Ndongan

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Ndongan
Кѣязик Ндоҥске
Progress: 67%
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative–accusative
Head direction
Initial Mixed Final
Primary word order
Subject-verb-object
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
12
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Ndongan
Кѣязик Ндоҥске
Pronunciation /kʲɘjɶzik ⁿdɔŋskʲe/
Created by Elliott Wheeler
Setting Verse:L′ywai!
Region (Former) Russian Africa, Southern Africa
Ethnicity Ndongans, African-Russians
Native speakers 35.6 million  (12016)
Language family
Writing system Cyrillic
Official status
Official language in Ndonga (Angola), Chornarus (Namibia), Mozambique
ISO 639-3 (qrq)

Ndongan (Кѣязик Ндоҥске, tr. Kŷâzik Ndoŋske), in the universe of the play L′ywai! (Лѣвай!) by Elliott Wheeler, is an East Slavic creole, which evolved from the Imperial Russian language and its pidgin form in Southern Africa via heavy influence from the Kikongo and Kimbundu languages. Being an official language in Ndonga, Chornarus, and Mozambique, the language is and continues to be of particular importance to the peoples of former Russian Africa, acting mainly as a lingua-franca analogous to Afrikaans, and functioned as a semi-code talk of the Red Army and other revolutionary groups during the Civil war.

As of the year 12016, the language has 35.6 million speakers (native & non-native) and counting, making it one of the largest creole languages in the word. The majority of the speakers of the language are of Ndongan or African-Russian ethnicity distributed widely across southern Africa, with the number of African-Russians who have adopted the language (over their native Russian) has increased significantly in recent years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and subsequent de-Russification movement in response to the growth of reactionary politics in Russia.

Geographic distribution

Dialects

Chowa dialect

Phonology

Consonants

Ndongan consonant phonemes
Labial Alveolar Retroflex/Palatal Velar
hard soft hard soft hard soft
Nasal m (м) (мь) n (н) (нь) ŋ (ҥ)
Plosive Voiceless plain p (п) (пь) t (т) k (к) (кь)
prenasalized ᵐp (мп) ᵐpʲ (мпь) ⁿt (нт) ᵑk (ҥк) ᵑkʲ (ҥкь)
Voiced plain b (б) (бь) d (д) g (г) (гь)
prenasalized ᵐb (мб) ᵐbʲ (мбь) ⁿd (нд) ᵑg (ҥг) ᵑgʲ (ҥгь)
Affricate plain t͡s (ц) ʈ͡ʂ (ч) t͡ʃ (чь,ць) k͡x (кх)
prenasalized ⁿt͡s (нц) ⁿʈ͡ʂ (нч) ⁿt͡ʃ (нчь,нць) ᵑk͡x (ҥкх)
Fricative Voiceless plain f (ф) (фь) s (с) ʂ (ш) ʃ (шь) x (х) (хь)
prenasalized ᵐf (мф) ᵐfʲ (мфь) ⁿs (нс) ⁿʂ (нш) ⁿʃ (ншь) ᵑx (ҥх) ᵑxʲ (ҥхь)
Voiced plain z (з) ʐ (ж) ʒ (жь)
prenasalized ⁿz (нз) ⁿʐ (нж) ⁿʒ (нжь)
Approximant w (в) wʲ~ɥ (вь) (ль) ɭ (л) j (й)

Vowels

Ndongan vowel phonemes
Front Central Back
hard soft hard soft hard soft
Close i (и) ʲi (і) ɘ (ы) ʲɘ (ѣ) u (у) ʲu (ю)
Mid e (э) ʲe (е) o (о) ʲɔ (ё/ө)
ɔ (о)
Open ɶ (а) ʲɶ (я)

Non-phonemic aspiration

Prosody

Phonotactics

Morphology

Gender

Noun declension

Adjectives

Conjugation

1st conjugation

Conjugation of Ndongan (1st conjugation consonantal)
Imperfective aspect
Infinitive —ць
Participles present past
Active —юнше —уше
Passive —еме
Adverbial —я —ю
present future
1st Singular —ют бу—ёт
2nd Singular —ешь бу—ешь
3rd Singular —ет бу—ет
1st Plural —емв бу—емв
2nd Plural —етэ бу—етэ
3rd Plural —юць бу—юць
Imperative singular plural
2nd Present —ь —итэ
Past tense singular plural
Masculine —ль —ли
Feminine —ла
Agender —л
Nonbinary —ло

2nd conjugation

Conjugation of Ndongan (2nd conjugation consonantal)
Imperfective aspect
Infinitive —чь
Participles present past
Active —юнше —уше
Passive —еме
Adverbial —я —уши
present future
1st Singular —ёт будо-—ёт
2nd Singular —ешь бу—ешь
3rd Singular —ет бу—ет
1st Plural —емв бу—емв
2nd Plural —етэ бу—етэ
3rd Plural —юць бу—юць
Imperative singular plural
2nd Present нча— —итэ
Past tense singular plural
Masculine —лу —ли
Feminine —ла
Agender —л
Nonbinary —ло

Syntax

Constituent order

Similar to Russian and other Slavic languages, the language largely doesn't have an absolutely rigid constituent order due to heavy inflection. Rather, the basic order tends to most often be similar to subject-verb-object-compliment (SVOC), following after Portuguese as well.

Again similar to Russian, alternate word orders can be used to express logical stress and degree of definiteness, where phrases placed nearer to the beginning having a hiğer amount of emphasis in the sentence.

Noun phrase

Verb phrase

Sentence phrase

Dependent clauses

Example texts

Leipzig-Jakarta

Leipzig-Jakarta List
Rank Meaning Ndongan Qafesona Belarussian
1 fire фогонь огнь агонь
2 nose нзуныв хвире нос
3 to go хыдіць хадзіць
4 water меҥыв вода вада
5 mouth уста уста рот
6 tongue нязик йизик язык
7 blood ҥклофь крейва кроў
8 bone ҥкэсць кость косць
9 2sg pronoun тоб тобу ты
10 root ҥколѣнь кошен корань
11 to come (move) хяжлачь прыходзіць
12 breast мьпелші грудь перси
13 rain гяцимба дуждь дождж
14 1sg pronoun я йа я
15 name кімя йимно імя
16 louse/Phthirapteron мволыс-нисэту вушь вош
17 wing мьклыл кшитто крыло
18 flesh/meat мяс мисо мяса
19 arm/hand нвука рука рука
20 fly (insect)/Dipteron мухо муха
21 niğt (time of day) сукыв ноџь ноч
22 ear мюха ухо вуха
23 neck ншиҥа шийа шыя
24 far (prep.) далеки далёкі
25 to do/make желаць дзелаць
26 house/structure цѣдом дом
27 stone/rock (singular object) камень камеунь камень
28 bitter голькіе горкі
29 to say гаварыць
30 tooth м'ё кобиле зуб
31 hair мволыс влус волас
32 big вѣліке влуйки вялікі
33 one (number) дин йеден адзін
34 who? мкоѣ кут хто
35 3sg pronoun ҥом ньом ім
36 to hit/beat удапічь ўдарыць
37 leg/foot ныга стопа нага
38 horn нвог рух рог
39 this (pron.) тиси гэты
40 fish нвыба рыба рыба
41 yesterday учора
42 to drink піць
43 black (color) чёлне чирны чорны
44 navel мпуп пуп
45 to stand лѣваць стаяць
46 to bite кусаць
47 back (body-part) хшибит спіна
48 wind ветр вецер
49 smoke (substance) дым дым дым
50 what? цтоѣ чо што
51 child (kin term) детно дзіця
52 egg яйцо фаце яйцо
53 to give даць
54 new (adj.) нов'е новы новы
55 to burn (intr.) джгаць
56 not (adj./adv.) не не не
57 good добры перси
58 to know нжаць знаць
59 knee колено калена
60 sand песук пясок
61 to lauğf смѣяць смяяцца
62 to hear чуць
63 soil зёмьла зямля
64 leaf ліст лист ліст
65 red (color) кѣлвоне чирмины чырвоны
66 liver (body-part) мвомо йитра печань
67 to hide
68 skin/hide кожа кожа скура
69 to suck ссаць
70 to carry нышічь насіць
71 ant/Formid мурашка
72 heavy цанорни цяжкі
73 to take браць
74 old нтале стары стары
75 to eat есці
76 thiğ нчикола бядро
77 thick тулсты тоўсты
78 long (spacially) дилги доўгі
79 to blow дзьмуць
80 wood дрэва
81 to run бегаць
82 to fall падаць
83 eye (body-part) очо твале вока
84 ash пепел попел
85 tail мфост рип хвост
86 dog ҥхондт левке сабака
87 to cry/weep плакаць
88 to tie вязаць
89 to see бачыць
90 sweet керас салодкі
91 rope кцэвжэ уже вяро́ўка
92 shade/shadow цень
93 bird путицка птушка
94 salt соль соль соль
95 small амале моцени малы
96 wide лайни шырокі
97 star озвѣзда хвезда озвязда
97 in в в ў
99 hard (materially) кцэвёлде цвёрды
100 to crush/grind давиць давіць

Chemistry

Ndongan-language Periodic table of the Elements
Group Period 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 H
Li
Na
K
Rb
Cs
Fr
2 Be
Mg
Ca
Sr
Ba
Ra
3 Sc
Y
La
Ac
F1 Ce
Th
F2 Pr
Pa
F3 Nd
U
F4 Pm
Np
F5 Sm
Pu
F6 Eu
Am
F7 Gd
Cm
F8 Tb
Bk
F9 Dy
Cf
F10 Ho
Es
F11 Er
Fm
F12 Tm
Md
F13 Yb
No
F14 Lu
Lr
4 Ti
Zr
Hf
Rf
5 V
Nb
Ta
Db
6 Cr
Mo
W
Sg
7 Mn
Tc
Re
Bh
8 Fe
цѣлезо
Ru
Os
Hs
9 Co
Rh
Ir
Mt
10 Ni
Pd
Pt
Ds
11 Cu
мѣці
Ag
Au
нзлата
Rg
12 Zn
Cd
Hg
Cn
13 B
Al
Ga
In
Tl
Nh
14 C
Si
силицыв
Ge/Esi
экасилицыв
Sn
олыво
Pb
свінец
Fl
15 N
P
As
Sb
Bi
Mc
16 O
S
Se
Te
Po
Lv
17 F
Cl
Br
I
At
Ts
18 He
Ne
Ar
Kr
Xe
Rn
Og


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