Proto-Settameric/Swadesh list

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No. English PS Notes
1 I *n- Appears as *-an (1st person transitive subject), *-kan (1st person intransitive subject).
2 you (sg.) *ki- Appears as *-akʷ (1st person transitive subject), *-kəxʷ (1st person intransitive subject).
3 we *mi-
4 this *ɣi Proximal marker, contransted with *jooθə - another proximate marker, the difference between them is not established.
5 that *ət Distal marker, far from both speaker and listener. Contrasts with *da as the medial-distance marker, far from speaker but close to listener.
6 who *kʷarsə Higher animate (used when talking about humans), contrasts with *tʰam, used with nouns of a lower animacy.
7 what *wat
8 not *kää- A prefix, used together with nominals.
9 all *lčus, *njumʼə
10 many *səłku-(t/s) The Western and the Far Eastern languages show a final *-t, while other languages point towards *-s instead.
11 one *njeem
12 two *meeja
13 big *ɣʷiin
14 long *kił
15 small *iłiiqʰi
16 woman *eełəŋ(kʼə) *kʼ only shows in the Western languages and Šillai (a Southern language).
17 man *jootuqʼee Problematic, as most languages have different words, like *(i)nees, or *ajtax (this word probably originally meant "husband").
18 person *nipeekʰ Derives from *ni- and *weekʰu "people".
19 fish *čʰuu, *qəqoon *qəqoon probably meant "salmon" and kept its original meaning in Western languages.
20 bird All branches show different words for "bird", such as *peeleeš, *lčaŋkłəs, or *cʼisqʷə.
21 horse *ilaar Dogs do not exist on Liifam, a word for "horse" is listed instead.
22 louse *θirxee
23 tree *čʰikʷee
24 seed *θalču(jŋə) The Western languages point to *θalču, while the Eastern languages point towards *θalčiiŋ.
25 leaf *pəlaŋqʼa
26 root *čʼəłəjip
27 bark (n.) *xeerɣʷa
28 skin *ʟuuqʼə, *θərə
29 meat *dääw, *diɣʷ Both *dääw and *diɣʷ gave words for "meat", but *dääw likely meant "cheek".
30 blood Reflexes of three different roots are found among different languages: *arə, *ałkʷə and *cʰooxi.
31 bone *łəqʷ, *xoockʼee
32 grease *woolxə, *njooš *njooš likely had an adjectival meaning of "containing a lot of fat".
33 egg *tqaalx The root *njujee, that evolved into words for "egg" in various languages, actually meant "caviar".
34 horn *wiiʟ
35 tail *čʼaakʼee, *ncaak The most common root that gave words for "tail" is *njaɣə (more precisely its doublet *ŋaɣə) "fish tail", while *čʼaakʼee "animal tail" is found only in the Southern branch. The root *ncaak probably meant "back".
36 feather *miixee, *miiqʷee The western languages point towards *miiqʷee, while the Southern show reflexes of *miixee. Various Eastern languages have reflexes of *iłoop-čə instead.
37 hair *ʟʼeepe
38 head *tʼuqʷ Various languages derive their words for "head" from *qamsə "face", *oori "forward", *čiiŋqə "forehead".
39 ear *ʟʼaatə, *noo(tə)x The root *noo(t)xə can not be easily reconstructed. It is only found among the Eastern languages and for some it can be reconstructed as *noox, while for others - *notxə. This is very likely a substrate word from an extinct lnguage.
40 eye *qʰałee
41 nose *łəqʼaw
42 mouth *qʷeeθ, *ooł The Far Eastern and the Southern langauges derive their word for "mouth" from *ʟʼeeqʷθə "throat".
43 tooth Various languages show reflexes of different roots: *qiɣee, *xecas, *əlʼəwnux ("tip", "blade"). *xecas often has the meaning of "fangs", while *qiɣee gives words for "needle".
44 tongue *qʰiił, *mqiił The root *mqiił looks like an old derivation of *qʰiił and likely meant "chewing". The meaning of "speaking" probably appeared from the contamination of a similar root *mqal "language".
45 fingernail Problematic, as various languages point to two roots *kʼwitʼə and *toonxə, both of which meant something related to animals, like"claws" or "scales".
46 foot *θitʼeeł
47 knee *pʼiqee, *aqeet Both roots could have meant "knee", based on the data from modern descendants.
48 hand *diim Most languages derive their words for "hand" from *-nulkʼ- ("carrying in hands"), or *-iq ("by" or "with").
49 belly *tʼaaka, *kʰis The root *kʰis likely meant "body". The Western languages derive their words from *wulun "round" instead.
50 neck *qʷaj The Eastern languages point to *səkʷeen "the rotating one".
51 breast *ipee
52 heart *tʼiŋqee, *łəmcas The Southern languages evolve their words for heart from *łəmcas, which meant "middle".
53 liver *(r/ł)aaqʷa, The Western languages show initial *r-, while the Eastern ones show *ł'-'. The Southern branch derives their words from *łiqʷ "meat", or *tʰištə "spleen".
54 drink *mɣoor
55 eat *qʼancə The Plain Eastern languages have *miis or *moos instead, the exact vowel can not be determined because of the sound change *oo>*ii in those languages. likely a substrate word.
56 bite *łəθkoo
57 see *noonʼə, *njən Likely old imperfective and perfective roots respectively. Most languages derive their words from both roots.
58 hear *meeʟʼ, *mi Likely old imperfective and perfective roots respectively.
59 know *qʰoom The Western languages derive their words from *fis "understand" instead.
60 sleep *kʼʷooł, *iłkʼʷə The root *iłkʼʷə is likely a later derivation of *kʼʷooł, and meant "to dream".
61 die *njapʰee, *likumʼə The root *njapʰee probably meant "dying of unnatural causes", while *likumʼə was likely "dying of old age".
62 kill *əłxəmʼa
63 swim *moor, *ool *ool meant "passive swimming" or "floating".
64 fly (v.) *njool, *njil Likely old imperfective and perfective roots respectively.
65 go *wii, *ʟʼaa
66 come *θoonʼə
67 lie *łiiʟʼee, *łooθa *łooθa probably meant "to lie down", but its reflexes often mean "to lie" in the daughter languages.
68 sit θliiqʷrə *θlaar *θlaar was a perfective root and meant "to sit down".
69 stand *ʟaa The Southern languages don't show this root, instead their words for "to stand" are derived from *ɣaap.
70 give No root can be reconstructed. Western languages show the root *-iq-, which also had the meaning of "carrying". Other languages have different roots and in the Eastern languages the verb "to give" has no root and its person and aspect affixes do not attach to anything.
71 say *qoołt
72 sun *cos All Eastern languages derive their word for "sun" from the root *kiŋ "day".
73 moon *lʼunčə
74 star *neejus
75 water *qʷʰee, *wʼeep The root *qʷʰee could mean "any liquid in general", not specifically "drinking water".
76 rain *ijʼu Some Southern languages point toward *jooɣʷ, which is the word for "dew" in the Western languages.
77 stone *njiɣee, *čikʷee The root *čikʷee probably meant "large rock".
78 sand *qʼoop, *iłxiθ
79 land *eemxə, *mʼee, *čakʰ Roots *čakʰ and *eemxə likely meant "dirt".
80 cloud *awʼaθa, *eensur *eensur gave words for "sky" in various languages. Some also derive them from awʼiin, that likely contained the older root for "cloud *awʼ-.
81 smoke *(a)wʼeečqee It contains the old root *awʼ-, but the initial *a- was lost in most languages.
82 fire *eeŋeeŋqʼʷə, *fleeŋqʼʷə Both roots contain *-eeŋqʼʷə of an unknown meaning.
83 ashes *kiflum, *pilaŋkʼee
84 burn *pooł, *qʷʰał
85 path *łəɣtə
86 mountain *mooθum
87 red *pʼač(-kə)
88 green *qʼoomi, *tqʼoom, *quuł Both *qʼoomi and *quuł often give words for "blue".
89 yellow *riiqu
90 white *eequ
91 black *quɣu
92 night *tʰax, *nääɣtə, *eetʰək
93 warm *pacʰee, *kʷääxi *kʷääxi meant "hot", while *pacʰee meant "mildly warm".
94 cold *kʼiiwŋə, *ljirqə *kʼiiwŋə meant "mildly cool", while *ljirqə meant "freezing, cold".
95 full *njuši
96 new *cʼiiwi, *setni
97 good *qarsi
98 round *wulun, *qʼʷeelxə, *duki
99 dry *qʼaarkə
100 name *qʰal The Southern and Far Eastern langauges derive their words for "name" from *akł- "to call" with the addition of suffixes *-iin, *-tee, or *-kə.