Kyrdan Swadesh list

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This is a Swadesh list of words in Proto-Kyrdan and its main descendants. This particular list is based on a 207 word list, although not all original words are present, because Kyrdan speakers were not familiar with some of these terms or concepts and thus their languages lack words for them. Some words were replaced with terminology, familiar to Kyrdan speakers (for example: 56 “leaf” or 57 “root” were replaced with “microbial mat” and “origin”), while other words were simply left out.

No. English Proto-Kyrdan Kirtumur Kērsalur Cirdamur
1 I *qa- ha- ha- a-
2 you (singular) *ā- ō- ā- ā-
3 he i- yi-/ye- xi-
7 this yi- yu- i-
8 that *da ta ta da
9 here niyum yaim xai
10 there *da-im? tam taim dai
11 who *gʷar~kʷar khar khwar gar
12 what *war war war yar
13 where kei war neamasa yarcēm
14 when *kʷim~kʷiŋ khim kwhim giŋ
15 how *kōn khōn khōn kōn
16 not *ma~mi ma~mi mi ma
17 all *andu antu antu andu
18 many *eř-ku-n erku iškun esku
19 some *za-lë-n za zalen sale
20 few *gelki-n kelka kelkan gelki
21 other *tāt thōt thāt tāti
22 one *ig
ŋiq
ik ik ŋiˀ
23 two *ʒë-u cu cu se
24 three *eš-ga eška eška
25 four *pa-ga phak phaka pa
26 five *ja-ga yak yaka ya
27 big *wō wōa
28 long *ej *eja *ei *ēi
29 wide *pas phasa phas pas
30 thick *bag paka pak bak
31 heavy *qōp
*šad-i
hōpa šat ōp
sadi
32 small *jēř-i yera yer yēci
33 short *kyr
*ʒin-i
khera khēr
cin
sini
34 narrow *rap rapa rap rap
35 thin *pāx
*xis-i
xesa pāx xiši
36 woman *eřaŋi
*čalmi
ŋiraŋi meraŋi calmi
37 man (adult male) *bëki ŋirpekhi mirpekhi beki
38 man (human being) *ŋʷiri
*kyci
ŋiri miri kici
39 child *nini nini nini nini
40 wife *qaweřaŋi hauraŋi haweraŋi aicaŋi
41 husband *qawëbëki haupekhi hawepekhi aibeki
42 mother *ameřaŋi ameraŋi ameraŋi amecaŋi
43 father *amabëki amapekhi amapekhi amabeki
44 living
creature
*alësi arri alesi atti
52 colony *ōqař ōar ōaš ōhat
53 pipe *weq we we yeˀ
55 seed
capsule
*zalëši zarer zašeš salex
56 archaea *ŋipas ŋephas ŋephas ŋipaš
57 origin *yrim irim ērim irim
58 membrane *fem hem hem em
60 microbial
mat
*lum lum akalem lum
61 rope *jeiq? jei jei ēˀ
62 skin *zër zer zer ser
63 flesh *ryw rewa ri
64 blood *aur
*ur
aur aur ur
65 bone *řaqʷas rōs šawa saˀaš
66 body *jaux jaux jaux jōx
67 egg, cyst *ŋaus
*nāqëm
ŋaus ŋaus nāˀem
69 end *čulpēk chulpēk chulpēk culpēk
70 cover *ʒap
*ŋič
cap capham ŋic
71 hair *qepë hep hep epe
72 head *fes
*tuq
hes hes tuˀ
73 ear *qysul hisul hēsul išul
74 eye ŋëw-in ŋiwin mēn ŋain
75 nose *qëmgir himkir himkir emgir
76 mouth *qʷez hez wez es
77 tooth *qij
*lenxu
linux hije
linux
leˀun
78 tongue (organ) *feiř heir heiš ēc
79 fingernail *gʷit-tuŋ kittuŋ kwittuŋ kit
80 foot *zitiř
*aqa-sad
zitir zitiš ahasat
81 leg *cēdëw chētu chētu cēd
82 knee *ķiq ki ki ciˀ
83 hand *rim
*byr
rim pēr rim
84 corner *bil pil pilum nambil
85 belly *tāg thōk thāk tāk
86 guts *jydëm jitem jētem item
87 neck ķōqʷa kōwa kōwa cōˀ
88 back *dergʷë terke terkwe derek
89 breast *qeip heip heip ēp
90 heart *tiŋqe thiŋe theŋe tiˀeŋ
91 liver mupilnu jitem mupilnu jētem sipildamnu idem
92 to drink *wōra~waura? waura wōra yōra
93 to eat *ŋʷaisa mesa~misa misa ŋaisa
94 to bite *qaca hacha hacha aca
95 to suck
inhale
*buʒ puca pauca busa
96 to spit
exhale
*inʒa neca anaica insa
97 to vomit utitem aneca namartāk aneca udatinsa
98 to blow intu ceiya intu caia udā insa
99 to breathe *ʒaia ceiya caia saia
100 to laugh *šiša
*xawa
šeša šeša xōa
101 to see *nëna nena nena anna
102 to hear *šala šala šela xala
103 to know *qʷama wama wama ōma
104 to think *fysa hesa hēsa iša
105 to smell *myga meka meka mia
106 to fear *guŋira kuŋira kuŋira udiŋira
107 to sleep *gʷōřa kōra kwōša gōca
108 to live *ŋala
qela
ŋala hela ela
109 to die *gala kala kala gala
110 to kill *dō-gala tō kala tō kala dōgla
111 to fight *lika lekha likha lika
112 to chase *gaita keitha kaitha gaita
113 to hit *rauqa rauwa raua rōˀa
114 to cut *ǯara
*kʷara
khara khwara šara
115 to split *dara tara untara dara
116 to stab *waxa waxa waxa yaxa
117 to scratch *fura haura hura ura
118 to dig *bala pala unpala ubbala
119 to swim qʷōla haula wōla ōla
120 to fly *saǯa saca saca šaša
121 to walk *lua
*quda
lua lua uda
122 to come *qadata hata hatatha atta
123 to lie (as in a bed) *řuda
*luda
luta lata
šuta
suda
124 to sit *ķikʷa kikha kikhwa cika
125 to stand *geba kupa kepa giba
126 to turn (intransitive) *gʷyra
duwa
tuwa
kira
kʷēra
tuwa
gira
127 to fall *pela phela phela pala
128 to give *tača
*dama
thacha thacha udama
129 to hold *dala
in-dama
tala tala indama
130 to squeeze *fiša haša hiša ixa
131 to rub *taqura thaura thaura tāˀra
132 to wash *tuqa thua thua tuˀa
133 to wipe *sāba sōpa sāpa šabba
134 to pull *bagʷa paka pakwa baga
135 to push *in-bagʷa naka unakwa inbaga
136 to throw *jila yala yila ila
137 to tie *wiga waka waka ia
138 to sew *ķaša kaša kaša caxa
139 to count *jā(q)ma yōma yāma yaˀma
140 to say *duma~dauma tuma tuma dōma
141 to sing *muda muta muta muda
142 to play šarmata urekana iˀan gama
143 to float *nyla
*qēlqula
nila nēla ēˀlula
144 to flow *deķa teka teka deca
145 to freeze *wanira
*iqera
wanira wanira iˀera
146 to swell *šuga šuššuka šuššuka xua
147 sun *ķa ka ka ca
148 moon *ku khu khu ku
149 star *niw newa ni
150 water *wa wa wa ya
151 rain *ije~iqʷe iye iwe ye
152 river *fy hi i
153 lake ul
mual
weya
ul
154 sea *mul mul mul dumul
mul
155 salt *zēm zēm zēm sēm
156 stone *nāw
*cikʷ
chikw cik
gim
157 sand irix lām icci
158 dust *qaupëw
*ʒilëw
hauphu cilu sil
159 earth *ēm
zam
ēm ēm sam
160 cloud *im
*ca
im im
chaphas
ca
161 fog *ruš
*eŋë
ruš ruš
162 sky *zān zōn zān sān
163 wind *laj lei laja li
164 snow *dir tir namtir uddir
165 ice *qōn hōn hōn ōn
166 smoke *sidiw sitē sitiwi šidik
167 fire *cala
*nam-dāb
chal chala namdāb
168 ash *nil-dij niltē nil nilid
169 to burn *daba tapa tapa daddaba
170 road *syl sil sēl šil
171 mountain *mauz mauz mauz mōs
172 red *ǯen cen cen šeni
173 green *tig thik thik tiyi
174 yellow *reig reik reik rēi
175 white ēq-u ē ēu ēˀi
176 black *quw-u hu uyu
177 night *ŋʷus
*tax
ŋus mus tax
178 day *kiŋ khiŋ khiŋ kiŋ
179 year *mei? mei mei en
180 warm *kʷax
*wēn
wēna wēn kaxi
181 cold *giqu
*zōl
zōla zōl giˀu
182 full *aiš eiša aiš aixi
183 new *ʒen sena cen seni
184 old *lib lepa lip libi
185 good *ař ara aci
186 bad *qul hula hul ul
187 spoilt *ķyr kera kēr curi
188 dirty *pēl phēla phēl pēli
189 straight *čak chakha chak caki
190 round *raw rawa rau rawi
191 sharp (as a knife) *čidrë chetra cheter cirdi
192 dull (as a knife) *lux luxa lux luxi
193 smooth *iřiŋʷ ireŋa išim iciŋi
194 wet *wyp wepha wēp ipi
195 dry *qār hōra hār āri
196 correct *gin kina kin gini
197 near *māq mōa māˀ
198 far *ajā ayōa ayā
199 right *ʒi cea ci si
200 left *gʷyl kela kwēl gili
201 at nu- una- a
202 in ni- ni- a
203 with *-da? -ta -ta ida
204 and ō kwa ŋa
205 if *lē? lē- i- lē-
206 because *mu mu- mu mu-
207 name *ķāl kōl kāl cāl