Late Ma'nijr

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Background

Late Ma'nijr is a highly endangered language spoken by the people of the Laechmen region. It is a descendant of a dialect of Ancient American, called Ancient Appalachian American, aka Ancient Appalachian. "Laechmen" comes from the Ancient Appalachian toponym, "Platchee Mou'inz" (Appalachian Mountains), and "Ma'nijr" from "Mou'neer" (Mountaineer). Prospects for the language's survival are dim, as the Ma'nijr are the only Terrran humans (approx. 900) who have survived the cataclysmic wars and ecological disasters of the 21st and 22nd Centuries, the "Rajwiw'", which means "The Great Disaster". Based on the last census data, the population will continue to decline without intervention, unless Her Majesty confers authority upon Her Viceroyalty Rimmūš aplu Tayyāhari to do so.

Based on surviving inscriptions and textual material uncovered by archaeological excavations, dichronic reconstructions indicate that Late Ma'nijr has retained 60-70% of the lexicon of Ancient American. However, radical sound changes and syllable reductions have created words that are unrecognizable from their ancestral forms. Numerous homophones emerged in Middle Ma'nijr, which exerted pressure on the language to disambiguate these homophones. For example, through different processes the original Ancient American words big, fruit, and visit merged in Middle Ma'nijr into /vɪʔ/, represented orthographically in the Reformed Ma'nijr transcription system as <vih'>. In Late Ma'nijr, compounding and other derivational processes were applied to <vih'> to reduce the number of homophones, yielding <vimvih'> (big-and-big), <vi'aew>, <vyaew> (fruit-apple), and <givih'> (go-visit).



Phonology

Consonants

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal
Plosive
Fricative
Affricate
Approximant
Trill
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app.
Lateral flap

Vowels

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

Phonotactics

Orthography

Grammar

Morphology

Nouns

Adjectives

Verbs

Copula/Simple Present Tense

When used as a copula, these verb forms are suffixed to their argument. Otherwise, they are suffixed to the verb stem.

Tense-Aspect Prefix Person Affix Tense-Aspect Suffix Example
First Person Singular =(áe)m Rejtori-m ("I am a Reitorian"), Adzhik-aem ("I am Adzhik"), kaem-áem ("I am coming")
Second Person Singular =(r)á Rejtori-ra ("You are a Reitorian"), Adzhik-a ("You are Adzhik"), kaem-á ("You are coming")
Third Person Singular =(í)z Rejtori-z ("He/She/It is a Reitorian"), Adzhik-íz ("He/She/It is Adzhik"), kaem-iz ("He/She/It is coming")
First Person Plural =(w)aré Rejtori-ware ("We are Reitorians"), Adzhik-are ("We are Adzhik"), kaem-aré ("We are coming")
Second Person Plural =(o)lá Rejtori-lá ("You are all Reitorians"), Adzhik-olá ("You are all Adzhik"), kaem-olá ("All of you are coming")
Third Person Plural =dh(i)ma Rejtori-dhma ("They are Reitorians"), Adzhik-dhima ("They are Adzhik"), kaem-dhima ("They are coming")


Present Perfect
Tense-Aspect Prefix Person Affix Tense-Aspect Suffix Example
First Person Singular g{a,in,m,ng,nk} - =(áe)m -(i)t, (labial)-p ga-sij-m-it ("I have just seen"),ga-kaem-aem-p ("I have just come")
Second Person Singular g{a,in,m,ng,nk} - =(r)á -(i)t ga-sij-r-it ("You have just seen"),ga-kaem-ra-t ("You have just come")
Third Person Singular g{a,in,m,ng,nk} - =(í)z -(i)t ga-sij-z-it ("He/She/It have just seen"),ga-kaem-iz-it ("He/She/It have just come")
First Person Plural g{a,in,m,ng,nk} - =(w)aré -(i)t ga-sij-waré-t ("We have just seen"),ga-kaem-aré-t ("We have just come")
Second Person Plural g{a,in,m,ng,nk} - =(o)lá -(i)t ga-sij-lá-t ("You all have just seen"),ga-kaem-olá-t ("You all have just come")
Third Person Plural g{a,in,m,ng,nk} - =dh(i)ma -(i)t ga-sij-dhma-t ("They have just seen"),ga-kaem-dhima-t ("They have just come")
Present Progressive
Tense-Aspect Prefix Person Affix Tense-Aspect Suffix Example
First Person Singular v{a,in,m,ng,nk} - =(áe)m -(i)t, (labial)-p va-sij-m-it ("I have just seen"),va-kaem-aem-p ("I have just come")
Second Person Singular v{a,in,m,ng,nk} - =(r)á -(i)t va-sij-r-it ("You have just seen"),va-kaem-ra-t ("You have just come")
Third Person Singular v{a,in,m,ng,nk} - =(í)z -(i)t va-sij-z-it ("He/She/It have just seen"),va-kaem-iz-it ("He/She/It have just come")
First Person Plural v{a,in,m,ng,nk} - =(w)aré -(i)t va-sij-waré-t ("We have just seen"),va-kaem-aré-t ("We have just come")
Second Person Plural v{a,in,m,ng,nk} - =(o)lá -(i)t va-sij-lá-t ("You all have just seen"),va-kaem-olá-t ("You all have just come")
Third Person Plural v{a,in,m,ng,nk} - =dh(i)ma -(i)t va-sij-dhma-t ("They have just seen"),va-kaem-dhima-t ("They have just come")


Mood Affixes
Conditional Mood Affixes

Ma'nijr has three types of Conditional mood affixes:

  1. Simple wuv(a)-
  2. Necessitative shuv(a)-
  3. Abilitative kuv(a)-

Syntax

Canonical word order in Ma'nijr is VSO. SVO word order is also common. Modifiers precede their heads. The general order of constituents are as follows:

[NEG] [WH-word] Subject - Verb - Object - Indirect Object - Oblique [NEG] [INTERROG]