Lesson:Metin/2: Genitive and locative

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Genitive

To say that a noun owns something, first you must add the suffix en to the thing being owned.

sy'amiił "a house" to sy'amiiłen "someone's house, her place, his pad".

Then, you add the owner in the oblique form. For nouns that start with si, the oblique form starts with suar.

sy'amiiłen suarbhii' "Bhii's place."

The "r" in "suar" can change form depending on the consonanant that follows it. The rules are:

If the following sound is voiceless, "r" is pronounced "ł"

sy'amiiłen suart'is> sy'amiiłen suałt'is "The child's house".

If the following sound is voiced and "toothy" (All the toothy voiced sounds contain the letters d, z, l or j in them), r is pronounced "l" sy'amiiłen suarleeh> sy'amiiłen sualleeh "The singer's house".

If the following sound is S or T, the r remains r, despite S and T being voiceless. sy'amiiłen suarTuu "The cook's house", not "sy'amiiłen suałTu".

When adding the suffix "en" to a noun, some changes are made depending on what the noun ends in.

If noun ends in a vowel

-add yen: miji> mijiyen, siTuu> siTuuyen.

If noun ends in a fricative

-s becomes ts, z dz, zh dzh, S TS, Z DZ, Zh DZh, sy c, zy j, zyh jh, s' ts', z' dz', zh dzh', sy' c', zy' j', zyh' jh'.

lukiez> lukiedzen

fïrus> firutsen

f may not change, or become w

fïdlhïïf> fikïïwen

sikif> sikifen.

n usually becomes m

fïgoon> fïgoomen

Other final sounds rarely change.

sy'amiił> sy'amiiłen

Some words are irregular

sit'is> sits'en

siDu> siDugen

Translation practice

New words. fïluá: a light fïdaaq: a pen fïklAAs: a tablet, phone fïhëë: a bed, matress.

sileeh: a singer simuo: a spouse, date siDu (siDugen) an elder, one's boss. siTuu: a chef. sy'ahëë: a bedroom sy'aTuu: a kitchen

mihuu': food luhuu': a meal miráihëë: bedsheets, blanket

luquo: the color white luglief: the color black luDraaG: the color blue

1: That by you is the singer's tablet

2: Txen's bedsheets are black.

3: Bhii's friend's bedroom is white.

4: The Chef's kitchen isn't blue.

5: Txen's boss is cuinda (sicuinda)

6: This is cuinda's pen.

7: That isn't Bhii's date.

8: That by you is Cuinda's food.

I: Dhaa mita mijiyen sualleeh

II: mimi fïZa fïluáyen suałcuinda

III:  site sisuhen suarbhii'

IV: siDugen suarbhii' sicuinda

V: mimi fïgoomen suarcuinda

VI: Dhaa fïhëë luDraaG

VI: luhuu'yen suałtxen

Genitive pronouns

To say something is mine or yours, suffixes different than -en. The suffix -o means "my", the suffix         "-u/f" means "your".

fïdaaqen suarcuinda "cuinda's pen".

fidaaqo "my pen"

fidaaqu "your pen"

fidaaqen "his/her pen".

The rules for adding these suffixes are the same as for adding en, allthough for the suffix "u/f", "f" is used after vowels, "u" after consonants.  

fïluá> filuáyo "my light."

fïluá> filuáf "your light."

sy'amiił> sy'amiiło "my house"

sy'amiił> sy'amiiłu "your house"

fïklAAs> fïklAAtso "my tablet"

fïklAAs> fïklAAtsu "your tablet"

sit'is> sits'o "my student"

sit'is> sits'u "your student".

Translation practice

1. That by you isn't my bed

2. Her pen is black

3. This is your house

4. My friend's kitchen is white.

I. fïklAAtsen suarDuf mite

II. Dhaa sisuho sinteplu

III. mimi sits'en Za sibhi

IV. sy'aTuu luDraaG

Locative

     Now you get to be introduced to the first formal verb of the Metin language, "hi'", to be in a place. The words you learned before, "Dhaa" and "mimi", are not verbs, but copulas, they do not conjugate.  The first 3 forms you will learn are

hi': he/she/ it  is there hu': it is there (mi, sy'a nouns) hoa'f: it is there (fï nouns) uh'i: you are there oh'i: I am there.

With that, memorize these 4 location words.

yałta: here 

yałte: there by you 

yarZa: there

yarj'u: where

Here is how they are used in a sentence.

ohi' yałta: I'm here.

uhi' yałte: you are there.

hi' yarZa: she is over there

hi' yarj'i sibhii': where is bhii'?

ohi' yarj'i: where am I?

hoa'f yałte fïy'oa: the table is there by you.

hu' yarj'i sy'aDZao: where is the city?

Translation

1. The chair is there by you

2. Where are you?

3. She is here

4. Where is the kitchen?

5. The water is here

6. Where am I?

I. hoa'f fïhëë yałte

II. hu' miji yarZa

III. uhi' yałti mu sy'umiił (by the house)

IV. ohu' yarZi mu sy'uDZao ( in the city)

V. hi' sitxen yałti mu suarbhii' (next to bhii')

VI: hi' yarZa?

Answers

Part 1

1: (Dhaa) fïte fïklAAs 2: (Dhaa) miriáhëëyen suałtxen 3: (Dhaa) sy'ahëëyen sisuhen suarbhii' luquo 4: mimi sy'aTuuyen suarTuu luDraaG 5: (Dhaa) siDugen suałtxen sicuinda 6: (Dhaa) fïta fïdaaqen suałcuinda 7: mimi siZa simulyen suarbhii' 8: (Dhaa) mite mihuu'yen suałcuinda

I: This is the singer's water II: That isn't cuinda's light III: that by you is bhii's friend IV: Bhii's boss is cuinda V: It isn't cuinda's chair VI: The bed is blue VII: It is Txen's kitchen

Part 2

1. mimi fïte fïhëëyo 2. (Dhaa) fïdaaqen luglief 3. (Dhaa) sy'aZa sy'amiiłu 4.( Dhaa) sy'aTuuyen suałsuho luquo

I. That by you is your boss's tablet II. It's enteplu's friend III. Her child isn't a girl IV. The kitchen is blue

Part 3

1. hoa'q yałte fïgoon 2. uhi' yarj'i? 3. hi' yałta 4. hu' yarj'i sy'aTuu 5. hu' yałta miji 6. ohi' yarj'i

I. The bed is there by you

II. The water is there III. you are by the house IV. I am in the city V.Txen is next to bhii' VI: Where is she?