en thomma n-Annoroch|
|Pronunciation||/ɛn ˈθomːã ˈnanːəˌrɔx|
|Created by||Aireadna Emmrais|
|Setting||Anrish Islands, off the west coast of Ireland|
|Official language in||Anrish Islands|
Old Anrish (en thomma n-Annoroch, Runic:᛬ᛁᚾ·ᛏᚮᛘᛘᚭ·ᚾ·ᚭᚾᚾᚢᚱᚳᚼ᛬) is a Germanic language created by Aireadna Emmrais to be a medieval language spoken by the inhabitants of the Anrish Islands (ed Annoroíed, Runic:᛬ᛁᚦ·ᚭᚾᚾᚢᚱᚳᛁᚦ᛬), an archipelago emerging from the Rockall Plateau.
The language, while ultimately Germanic, has been influenced by Celtic languages during an extended period of contact as the Anrish people migrated from the Gallo-Germanic confederation of Balgae to south Britain and later fled to Ireland at the wake of the Roman conquest. Many characteristic features of Brittonic and Goidelic languages were shared with the Old Anrish language.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Phonology
- 4 Morphology
- 5 Syntax
- 6 Example texts
- 7 Other resources
The name "Anrish" is derived simply from a combination of the Anrish endonym Annor + -ish in English. Similarly, Annoroíed is derived from a compound in Anrish of Annor + oíed, translating to "the Anrish islands".
Old Anrish was affected by a series of phonological changes that radically altered its appearance compared with Proto-Germanic and older Germanic languages. A list of the most important changes is (in approximate order):
- wu> *ū. This must have been a feature of the Proto-Germanic dialect of the Anrish people before influences from Brittonic, where *ū> ī, and also precedes *kw> p (*kwuruz> *kūrj-> cír, not **puir)
- ē2,*ī,*ū> ī (*ē2hiraz> ígir - maple; *ītraz> íthor - exquisite, precious; *ūdarą> ídra - udder)
Monophthongization of PG diphthongs:
|Diphthong||turns into:||merges with:|
Nasal vowels merge: internally word-final
- ą, *am, *an> a ã
- ǭ, *ô, *ǫ̂> -
- aNF, *ōm, *ōn> ā -
- iNF> ē -
- į̄> - ẽ
- uNF> ī -
- ų, *um, *un> - ũ
Labiovelars become bilabials:
- kw> p (*kwikwaz> peph - quick; *kwrammaz> pramm - damp);
- ngw> mb (*tungwǭ> tomma - tongue; *slangwijō> laimm - sling);
though *hw & *gw> w (*hwehwlą> féul - wheel; *hwītaz> fíth - white; *snaigwaz> néu - snow)
|Fricative||voiceless||f||s; θ||x; h|
|High||i «ı»; y «uı»||u «u»|
|Close-mid||e «e»; ø «oı»||o «o»|
|Open-mid||ɛ «ę»; œ «œ»||ɔ «ǫ»|
|Low||æ «aı»||a «a»|
|Intitial||/i-/; /u-/||ui̯ «uí»||iu̯ «ıu»|
|/e-/; /œ-/||œi̯ «óe/oí»||eu̯ «eu»|
|/ɛ-/||ɛi̯ «ęı»||ɛu̯ «ęu»|
|/a-/||ai̯ «áe/aí»||au̯ «au»|
Syllable Structure: (C)(r)V(C)2
- C = Consonant
- r = /r/
- V = Vowel
- An epenthetic short vowel must occur between /r/ and a following labial in the coda.
- Truely voiceless consonants may only occur in initial position.
- If there is a /r/ in initial position, only /p/, /t/, /f/ may precede it.
- /r/ is often realized as [ɾ].
- /a/ is often realized as [ä], [ɐ̞].
- /f/, /b/ often mutate into variations of /v/.
- /pr/, /tɬ/, /tr/, /fr/, /fs/, /fd/, /ŋg/, /ŋʀ/, /ŋd/, /kʀ/, /rf/, /ɬɡ/, /ɬd/, /mb/, /mr/, /md/, /nr/, /nd/, /nt͡s/, /ʀɡ/, /ɹd/, /ɹt͡s/, /ʀs/, /ʀt/, /ʀt͡s/ are the only clusters that may occupy the coda.
- The coda of the syllable is often medial, and is synonymous with such for the purposes of this article.
- /hl/, /ðl/ cannot occur and must mutate into /ɬ/.
- Laterals cannot occur near labials.
The Latin alphabet as a part of the language was introduced by Irish & Norse Christian missionaries during the Middle ages. Because of the ill-suiting of Irish phonology & its Latin to the language, coupled with the reaction to attempted colonization, their influence was left minimal, with the Nordic innovations being much better suited, allowing the written language to appear "Germanic-esque" in a sense. Another major factor in the Romanization of Anrish was the later advent of the printing press, created exclusively for Latin-based writing systems.
The Runic alphabet has existed as a part of the language even prior to the migration to the archipelago by the Anrish, and was likely the first writing system to be adopted by the language.
Having undergone the various sound changes described above, the nine declension of Proto-Germanic collapsed into six in Old Anrish with only marginal differences between original u-stems and the merged consonant- and r-stems. A peculiar feature of Old Anrish is the presence of the dual number in noun declension, which was likely lost in the Proto-Germanic stage of the language, only to be borrowed later on from Proto-Celtic.
Firstly, it must be noted that adverbs are not a separate part of speech from adjectives in Anrish. Most adjectives are sufficized with either ‹-a› or ‹-e›
Aside from certain independent adjectives, adjectives are often either considered to be a conjugation of its equivalent verb and vice-versa, with contrasting causative and predicative verb equivalents where the adjective is considered to be the attributive conjugate. Adjectives that are derived from nouns are often simply a mutation on the root plus the addition of an adjective-forming -éa suffix, and lack verbal & comparative forms because of this.
Comparatives are typically derived by the addition of an ‹-ra› or /-sa/ to a mutation on the final consonant, where /k/, /m/, /n/, /p/, /t/ will give ‹-r›, and /ð/, /f/, /l/, /ɬ/, /r/, /s/ will give /-s/. The exceptions to this being a lone ‹s›, which will give ‹-rra› /-ɹa/. An uncomparativized adjective ending in ‹-a› will undergo i-umlaut to the primary vowel, particularly in disyllabic words. An interesting feature of this law is that non-syllabic vowels are considered to be a consonant for the purposes of adding the comparative-former to, but revert to a syllabic state upon the addition of the consonant.
With conjugation divided according to classes, an arbitraty weak/strong distinction, and a impersonal/semi-transitive distinction, Anrish has a 4th-dimensional conjugation system consisting of an active/passive voice-distinction, a 1/2/3 form-distinction, a non-past/past tense-distinction, and a subjunctive/indicative mood-distinction. Regarding the form-distinction in particular, the 3 forms correspond directly to a person-distinction, but are differentiated because of sound-changes merging archaic forms, as follows:
|1st person||in||form 1|
|ex||form 1||form 3|
|2nd person||form 2|
|3rd person||form 2||form 3|
Aside from normal conjugation, verbs may also be declined as verbal nouns, often restricted to singular number.
The constituent order of words in any given sentence is typically object-verb-subject (OVS).
All relative clauses and modifiers typically precede the noun as the head of an argument.
It must be noted that the language is conventionally considered to be nominative-accusative in the sense that it's Centum and not ergative-absolutive. This is due to the fact that the language does not decline nouns according to aliğnment, rather thus placing the language more in the category of direct aliğnment; a situation similar to that of English.
- Ishtar spoke to her father - Eð ætene púruð Ishtar
|11||to come (move)|
|21||niğt (time of day)||éft|
|27||stone/rock (singular object)|
|51||child (kin term)||eoð|
|55||to burn (intr.)|
|Group ↓||Period →||1||2||3||4||5||6||7|