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'''Ash''' (''ahgaa'', lit. "seaspeak", pronounced IPA [ˈʔɑħˌqɑː]) is the anglicised name of a language mostly spoken around coastal areas, notably the town of Appa (''ahba''). Its speakers are familiar with technological advancements such as nautical vessels and steam locomotives.
The language is mildly synthetic to polysynthetic, largely based around agglutination with fusional elements. There is a great focus on verbs, nominals being mostly uninflected, and significant pro-drop tendencies and a general focus around deixis rather than pronominal distinctions. The word order is heavily SOV.
The Due to the small number of underlying sounds in Ash and their high degree of Ash are few enough that allophonicity, a simple listing of phonemes according to phonotactic patterning is preferable to more suitable than a traditional consonant table:and vowel trapezium.
{| class="wikitable"
! Glottal
| {{IPA|/ʔ~h/}}
! Nasal
{| class="wikitable"
| {{IPA|//ˈwat.haʔa.ka//}}| → {{IPA|/ˈwahˈwaʔ.taˌkata.ka/}}| → {{IPA|[ˈʔɔ̯ɑħ.t̠ɐˌɣɐt̠ɐ.ʁɐ]}}
| → ''oahdaga'' "during the day"
! {{IPA|//h-//}}
| [ħ.P]
| [ʔħ.P͡F]
| /ʔ.ᴰN/
Sometimes stems appear connected through no longer productive processes, such as ''ohwaʼmmohwa'' "cook", related also to ''oo''.
Deixis occurs in the form of isolated nominals ''ee'' and ''oo'' as well as verbal and possessive prefixes ''e-'' and ''o-''. Neutral deixis sometimes surfaces epenthetically Despite their conventional romanisation ''ee'' and ''oo'' are not pronounced *[-i̯eː-] and *[-u̯oː-]. They are respectively irregularly reduced forms of *''eyye'' and *''owwo'' that tend to blend into the next word, often as [-e̞(ː)ɪ̯]~[-e̞j-] and [-o̞(ː)ʊ̯]~[-o̞w-], but also with the glide assimilating, leading to forms such as [-ɪw-] and [-ʊj-]. This also goes for the proximal-proximal reflexive prefix ''aee-'' due (reduced from *''eye-'') and the distal-distal counterpart ''oo-'' (reduced from *''owo-''). However, in converbs such as the locative ''eeda'' "here" the underlying form is different and so the pronunciation is the expected [-i̯eː.ðɐ] (compare this to phonotactic constraints''ee go'' [-e̞ːɪ̯‿ɣʊ]~[-e̞ːɪ̯‿ɣo̞], but where the clitic is attached to the free-floating nominal and not underlyingly explicitly markedthe root). They can be thought of as *''ey'' and *''ow'' but due to their exceptionality and for consistency with the use of ''e'' and ''o'' for semivowels elsewhere (as in ''ae'' and ''ao'') it has been decided that they be spelled the way they are.
===Conjunct and disjunct verbs===
|phrase=emmõõ bo ao ehbadsas
|IPA=[ʔɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbo̞‿ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿je̞ħˈpɑʔʔɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbo̞ ˈʔɑːʊ̯ je̞ħˈpɑħ.t̠͡s̠ɐs̠]
|translation=Ao is braiding my hair
|phrase=ao go bahba e<u>hh</u>ee
|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯ ɣʊ ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ˈβɑħ.pɐ‿je̞çˈçi̯eːpɐ je̞çˈçi̯eː]
|gloss=ao TOP:ACT dog PROX-<u>TV</u>-see.ACT.IND
|translation=Ao is looking at the dog
|phrase=ao go bahba e<u>ss</u>ee
|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯ ɣʊ ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ˈβɑħ.pɐ‿jɪɕˈɕi̯eːpɐ jɪɕˈɕi̯eː]
|gloss=ao TOP:ACT dog PROX-<u>INV</u>-see.ACT.IND
|translation=Ao is being watched by the dog
|translation=I am looking at them
|translation=they are looking at me
|phrase=oadnaga ayesããsaesããs|IPA=[ˈʔɔ̯ɑʔ.ᵈn̠ɐˌɣɐ‿ʔɐɪ̯ˈz̠ɑ̃ːs̠ᵈn̠ɐ.ʁɐ ʔɐɪ̯ˈz̠ɑ̃ːs̠]
|translation=I wash in the morning
|phrase=oadnaga ao go awosãã aosãã ma|IPA=[ˈʔɔ̯ɑʔ.ᵈn̠ɐˌɣɐ‿ʔɑːʊ̯ ɣo̞‿ʔɐʊ̯ˈz̠ɑ̃ː mɐᵈn̠ɐ.ʁɐ ʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣo̞ ʔɐʊ̯ˈz̠ɑ̃ː‿mɐ]
|translation=Ao doesn't wash in the morning
|phrase=emmõõ bo ee ehbadsas
|IPA=[ʔɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbʊ‿ˈje̞j‿je̞ħˈpɑʔʔɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbʊ ˈje̞j‿je̞ħˈpɑħ.t̠͡s̠ɐs̠]
|translation=you are braiding my hair
|phrase=emmõõ bo ee eyebadsaseebadsas|IPA=[ʔɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbʊ‿ˈje̞j‿je̞ɪ̯ˈβɑʔʔɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbʊ ˈje̞j‿je̞ɪ̯ˈβɑħ.t̠͡s̠ɐs̠]
|translation=I am braiding my hair
|phrase=ao go bahba od<u>sãmm</u>oyya
|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯ ɣʊ ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ˈβɑħ.pɐ‿wo̞ʔˈt̠͡s̠ɑ̃mˌmʊjpɐ wo̞ʔˈt̠͡s̠ɑ̃mˌmʊj.jɐ]
|gloss=ao TOP:ACT dog DIST-TV-<u>water</u>-consume.CAUS.IND
|translation=Ao was giving the dog water to drink
|phrase=ao go bahba mehmee<u>da</u> odsãmmoyya|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯ ɣʊ ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ˈβɑħ.pɐ‿ˈme̞ħpɐ ˈmʲi̯eː.t̠ɐ‿wo̞ʔˈt̠͡s̠ɑ̃mˌmʊjðɐ wo̞ʔˈt̠͡s̠ɑ̃mˌmʊj.jɐ]
|gloss=ao TOP:ACT dog fire-<u>CVB:LOC</u> DIST-TV-water-consume.CAUS.IND
|translation=Ao was giving the dog water to drink by the fire
|phrase=[oo oahdaga bahba go ossoena]<sub>1</sub> [ee oahdaga esseenas]<sub>2</sub>
|IPA=[ˈʔo̞w‿ˈwɔ̯ɑħ.t̠ɐˌɣɐ t̠ɐ.ʁɐ ˈβɑħ.pɐ ɣo̞‿wʊs̠ˈs̠ʊːɪ̯pɐ‿ɣo̞ wʊs̠ˈs̠ʊːɪ̯.n̠ɐ ˈjɪw‿ˈwɔ̯ɑħ.n̠ɐ‿ˈje̞w‿ˈwɔ̯ɑħt̠ɐ.t̠ɐˌɣɐ‿jɪɕˈɕi̯eːʁɐ jɪɕˈɕi̯eː.n̠ɐs̠]
|gloss=[DIST shine.ACT.IND-CVB:DUR dog DIST-INV-consume.CAUS.TRANS.IND]<sub>1</sub> [PROX shine.ACT.IND-CVB:DUR PROX-INV-see.TRANS.IND-CONJ]<sub>2</sub>
|translation=[today I saw]<sub>2</sub> [the dog that (you) fed yesterday]<sub>1</sub>
|phrase=bahba go oada esseenas no?|IPA=[ˈbɑħ.pɐ ɣo̞‿ˈwɔ̯ɑːpɐ‿ɣo̞ ˈwɔ̯ɑː.ðɐ‿jɪɕˈɕi̯eːðɐ jɪɕˈɕi̯eː.n̠ɐz̠‿ᵈn̠ʊ]
|translation=have you seen the white dog?
==Locative verbs==
An important part of Ash grammar is an extensive set of so called locative verbs which are used almost like a noun classification system and cover location, motion and related concepts while providing specific information about the referent at hand, such as specifying whether liquid is involved. These also have reduced clitic forms used as topic markers. Some topic markers also exist that do not correspond to a locative verb, such as the oral ''o'', instead related to the active transitive verb ''oo'' "eat". Some locative verbs also retain non-locative meanings, such as the aerial ''see'', which in conjunction with the oral classifier, as ''osee'', means to "blow".
These are some of those verbs:
{| class="wikitable"
! LemmaLocative! Topic
! Gloss
! Semantic range
| ''laa''
| ''la''
| General stative (indefinite or permanent)
| ''goo''
| ''go''
| :ACT
| General active (temporary or dynamic)
| ''sãã''
| ''sa''
| :LIQ
| Water and other liquids
| ''see''
| ''se''
| :AER
| Air and weather
| ''boo''
| ''bo''
| Growth (hair, plants et c.)
| ''doo''
| ''do''
| Particles (powder, sand, dust, smoke, spores et c.)
| ''mee''
| ''me''
| :PYR
| Fire (by extension core or centre)
| ''baa''
| ''ba''
| Hand and instrumental (things held; implements and tools)
| —
| ''o''
| Mouth and food
|gloss=POSS-head TOP:STAT
|translation=head (on the body)
|phrase=՚mmõõ go
|gloss=POSS-head TOP:ACT
|translation=head (detached from the body)
|phrase=emmõõ bo ao ehbadsas
|IPA=[ʔɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbo̞‿ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿je̞ħˈpɑʔʔɪmˈmũ̯õ̞ː‿ᵐbo̞ ˈʔɑːʊ̯ je̞ħˈpɑħ.t̠͡s̠ɐs̠]
|translation=Ao is braiding my hair
|phrase=ao go bahba go ooda egoo
|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯ ɣʊ ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ˈβɑħ.pɐ ɣo̞‿ˈwu̯oːpɐ‿ɣo̞ ˈwu̯oː.ðɐ‿jɪˈɣu̯oːðɐ jɪˈɣu̯oː]|gloss=ao TOP:ACT dog TOP:ACT DIST-CVB:LOC PROX-CVB:LOC:ACT.STAT/ACT.IND
|translation=Ao and the dog are over there
|phrase=ao go ՚lgoo
|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯ ɣo̞‿ʔɬ̠̩ˈku̯oːˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣo̞ ʔɬ̠̩ˈku̯oː]
|translation=Ao moves (away)
|phrase=ao go ՚ŋgoo
|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯ ɣo̞‿ʔŋ̩ˈɡu̯oːˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣo̞ ʔŋ̩ˈɡu̯oː]
|translation=Ao moves (hither)
|phrase=ao go negoo
|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯ ɣʊ ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ɲɪˈɣu̯oː]
|translation=Ao is below
|phrase=ao go nelgoo
|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯ ɣʊ ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣʊ ɲɪɬˈku̯oː]
|translation=Ao moves down
|translation=by the (bottom of the) waterfall<br />(lit. "where water comes gushing down")
|translation=by the (top of the) waterfall<br />(lit. "where water goes gushing down")
|phrase=<u>dodsa</u> go nõŋgo oŋgoone?|IPA=[ˈd̠o̞ʔˈd̠o̞ħ.t̠͡s̠ɐ ɣʊ t̠͡s̠ɐ‿ɣʊ ˈn̠õ̞ŋ.ɡo̞‿wʊŋˈɡu̯oːɡo̞ wʊŋˈɡu̯oː.ɲɪ]
|translation=when does the <u>train</u> arrive?
|phrase=ewoe no
|IPA=[ʔɪˈwʊːɪ̯ n̠ʊʔɪˈwʊːɪ̯‿n̠ʊ]
|gloss=PROX-consume.ACT.OPT Q
|translation=perhaps I should eat something
|phrase=bahba go ewoe no
|IPA=[ˈbɑħ.pɐ ɣʊ‿jɪˈwʊːɪ̯ n̠ʊpɐ‿ɣʊ jɪˈwʊːɪ̯‿n̠ʊ]
|gloss=dog TOP:ACT PROX-consume.ACT.OPT Q
|translation=maybe the dog is hungry
|phrase=ao go ahbada esdsoes
|IPA=[ˈʔɑːʊ̯‿ɣo̞ ˈʔɑħ.pɐˌðɐ pɐ.ðɐ jɪɕˈȶ͡ɕʊːɪ̯ɕ]
|translation=I'm on my way to visit Ao in Appa
|translation=[when ](at) home
|phrase=ahbada esoonas
|IPA=[ˈʔɑħ.pɐˌðɐ pɐ.ðɐ jɪˈz̠u̯oː.n̠ɐs̠]|gloss=appa-CVB:LOC PROX-LOC:DOM.TRANS.IND-CONJ
|translation=I've moved to Appa
|phrase=meyya bahba go
|IPA=[ˈmᵇe̞jˈme̞j.jɐ ˈβɑħ.pɐ‿ɣʊ]
|gloss=fire-CVB:SEMB dog TOP:ACT
|translation=a brown dog
|phrase=meyya bahba go oada
|IPA=[ˈmᵇe̞jˈme̞j.jɐ ˈβɑħ.pɐ‿ɣo̞ ˈwɔ̯ɑː.ðɐ]
|gloss=fire-SEMB dog TOP:ACT shine.STAT.IND
|translation=a light brown dog

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