/și, vyliġ, vylhi, vyl șyd
    • chalim, chaliŗ...
    • nachylim, nachyliŗ...
  • va, rov:
    • vas, vaș, va șe/și, vimăr, vyur, va șyd
    • rovăs, rovăș, rov șe/și, roamăr, rovjur, rov șyd
  • bea: beam, bear, bea șe/și, beaġ, beahi, bea șyd

Copula

Nouns

Like Irish and Hebrew, An Yidiș has masculine and feminine genders. Hebrew words (usually) have the same gender as in Hebrew. There is no grammatical case.

Plurals are more regular, marked with mostly -ăn, or less commonly umlaut of a o u to e e i.

Hebrew words often form plurals in unstressed -im /im/ or -ăs /əs/ but native Celtic words may use them too and not all Hebrew words use the Hebrew plural.

Masculine nouns: Nouns beginning with a vowel take ănt, before a labial ăm, before a trill ă, otherwise ăn

  • אנט אישצשע ănt yșc̦ă = the water
  • אם בּיא ăm bia = the food
  • אן ל'אַהּ ăn łath = the day
  • אן צעך ăn țech = the house
  • אן נס ăn nes = the miracle
  • א ר'יעל'טא ă ŗełtă = the star

Feminine nouns: Nouns beginning with a lenitable consonant (except s, t and ț) lenite and take ă;

  • א גּֿעל'אך ă ġhełăch = the moon
  • א מֿען ă mhen = the woman/wife
  • אן אות ăn oas = the letter (character)
  • אנ סוכּה ăn sycă = the booth

Plural nouns take năh- /nə(h)/ (the h is only pronounced before a vowel)

  • נאה טיש năh tyș = the houses
  • נאה ל'אַהאן năh łathăn = the days
  • נאה מנאָ năh mno = the women/wives
  • נאה אותיות năh usjăs = the letters
  • נאה סוכּות năh sycăs = the booths
  • נאה ניסים năh nisim = the miracles

Nouns may take a preposed vocative particle ă which lenites.

Adjectives

Adjectives always have in the plural, except that the plural of -ăch is -i: the plural of ייִדעך Yidăch 'Jew(ish)' is ייִדי Yidi.

  • pred: טאָם בּעגּ Tom beg. = I am short.
  • m.sg.: ףער בּעגּ fer beg = a short man; אם ףער בּעג ǎm fer beg = the short man
  • f.sg.: דר'עבאר בֿעגּ dŗevăr bheg = a short sister; אן דר'עבאר בֿעגּ ǎn dŗevăr bheg = the short sister
  • pl.: ףערן אָרדא ferăn ordă = tall men; נאה ףערן אָרדא nǎh ferăn ordă = the tall men

Comparatives are formed by adding ניס nis 'more' and עס es 'most' before the adjective The only adjective with a separate comparative form is מאָאר moar, with comparative and superlative using מאָא moa.

מאָאר - ניס מאָא - עס מאָא moar - nis moa - es moa = big - bigger - biggest

Pronouns

conj. pronouns: מע טו שע שי שין שיב שיד me tu șe și șîn șîv șîd

disj. pronouns: מע טו ע אי שין שיב איד me tu e i șîn șîv îd

emphatic prons: מישא, טוסא, שעשאן, שישא, שיניא, שיבשא, שיסאן mișă, tusă, șeșăn, șișă, șînyă, șîvșă, șîsăn

emphatic suffixes: -șă -să -șăn -șă -yă -șă -săn

Possessive prefixes:

  • מאָ־בּֿראָהער mă-bhrohăŗ /mə vrohəɹ/ 'my brother'; מ־אַהער m-ahăŗ /mahəɹ/ 'my father'
  • דאָ־בּֿראָהער dă-bhrohăŗ /də vrohəɹ/ 'thy brother'; ד־אַהער d-ahăŗ /dahəɹ/ 'thy father'
  • אַ־בּֿראָהער a-bhrohăŗ /ə vrohəɹ/ 'his brother'; אַ־אַהער a-ahăŗ /a ahəɹ/ 'his father'
  • אַהּ־בּראָהער ah-brohăŗ /ə brohəɹ/ 'her brother'; אַהּ־אַהער ah-ahăŗ /əh ahəɹ/ 'her father'
  • אָר־בּראָהער or-brohăŗ /oɾ brohəɹ/ 'our brother'; אָרן־אַהער orn-ahăŗ /oɾn ahəɹ/ 'our father'
  • באַר־בּראָהער văr-brohăŗ /vəɾ brohəɹ/ 'your brother'; באַרן־אַהער vărn-ahăŗ /vəɾn aheɹ/ 'your father'
  • אַ־בּראָהער a-brohăŗ /ə brohəɹ/ 'their brother'; אַן־אַהער an-ahăŗ /ən ahəɹ/ 'their father'

m- and d- are used before a vowel, a /j/ or when a lenited f results in an initial vowel or /j/: ףיאל fyol /fjol/ 'meat'; מ־ףֿיאל m-fhyol /mjol/ 'my meat'.

A possessive prefix must be used before every noun: 'my mother and my father' is מאָ־מֿאָהער איס מ־אַהער mă-mhohăŗ îs m-ahăŗ, not *mă-mohăŗ îs ahăŗ.

Prepositions

  • ag 'at': agom, agăt, eġ, ec̦i, agăn, agăv, acu
  • de 'to, for': dom, dyt, de, di, din, div, du
  • że 'off, away from': żom, żyt, że, żi, żin, żiv, żu
  • ouh 'from': uom, uat, ua, uay, uan, uav, uahu
  • î(n) 'in': înom, înăt, on, înți, înăn, înăv, întu [în is used before a vowel]
  • ăr 'on': orom, orăt, eŗ, eŗi, orăn, orăv, oru
  • ăs 'from': asom, asăt, as, ași, asăn, asăv, asu
  • ru 'before, in front of': rum, rut, rev, rempi, run, ruv, rompu
  • ŗy(n) 'with': ŗum, ŗet, ŗeș, ŗei, ŗin, ŗiv, ŗu
  • um 'around': umom, umăt, em, empi, umăn, umăv, umpu
  • fi 'under, among': fum, fut, fi, fithi, fun, fuv, fithu

Combinations

y(n), ŗy(n) before a definite article becomes yns, ŗyns:

  • אינס אן צעך yns ăn țech 'in the house'
  • To șyd ynă-fiŗăch yns ă bhelă șo ŗyns năh dynă elă 'They live in this town with the other people'

y + possessive a(n)-: yna(n)-

y + possessive or-: ynăr-

oh + ăn-/ăm-/ă- : oan-/oam-/oan-

Syntax

Prepositions stick to every noun in a noun phrase: טאָם ניי פאָל נאַהּ ףרעגּערצן אוֹ מאָ־מֿאָהער איס אוֹ מאָ־בּראָהער Tom nej fol năh fŗegărțăn oh mă-mhohăŗ ys oh mă-bhrohăŗ 'I got the answers from my mother and brother'

Adverbs

Directionals

Numerals

Numerals are always followed by the singular form.

0 = אפס efăs, אַה אפס ah efăs (number zero)

counting numbers: אַה אוין, אַה דו, אַה טר'י, אַה צ'עהער, אַה קוג', אַה שיי, אַה שעפֿט, אַה אָפֿט, אַה נוי, אַה זעש ah oin, ah du, ah tŗi, ah c̦ehăr, ah cuġ, ah șea, ah șeft, ah ăft, ah noj, ah dzeș

11, 12, ... = ojn jeg, du jeg, tŗi jeg...

20, 30, 40, ... = fișăd, tŗișăd, dojșăd, cujăd, șescăd, șeftăd, ăftăd, noiăd

21, 22, ... = fișăd ys oin, fișăd ys du, ...

100, 200, ... = c̦ead, du c̦head, tŗi c̦head, ...

1000 = milă

attributives: for 1 mutation follows gender; 2-6 lenites

Counting humans: (fer/men), bert, tŗur, c̦ehrăr, cuġăr, șeșăr, șeftăr, ăftăr, nojnăr, dzeșăr

ordinals: tăsi, elă, tŗiăv, c̦ehrăv, cuġăv,... or just ăh N

Syntax

An Yidiș syntax is similar to Irish or Scottish Gaelic syntax but somewhat simplified:

To Yidi ynă-firăch y sach țirăn.
Jews live in many countries.

In transitive sentences, the direct object immediately follows the verbal noun:

To năh Yidi ag fołym ăn Tură coch łath.
Jews study the Torah every day.

Noun phrase

Since An Yidiș lost the genitive case except in fossilized expressions, most genitives use the construction ăn X ag Y (lit. the X at Y) when Y is a noun. For example, אַן קאַט אַגּ מאָ־מֿאַק ăn cat ag mă-mhac = my son's cat. Concatenation exists but is more derivational, analogous to compounding in English.

Predicate nouns

  • "PRON is a NOUN": איש מען מע Yș men me = I'm a woman
  • "X is a NOUN": איש מען אי רבקה Yș men i Ryvcă = Ryvcă (Rebekah) is a woman
  • "1p/2p is the NOUN": איש מישע אַ מֿען אַגּ משה Yș mișă ă mhen ag Mușă = I am Mușă's (Moses') wife
  • "3p is the NOUN": שי אַ מֿען אגּ משה אי ș i ă mhen ag Mușă i = She is Mușă's wife
    • שי אַ מֿען אַג משה אי רבקה Și ă mhen ag Mușă i Ryvcă (or și Ryvcă i ă mhen ag Mușă) = Ryvcă is Mușă's wife
  • For topics or focused predicatives: איש מונצאָרית אַ טאָ אי רבקה Yș munțăŗis ă to i Ryvcă 'Ryvcă is a (female) teacher (not some other job)'
  • Pred. adjectives or adjuncts use the verb בּי bi:
    • טאָ רבקה אָרד To Ryvcă ord 'Ryvcă is tall'
    • טאָ רבקה אינס אַן חדר קאַדעל To Ryvcă yns ăn chedăr cadăl 'Rivcă is in the bedroom'

Infinitive phrases

Infinitive phrases usually correspond to German zu-infinitives, and are also used with some modals. They're of the form a + VN + direct object + oblique objects, where de lenites the VN.

If there is a pronominal direct, a + possessive pronoun (for the pronominal object) + VN must be used, with contractions and mutations occurring as necessary.

Examples:

  • ă thavărț matonă (NB: does not follow Irish!) = to give a gift (ein Geschenk zu geben)
  • o-thavărț dom = to give it (masc.) to me
  • o-tavărț dom = to give it (fem.)/them to me

Relative clauses

  • When the head is the subject: ă to (present), ăv (imperfect)
  • When the head is NOT the subject: ă vil (present), ă răv (imperfect)

Vocabulary

Derivation

  • ־ית -is, pl. ־יות -ijăs or ־יתאן -isăn 'feminine occupational suffix'
  • -in: diminutive
  • -ăg: augmentative
  • -on: instrumental; agentive (Hebrew influence)
  • -ol: verbal noun
  • -ul: adjective
  • -ăft: abstract noun

Phrasebook

  • שלום șolăm = Hello, goodbye
  • שלום עליכם șolăm aléachăm = Hello
  • עליכם שלום Aléachăm șolăm = Hello (in response to șolăm aléachăm)
  • סל'אָן Słon = (informal) Bye
  • בּיאָנאפֿט אַגּאט/אַגּאב Bjonăft agăt/agăv = Thank you (lit. may you have blessing)
  • ףאָלצא רוט/רוב Folță rut/ruv = Welcome
  • צ'עאד מילא ףאָלצא c̦ead milă folță = A hundred thousand welcomes
  • קאַרד ע אנט ענים ר'עט? Card e ănt enim ŗet? = What is your name?
  • דוד שע אנט ענים ר'יאָם Dovid șe ănt enim ŗum = My name is David
  • ביל אַן ענגּליש אַגּאט/אַגּאב? Vyl ăn Engliș agăt/agăv? = Do you speak English?
  • כאַל אן יידיש אַגּאָם Chal ăn Jidiș agom = I can't speak Ăn Jidiș
  • כאַלים א טיקשינץ Chalim ă ticșinț = I don't understand
  • ל'אַבער' ניס מעלא, ר'י דא־טֿעל = Łavăŗ nis melă, ŗy dă-thel = Please speak more slowly
    • ל'אַבר'ו ניס מעלא, ר'י באר־טעל Łavŗu nis melă, ŗy văr-tel = above, 2pl
  • טאָ איאַר'י אַגּאָם א ל'אַבער' אס יידיש, אך כאַל קומאס דאָם. To ieŗi agom ă łavăŗ ăs Yidiș, ach chal cumăs dom. = I want to speak Ăn Yidiș, but I cannot.
  • בּליאן מֿאַהּ בֿיאָניצא Blien mhath bhjoniță /bliən vah vjonitsə/ = Happy new year

Dates and time

Civil months

Jewish months

Days of the week

Note: in Judeo-Gaelic a day is considered to begin at sunset or nightfall, as according to Jewish law.

  • Sunday: זי־סוֹל żi-soal
    • Sunday morning: מאַזין סוֹל mażin soal
    • Sunday afternoon (before sunset): ףעסקאר סוֹל fescăr soal
    • Sunday evening (after sunset): ערב ל'ואַן erev łuan (!)
    • Sunday night: עאשא ל'ואַן eașă łuan (!)
  • Monday: זי־ל'ואַן żi-łuan
  • Tuesday: זי־מאָרץ żi-morț
  • Wednesday: זי־צ'עאדין żi-c̦eadin
  • Thursday: זי־זעאראדין żi-żearădin
  • Friday: זי־רו־שבּת żi-ru-șabăs (instead of żi hejnă which is from Catholic fasting on Friday)
  • Saturday: זי־שבּת żi-șabăs

Telling the time

  • טאָ שי טרי שעה To și tŗi șo. = It's 3:00.
  • טאָ שי דו שעה ייֵגּ To și du șo ġeag = It's 12:00.

Colors

  • ףין fin = white
  • דוב duv = black
  • זעראגּ żerăg = red
  • בּוייע bujă = yellow
  • גּל'אַס głas = green
  • גּאָרעם gărăm = blue
  • בּאַנעש banăș = violet; purple
  • דוֹן doan = brown

Poetry

Sample texts

Ma Nishtana (from the Haggadah)

קאַרד א טאָ ניי אַהראב אר אן איישע שאָ אוֹ קאָך איישאן עלא?
Card ă to nei ahrăv ăr ăn eașă șo oh coch eașăn elă?
What has changed on this night from all other nights?
Gur nach ag tum głasrăn afílu oin łer ă toġ ăr coch eașăn elă, ach yș du łer ă toġ ănắft.
That we don't dip vegetables even once on all other nights, but we do so twice tonight.
Gur yș idzir chomăț ys mață ă toġ ag yth ăr coch eașăn elă, ach chalij ach mață ănắft.
That we eat both chomeț (leavened bread) and mațo on all other nights; but we eat only mațo tonight.
Gur yș coch c̦inăł głasrăn ă toġ ag yth ăr coch eașăn elă, ach yș morăr ă toġ ag yth ănắft.
That we eat all kinds of vegetables on all other nights; but tonight, it's bitter herbs that we eat.
Gur toj ag yth ys toj cidz ynăr-ti ys toj ciż ynăr-li șier ăr coch eașăn elă, ach toġ cochnă ynăr-li șier ănắft.
That we eat while some of us sit and some of us recline on all other nights, but all of us recline tonight.

Warming Up to You

țeav dyt

From "Dirge Without Music"

קינה ג'אן צֿ'אָל'

Cină ġăn c̦hoł

I am not resigned to the shutting away of loving hearts in the hard ground.
So it is, and so it will be, for so it has been, time out of mind:
Into the darkness they go, the wise and the lovely. Crowned
With lilies and with laurel they go; but I am not resigned.