|ın beàırler hAnnrach |
The Annerish national flag.
|Setting||The Anneries, off the west coast of Ireland|
Official language in
|The Annerish Federation|
- created by Aireanna
The Annerish language (ın beàırler hAnnrach / ᛂᛓᛆᛁᛧᚳᛁᛧᚺᛅᚱᚭᚷ) is primarily spoken by the inhabitants of the Anneries (ne hAnnray / ᛂᚺᛅᚱᛆᚢ) — two archipelagos emerging from the Porcupine Bank (Luínır / ᚳᚢᛂᚿᛁᛧ) and Rockall Plateau (Dóray / ᚿᚭᛧᛆᚢ), west off the coasts of Ireland and Scotland. While the total number of fluent speakers has remained steady throughout recent decades, L1 monolinguals are dying out, leaving the language modibund. There's a rich and long literary tradition, exemplified by two distinct periods: Old Annerish and Middle or Classical Annerish. It may be the sole extant descendant of an independent Indo-European branch originating on the Western Europe mainland.
Annerish is the official language of the Annerish Nation, part of which is disputed with the United Kingdom, where it is classed as an indigenous minority language since 2007 and the Bésgnae Béırle (see below) was appointed as a language-development and regulatory body. There's also a small diaspora in the New World.
There's no consensus on the origin of the endonym Annr, simply suffixed with -ish in English to give "Annerish". The native term for "the Anneries" - ne hAnnray derives from a compound with Old Norse ey, translating to "the Annerish islands".
A leading native theory connects the ethnonym with Annarth, mentioned in the "Gospel of Evynn" (Lebor Ebuınne) as the matron goddess of the Eıchenna, whose queen and chief priestess was Bóıdech. Still, many theologians consider the text itself failing to point out a connection as definitive proof against this theory. Instead, the native theonym Aınnr is regarded as the true origin of Annr.
Bernthaler (1907), the main foreign scholar on the Annerish, supports both propositions and argues that the dental ending in the dative (Aınnrte) must trace back to the former theonym, but the root itself is one and the same as *anderā ("woman") and, thus, likely Pre-Annerish.
From Proto-Germanic to Proto-Annerish
It is hypothesised that the Annerish people are either one and the same with, or a subgroup of the Belgae who migrated from the Gallo-Germanic confederation to southern Britain and later fled to Ireland at the wake of the Roman conquest. Many characteristic features of Brythonic and Goidelic languages are shared with the Annerish language, which had previously been regarded as Celtic. True classification has also been obscured by the crucial lack of Verner's law, along with sweeping sound changes by analogy with the mutation strategies of the dominant languages that reverse some of the effects of Grimm's law, though notably not in reflexes of *hw-, *þw-, and *tw- initials. A list of the most important changes will be given below (in approximate order):
- wu> *ū. This must have been a feature of the Proto-Germanic dialect of the Annerish people before influences from Brittonic, where *ū> ȳ, and also precedes *kw> p (*kwuruz> *kūrj-> cuír, not **puír.)
- ē2> ī (*ē2hiraz> íochr - maple)
Monophthongization of PG diphthongs:
|Diphthong||turns into:||merges with:|
|*au, eu, ōu||ȱ~ úa/úaı||-|
|*iu, *ōi||ȳ~ y/uí||-|
Nasal vowels merge: internally word-final
- ą, *am, *an> ã ã
- ǭ, *ô, *ǫ̂> -
- aNF, *ōm, *ōn> ā -
- iNF> ē -
- į̄> - ẽ
- uNF> ũ -
- ų, *um, *un> - ũ
Labiovelars become bilabials:
- kw> p-, -b- (*kwrammaz> *pramm~pram - damp, *nakwô> *nǫba~napa - ship); *gw> b-, -g- (*gwenþiz> *bũıḋ~bóıd - fight, *snaigwaz> *nnœ́ġ~neòg - snow); *ngw> -mb- (*slangwijō> *llaımb~laım - sling); *hw> f (*hwītaz> *fíd~fíot - white, *tēhwō> *téŭf~teòfa)
Pre-Annerish and Ceccra
unmatched matriarchal social order and polytheistic worldview have developing in the nation for over
which is reflected extensively throughout the known literature that has unfortunately declined after a brutal period of English colonisation in the 1700's.
The Old Annerish Corpus
Only a handful of vital religious texts survive in the older language, first put to manuscript in the Ⅶth century on Luínır (Luynier), though likely composed a couple of centuries earlier (possibly on mainland Ireland). After centuries of Celtic influence and diglossia, Old Annerish verse and prose still exhibit abundant vocabulary of Germanic stock peeking through the prestigeous Goidelic superstratum. An Old European substratum has also left its unique mark on the language and more specifically on the sociolect of men - the Ceccra - which has been driving innovation ever since the earliest of texts. Influence from the original indigenous inhabitants of the Luynier archipelago may also be found in the animistic, polytheistic ethnic religion. Despite countless Gaelic missions and continuous contact with Christendom, the Annerish have resisted conversion and developed a rich and complex theology of their own.
By the turn of the Ⅷth century, the islands around Dóray (Dorey) are settled with the help of the fellow heathen Vikings who would lend many doublets in the process. This is the start of the Middle period and the "Golden Age" of Annerish literature and culture.
Modern Annerish and revitalization
The end of the Classical period is marked by the Conquest of Calgur in 1652 and subsequent English colonization of Luínır. Dialects of the island have been defunct since the turn of the 18th century as pidgin English developed and spread to Dóray. Use of this patois would decline sharply in the following decades due to wholesale suppression of Annerish culture in the anglophone education system, but also in an effort to keep the traditional language pure and the Classical literature still accessible. The Bésgnae Bérıle was established as an official organisation and has overseen the transition of the spoken language into an increasingly literary one.
The Latin alphabet was introduced by the Irish Christians during the early 7th century. Another major factor in the Romanization of Anrish was the later advent of the printing press, created exclusively for Latin-based writing systems.
Ogham and runic
The Runic alphabet was reintroduced by the Viking migrants in the Middle ages.
Syllable Structure: (C)(r)V(C)2
- C = Consonant
- r = /r/
- V = Vowel
- An epenthetic short vowel must occur between /r/ and a following labial in the coda.
- ·For the forms fused with the copula, see below.
|Ⅰ ᴘᴇʀs.||ɴᴏᴍ.||ᴘᴏss.||ɴᴇɢ.||Ⅱ ᴘᴇʀs.||ɴᴏᴍ.||ᴘᴏss.||ɴᴇɢ.||Ⅲ ᴘᴇʀs.||ɴᴏᴍ.||ᴘᴏss.||ɴᴇɢ.|
|ᴇᴍᴘʜ.||mıse, méıse||muíse||ᴇᴍᴘʜ.||thusa, thúsa||duíse||ᴇᴍᴘʜ.||íse, híse||aíse|
|ɪɴᴄʟ.||bé||suʟ [_ béɴ] / aɴ||pé||ᴍᴀsᴄ.||é, ed ᴠ-||aʟ||sae|
|ᴇᴍᴘʜ.||thysa||suíse||ᴇᴍᴘʜ.||béıse, bıse||suíse / bé(ıse)ɴ||ᴇᴍᴘʜ.||éta||áesa|
|ᴇxᴄʟ.||myr||aɴ, (n)arɴ||ré||ᴘʟ.||rıb||aɴ, (b)urɴ||sy||ᴘʟ.||néat ᴠ-||aɴ||ré|
IIIsg masc. becomes (s)ed before vowels, while (s)í triggers h-prothesis, which can surface even when the pronouns are dropped after finite verb forms; néa <verb-n éa which took over and survived older variants like ḋía, éaḋ, and ían (cf.: Gaelic íat), hence this leaves eclipsis when pro-dropping and t-prosthesis before vowels; emphatic with n- (-re <genitive, in analogy with muírre) is becoming more common, while h- in IIIfem. is declining. Similarly, myr <verb-m ụ́r (extended from ụ́ when infixed pronouns became the norm;) nuor, originally nụ́r(r), a less prominent variant of nár which gives the unstressed ar; The homophonic ur (<ᴏɪḃḟọr) in colloquial speech was ambiguous and thus both were proscribed, until the -r was deleted, merging all the plural possessives. Rıb [ɹuˑ] (<-r [ṡ]iḃ, influenced by ᴏɪsịḃ and the prepositional inflextion in -ḃ which was originally -ṗ from the dual, but those collapsed and the original plural fell obsolete due to the dissolution of an early T-V distinction) in the most modern language slowly morphs into [juˑ] under pressure from English, motivated further by the incidental similarity of the possessive eoır [ˈjɤɹə]. The original T-V was very short lived and mostly aided in the merger of the IIIsg and IIsg verbal forms with its corresponding phonetically similar endings (tho also see above for prep.), however the dual inflection was maintained into something of an inclusive Ipl. This later developed into a polite pronoun for both Isg; IIsg; and Ipl. with its inclusivity still usual, but not mandatory. The independent forms hail from *bai - N: bé, béıse~bıse; P: uor~ar~aɴ/suʟ ___ bé (<béıeɴ), while the determiner meaning both is modelled after the accusative *banz> C: báʜ [bʷɑ]; G: baıde~baíɴ [bʷæjə]; D: baí(b) [bʷæi̯(v)] (this can be combined with bé to explicitly mean '[exclusively] us both' - C: bá dbé(ɴ); G: aɴ/suʟ _ baín bé; D: baí bé.) A unique quotative pronoun, referring to the oneself in others' reported speech, has developed from the variant of the IIsg: thy (E: thysa.) The rest of the forms and inflextion is normally covered by the ordinary IIsg, tho the possessive su [ᴍ~ʟ], suíse was used (probably <*sīnaz.) The possessives were borrowed/remodelled after the Celtic clitic, with the adjectives seeing limited independent pronominal use, however in late OA literature the mixed mutation effect of the influence from the inflected forms showed through: mu(n)ᴍ, du(t)ᴍ, su(s)ᴍ, a(r)ᴍ (variant spellings: mo/ma; do/da/tho/thu/tha; so/sa; e/ı.) The IIIsg possessives were in conflict with the learned Old Irish forms, where masculine and neuter cause lenition, feminine – aspiration, while the expected Germanic reflexes all cause aspiration and that is still observed in the very earliest of Old Annerish texts where singular a/e/ı causes lenition less frequently, mostly with Gaelic vocab; later this was ironed out in the masc.ʟ and fem;ᴍ>ʜ but in the neuter the choice of mutation was rather chaotic until the class' dissolution by the E.Mod. period.
Verbal morphology is the most complex subject of Annerish grammar; despite the relative paucity of conjugated forms, categorising paradigms has proven difficult. Native scholarship, namely the Bésgnae Béırle, have used a minimal numbering system based on the present stem: in the Ist conjugation it ends with a broad consonant, in the IInd with a slender, in the IIIrd with a nasal that is dropped in the other stems, and in the IVth there is no closing consonant. Bernthaler (1907) proposes a weak—strong classification similar to German, however, the relationship between all six crucial stems and their formation more closely resembles that of Old Irish. This article largely follows Teagan et al. (2003).
Every verb is lemmatised as a verbal noun which forms the periphrastic present. Derivational strategies have varied wildly, though most verbal nouns resemble the independent form of the "present" (see below for ᴛᴍᴀ.) Verbal number can be expressed by declining some verbal nouns for number, though most are lexically fixed as either singular or collective only.
A preverb can fuse with all stems in their dependent forms, also known as the prototonic or augmented, including the verbal noun. Valency cannot be inferred from the presence of such augmentation, however. While transitivity is formally marked by a preverb and its absence otherwise, this nearly rigid system is a relatively recent development. Simplex bivalent verbs still see use in the Middle period, especially in sacred poetry and prose. A group of frequent, semantically transitive but formally stative verbs has evoked the term deponency in academic literature, with the concession that this cannot be considered a proper category in morphological classification.
The preverb is an essential component of transitive verbs since it "conjugates" for direct object pronouns. While they appear similar to prepositions, preverbs have somewhat different forms and are lexically bound to each verb instead of carrying their individual meaning. Whenever the direct object is a definite noun, marking for its gender and/or number is optional and fairly common in later, colloquial language. Otherwise every preverb has a default form (sometimes referred to as 'deutorotonic') which is mandatory in an absolute construction. Here is an exhaustive list of preverbs and their pronominal forms in Middle Annerish:
|1The full form with -n(n) is used when a 1ᴘ.ᴘʟ. referrent is qualified with a noun or relative clause; e.g.: |
Runn bíes níe an oıgetha. - They fed us, their guests. Dunn báın neırs c láıbte haıs! - Bless us who pay a visit!
Aside from the verbal noun, there are four more stems to each verb, along with the imperative which takes after either the present or irrealis, if not suppletive. 4th-dimensional conjugation system consisting of an active/passive voice distinction, a 1/2/3 form-distinction, a non-past/past tense-distinction, and a subjunctive/indicative mood-distinction. Regarding the form-distinction in particular, the 3 forms correspond directly to a person-distinction, but are differentiated because of sound-changes merging archaic forms, as follows:
|1st person||in||form 1|
|ex||form 1||form 3|
|2nd person||form 2|
|3rd person||form 2||form 3|
Alignment and order
The constituent order of words in any given sentence is typically verb-subject-object (VSO). It must be noted that the language is conventionally considered to be nominative-accusative in the sense that it's Centum and not ergative-absolutive. This is due to the fact that the language does not decline nouns according to aliğnment, rather thus placing the language more in the category of direct aliğnment; a situation similar to that of English.
Lexicography and the Bésgnae Béırle
Registers of speech