Annerish

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Annerish
ın béırlen Annrach
᛬ᛁ᛫ᛕᛁᛁᛧᚳᛁ᛫ᚭᚢᛂᛧᚭᚼ
Pronunciation[əˈmbeɪ̯ɹʎəˈnɑɯ̯nrʊx]
Created byAireanna
SettingThe Anneries, off the west coast of Ireland
Early form
Official status
Official language in
The Annerish Federation
Language codes
ISO 639-3qrz

The Annerish language (ın béırlen Annrach / ᛁ᛫ᛕᛁᛁᛧᚳᛁ᛫ᚭᚢᛂᛧᚭᚼ) is a medieval, early-split Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of the Anneries (ın Annray / ᛁ᛫ᚭᚢᛂᛧᛆᚢ), an archipelago emerging from the Porcupine Bank off the west coast of Ireland.

It is attested in two distinct forms, namely: Old Annerish and Middle Annerish. Only a handful of vital pagan religious texts survive in the older language, first put to manuscript in the 7th century, though possibly composed a couple of centuries earlier. Despite having been affected by a series of phonological changes that had radically altered its appearance compared to other old Germanic languages, these ancient verse and prose exhibit abundant vocabulary of Germanic stock, albeit under a heavy Goidelic superstratum.

By the time of the Middle period, after centuries of diglossia, the Celtic influence has made the cognate language unrecognizeable to the Norsemen, who ally with their distant cousins against the Christians of the British Isles and become integral to the newly national culture, lending doublets (mostly nominal) in the process. However, a unique substratum, likely Old European, leaves its mark in the later language and more specifically in the sociolect of men - the Ceccr. The matriarchal social order and polytheistic worldview is reflected extensively throughout the known literature, which unfortunately declines after a brutal period of English colonisation in the 1700's.

In modern times, these rich culture and language are endangered and facing extinction in both the homeland and the diaspora in the New World.

Etymology

The name "Annerish" is derived simply from a combination of the endonym Annr, whose origin is disputed, + -ish in English. Similarly, the native term for "the Anneries" - ın Annray derives from a compound with Old Norse ey, translating to "the Annerish islands".

History

It is hypothesised that the Annerish people are either one and the same with, or a subgroup of the Balgae who migrated from the Gallo-Germanic confederation to south Britain and later fled to Ireland at the wake of the Roman conquest. Many characteristic features of Brythonic and Goidelic languages are shared with the Anrish language, which has previously been regarded as Celtic. True classification has also been obscured by the crucial lack of Verner's law, along with sweeping sound changes by analogy with the mutation strategies of the dominant languages that reverse some of the effects of Grimm's law, though notably not in reflexes of *hw- and *þw- initials. A list of the most important changes will be given below (in approximate order):

  • wu> *ū. This must have been a feature of the Proto-Germanic dialect of the Annerish people before influences from Brittonic, where *ū> ȳ, and also precedes *kw> p (*kwuruz> *kūrj-> cuír, not **puír)
  • ē2> ī (*ē2hiraz> íochr - maple)

Monophthongization of PG diphthongs:

Diphthong turns into: merges with:
*ai ǣ~ é/eà/éı 1
*au, eu, ōu ȱ~ úa/úaı -
*iu, *ōi ȳ~ y/uí -

Nasal vowels merge: internally word-final

  • ą, *am, *an> ã ã
  • ǭ, *ô, *ǫ̂> -
  • aNF, *ōm, *ōn> ā -
  • iNF> ē -
  • į̄> - ẽ
  • uNF> ũ -
  • ų, *um, *un> - ũ

Labiovelars become bilabials:

  • kw> p-, -b- (*kwrammaz> *pramm~pram - damp, *nakwô> *nǫba~napa - ship); *gw> b-, -g- (*gwenþiz> *bũıḋ~bóıd - fight, *snaigwaz> *nnœ́ġ~neòg - snow); *ngw> -mb- (*slangwijō> *llaımb~laım - sling); *hw> f (*hwītaz> *fíd~fíot - white, *tēhwō> *téŭf~teòfa)

Phonology

Consonants

Anrish consonant phonemes
Labial Coronal Dorsal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop plain b d ɡ
aspirated p t k
Fricative voiceless f s; θ x~h
voiced β ð ɣ
Liquid r; l

Vowels

Anrish vowel phonemes
Front Back
High i «ı»; y «uı» u «u»
Close-mid e «e»; ø «oı» o «o»
Open-mid ɛ «ę»; œ «œ» ɔ «ǫ»
Low æ «aı» a «a»
Anrish diphthong phonemes
Ending
/-i/ /-u/
Intitial /i-/; /u-/ ui̯ «uí» iu̯ «ıu»
/e-/; /œ-/ œi̯ «óe/oí» eu̯ «eu»
/ɛ-/ ɛi̯ «ęı» ɛu̯ «ęu»
/a-/ ai̯ «áe/aí» au̯ «au»

Prosody

Stress

Intonation

Phonotactics

Syllable Structure: (C)(r)V(C)2
Where:

  • C = Consonant
  • r = /r/
  • V = Vowel
  1. An epenthetic short vowel must occur between /r/ and a following labial in the coda.

Orthography

Latin

The Latin alphabet was introduced by the Irish Christians during the early 7th century. Another major factor in the Romanization of Anrish was the later advent of the printing press, created exclusively for Latin-based writing systems.

Runic

The Runic alphabet was reintroduced by the Viking migrants in the Middle ages.

Morphophonology

Morphology

Nouns

.

Adjectives

Verbs

With conjugation divided according to classes, an arbitraty weak/strong distinction, and a impersonal/semi-transitive distinction, Anrish has a 4th-dimensional conjugation system consisting of an active/passive voice-distinction, a 1/2/3 form-distinction, a non-past/past tense-distinction, and a subjunctive/indicative mood-distinction. Regarding the form-distinction in particular, the 3 forms correspond directly to a person-distinction, but are differentiated because of sound-changes merging archaic forms, as follows:

Singular Plural
1st person in form 1
ex form 1 form 3
2nd person form 2
3rd person form 2 form 3

Aside from normal conjugation, verbs may also be declined as verbal nouns, often restricted to singular number.

Syntax

Constituent order

The constituent order of words in any given sentence is typically verb-subject-object (VSO).

Noun phrase

Verb phrase

Sentence phrase

Dependent clauses

Morphosyntactic aliğnment

It must be noted that the language is conventionally considered to be nominative-accusative in the sense that it's Centum and not ergative-absolutive. This is due to the fact that the language does not decline nouns according to aliğnment, rather thus placing the language more in the category of direct aliğnment; a situation similar to that of English.

Example texts

Swadesh list



No. English Anrish
0Anrishtenga Ænrza
1I
2you (singular)
3heé
4wemyr
5you (plural)rıb
6theyníe
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22oneoín
23two
24three
25four
26fivepım
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38human being
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dogcuan
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eatbírr
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150waterdal
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167firetuar
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175whitebán
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183newnuıd
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204andea
205if
206because
207name


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