Proto-Coelo-Caric

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The Proto-Coelo-Caric language is the reconstructed ancestor of the Coelo-Caric languages, Silōs and Carichendan. It would have descended from the Proto-Sinos-Koelic language.

Phonology

Pre-Coelo-Caric

Based on phonological symmetry and on comparative reconstruction with the Sinushyeinametiniq language, the Proto-Coelo-Caric language was most likely in the middle of the first period of liquid and oral erosion of this phonological system, processes which are characteristic of nearly all stages of the daughter languages.

Early Pre-Coelo-Caric Labial Dental Rhotic Alveolar Velar
Nasal m n̪ <ʼn> n˞ <ň> n ŋ
Plosive p t̪ <z> t˞ <r> t k
Fricative ɸ θ <þ> ʃ˞ <ś> s x
Late Pre-Coelo-Caric Labial Dental Rhotic Alveolar Velar
Nasal m n̪ <ʼn> n˞ <ň> n ŋ
Plosive b t̪ <z> t˞ <r> t k
Fricative ɸ θ <þ> ʒ˞ <ź> s ʃ <x>

Proto-Coelo-Caric

The changes that the phonology underwent to include tentative phonemes which could have developed after the split analogically affected only the nasal stops, which underwent oralization or Coelo-Caric liquid to become approximants and voiced, possibly nasalized fricatives.

Proto-Coelo-Caric Labial Dental Rhotic Alveolar Velar
Nasal m n̪ <ʼn> n˞ <ň> n ŋ
Plosive b t̪ <z> t˞ <r> t k
Fricative ɸ θ <þ> ʒ˞ <ź> s ʃ <x>
Liquid (ð) (j) (l)

Development into the Coelo-Caric languages

Phonological stages from Proto-Coelo-Caric to Standard Modern Silōs

The following changes are known or presumed to have occurred in the history of Pre-Silōs in the wider sense from the end of Proto-Coelo-Caric up to the modern language. The changes are roughly in chronological order, with changes that operate on the outcome of earlier ones appearing later in the list.

Pre-Silōs (pS)

This stage began with the separation of a distinct speech, perhaps while still forming part of the Proto-Coelo-Caric dialect continuum. It contained many innovations that were shared with Pre-Carichendan to various degrees, probably through areal contacts, and mutual intelligibility with other dialects would have remained for some time. It was nevertheless on its own path, whether dialect or language.

Denasalization of PCC */ʼn/ ([n̪], an interdental nasal stop):
  • Word-initially, it became a simple fricative — */ʼn/ > */ð/ — *ʼnakis "strength" > *ðakis > fais
  • Intervocalically, it dissimilated into a nasal cluster — */ʼn/ > */mð/ — *teʼni "name" > *temði > tevi
  • Word-finally, it merged with */m/
  • It is not certain whether this change or the precursors to such a change had already occurred in Proto-Coelo-Caric, as a similar change is observed in Pre-Carichendan.
Merging and affricatization of PCC */x/, */g/ into a new consonant, */ǯ/ [d͡ʒ] — *ča čenta "home world" > *ǯaǯenta > zazelta "Earth, the world"; *uxa "blue" > *uǯa > zva
  • Any instances of */t/ preceding either of these phonemes is absorbed into the affricate.
*/ŋ/ > */ɴ/ — *ŋa "to have" > *ɴa > a
Strengthening of PCC voiceless fricatives into plosives:
  • */ɸ/ > */p/ — *teɸ "two" > tep
    • Thanks to phonotactics, this change triggered a few changes in adjacent consonants, including very early instances of liquid:
    • Word-initially, */ɸn/ > */pl/ — *ɸnɔl "date" > *plɔl > Plōrmanzōmistufet "The Day of Five"
    • Intervocalically, */ɸn/ > */p/ — *teɸnɔe "speech, language" > *tepɔe > tepōi "language"
  • */þ/ > */t/ — *-þa "possession marker" > -ta
Lenition of the velar plosive */k/ to a new consonant, */x/ [x] (probably [h] in some environments) — *ʼnakis "strength" > *ðaxis > fais
*/ɔe/ > */ɔj/; */eɔ/ > */jɔ/ — *teɸnɔe "speech, language" > *tepɔj > tepōi "language"; *leɔ "that" > *ljɔ > liō "(s)he/it, this/that"
Hiatus epenthesis. The epentheme is */n/ if at least one of the vowels is */a/ and neither is */u/, unless there is a neighboring */n/ already present, in which case it is instead */j/. Otherwise, a new consonant, */w/, breaks the hiatus:
  • */VV/ > */VnV/ — *ð-a-ɔ-m-sats "in the perspective of going towards" > *ðanɔmsats > falusats "hello (polite)"
  • */VV/ > */VjV/ — *nɔam "we (inclusive or dual)" > *nɔjam > nōiav "we (inclusive)"
  • */VV/ > */VwV/ — *aue "you (plural)" > *awuwe > avuve
Merging of */j/ to */i/
In closed syllables, and when permitted by phonotactics, the reduction of the diphthong */iɔ/ into */iw/
Appearance of the closed vowel, phonemicising the reduced, nasal allophone */ɵ/ of */ɔ/ between nasal consonants — *ð-a-ɔ-m-sats "in the perspective of going towards" > *ðanɵmsats > falusats "hello (polite)"
*/ð/ > */v/

Primitive Silōs (PmS)

Coelo-Caric labial change: Chain shift of the labial consonants. Voice is no longer contrastive of the plosive consonants.
    • */b/ > */m/ > */w/ — *ba sɔh "four" > *masɔ > masō; *bene "large" > menenurive "large (in scope)"; *mee "from" > *we > ve; *hamen "five" > *awen > aven
*/wv/ > */w/

Old Silōs (OS)

*/ɵ/ > */ū/ — *ð-a-ɔ-m-sats "in the perspective of moving towards" > *vanwɵsats > *vanūsats > falusats "hello (polite)"
*/ɔ/ > */ō/ — *ð-ɔ-a-m-sats "in the perspective of moving away" > *vɔnwasats > *vōnwasats > fōlvasats "goodbye (polite)"
Liquid: in relatively unpredictable environments, the changes */n/ to */l/ and */l/ to */r/ occur, which may or may not occur in feeding order — *ɸmxala "time" > *pǯala > pzara; *sinɔ-s "one" > silōs
  • It is expected that this sound change operated for at least a moderate span of time.
*/ǯ/ > /z/ [ʒ] — *čtɔb "the sun" > ǯtōm > ztōm "(decimal) point, dot"

Phonological stages from Proto-Coelo-Caric to Modern Carichendan

The following changes are known or presumed to have occurred in the history of Carichendan in the wider sense from the end of Proto-Coelo-Caric up to the modern language. The changes are roughly in chronological order, with changes that operate on the outcome of earlier ones appearing later in the list.

Pre-Carichendan (pC)

This stage began with the separation of a distinct speech, perhaps while still forming part of the Proto-Coelo-Caric dialect continuum. It contained many innovations that were shared with Pre-Silōs to various degrees, probably through areal contacts, and mutual intelligibility with other dialects would have remained for some time. It was nevertheless on its own path, whether dialect or language.

Merging of non-high back vowels: */ɔ/, */a/ > */a/ — *nɔam "we (inclusive or dual)" > *naam > nami "we"
Reduction of open diphthongs: */ae/ > */a/; */ea/ > */a/ — *teɸnɔe "speech, language" > *teɸnae > *teɸna > dyela "to say"; *leɔ "that" > *lea > la "that"; *leɔlen "those" > *lealen > lálen
Prevention of open gemination: */aa/ > */a/; */ee/ > */ej/ — *nɔam "we (inclusive or dual)" > *naam > *nam > nami "we"; *ye mee "from" > *ye-mej > yamai
Stress accent on the vowel preceding the last consonant or hiatus in a word.
Liquid: in relatively unpredictable environments, the changes */n/ to */l/ and */l/ to */r/ occur, which may or may not occur in feeding order — *teɸnɔe "speech, language" > *tjena > dyela "to say"
  • It is expected that this sound change operated for at least a moderate span of time.
Denasalization of PCC */ʼn/ ([n̪], an interdental nasal stop):
  • Word-initially, it became a simple fricative — */ʼn/ > */ð/ — *ʼnakis "strength" > *ðakis > dakish
  • Intervocalically, it dissimilated into a nasal cluster — */ʼn/ > */mð/ (possibly */nð/) — *teʼni "name" > *temði > sandi
  • Word-finally, it merged with */m/
  • It is not certain whether this change or the precursors to such a change had already occurred in Proto-Coelo-Caric, as a similar change is observed in Pre-Silōs.

Primitive Carichendan (PmC)

Spiration of voiceless fricatives: The non-sibilant voiceless fricatives, */ɸ/, */þ/, and */h/, widely merge onto */h/, with some exceptions:
  • When */ɸ/ is adjacent to palatalization or the vowel */e/, it instead becomes */j/, probably at first [ç] — *teɸnɔe "speech, language" > *djeɸna > *djejna > dyela "to say"
  • A single example exists where */ɸ/ was preserved, later merging to */b/ — *ɸa "father" > banji "father", belaji "boy", banya "city"
  • This sound change coincides with the next one.
First palatalization:
  • The sequence */te/ merges to */se/ — *teɸ "two" > *seɸ > *saj > shai (from conflation with Hebrew and earlier *sai)
  • The sequences */it/ and */is/ merge to */ix/ — *ʼntitm inah "to work" > *ðtitminah > *ðtixminah > teshminá
  • An */e/ undergoes palatal diphthongization between a non-dorsal plosive and */n/:
    • */b(C)e(C)n/ > */b(C)je(C)n/ — *bene "large" > *bjene > byane "big"
    • */t(C)e(C)n/ > */d(C)je(C)n/ — *teɸnɔe "speech, language" > *teɸna > *djejna > dyela "to say"
    • Remaining instances of */tj/ become */dj/ — *tjɔya "dull" > *tjaya > *djaya > dyora
    • Resulting triphthongs are simplified:
    • */t(C)ejn/ */d(C)jejn/ > */d(C)jen/ — *teɸnɔe "speech, language" > *djejna > *djena > dyela "to say"
Coelo-Caric labial change: Merger of the labial stops.
  • */b/, */m/ > */m/ — *ba "four" > mala; *čtɔb tjɔya "dull sun(light)" > *čtamtjaya > cheundala "yellow"; *ye mee "from" > *ye-mej > yamai; *hamen "five" > *hamex > khamish
  • This change is prevented where there is adjacent palatalization:
  • */bi/ — *tyabi lale "dance" > jabilale
  • */by/ — *ye byi sen "nine, (lit.) lacking one from ten" > *ye-byi > yabi "nine"
  • */bj/ — *bene "large" > *bjene > byane "big"
Nasal harmony: A plosive at the end of a consonant cluster and with a neighboring nasal stop becomes a nasal stop — *(C)CPVN > *(C)CNVN, where C is any consonant, V is any vowel, P is any plosive, and N is any nasal consonant — *čtɔb tjɔya "dull sun(light)" > *čtamdjaya > *čnamdjaya > cheundala "yellow"
Appearance of the closed vowel, phonemicizing the reduced, nasal allophone */ɵ/ of */a/ (<*/a/, */ɔ/) between nasal consonants — *čtɔb tjɔya "dull sun(light)" > *čnamdjaya > *čnɵmdjaya > cheundala "yellow"
  • The phonemicization of the closed vowel occasionally removed minimal contrast previously supported only by the nasal triggers, allowing them to become deleted — *čtɔb tjɔya "dull sun(light)" > *čnɵmdjaya > *čɵmdjaya > cheundala "yellow"
*/ð/ > */d/ — *ʼnakis "strength" > *ðakix > *dakix > dakish

Old Carichendan (OC)

*/md/ > */nd/ — *teʼni "name" > *semdi > sandi
*/kn/ > */ŋn/ — *tsaknali "to know" > *tsaŋnali > tsangnali
*/nk/ > */ŋg/ — *sanka let "to buy" > *saŋgalet > sangarat