Swuntsim

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Swuntsim/Lexicon
Swuntsim Swadesh list
Swuntsim
təSfətsiv
Pronunciation /təˈsfətsiv/
Created by IlL
Setting Verse:Tricin
Language family
Tsimulh
  • Swuntsim
Writing system Windermere script
ISO 639-3

Swuntsim (SWUN-tsim; natively təSfətsiv /təˈsfətsiv/) is a modern Tsimulh language, inspired by Lushootseed and Welsh. It is the traditional vernacular language of the Swuntsim diaspora in Talma and Fyxoom, descending from Sacred Swuntsim.

Some typological characteristics:

  • It is an agglutinative SVO language with a moderately complex verb system.
  • It is pro-drop.
  • Head-directionality is mixed.
  • It has a simple grammatical gender system of animate-inanimate, but the much more complex Proto-Tsimulh noun class system has vestiges in noun pluralization.
  • It has no grammatical case.

Todo

  • -cütsi (8, various; pl) = 'hard, firm'
    • Scütsi (4, collectives and augmentatives) = personal name, meaning 'patient, enduring'
  • tjway (7, places, slots, assignments) = 'name' (a name is an assignment)
  • Yəy, yo fətjway? = Hello, what's your name?
  • Cətjway... = My name is...
  • Tidhavo! = See you!
  • ξəp (7) = world
  • ti-vayəξoe-σ = progressive
  • Initial ʔ conflated with null initial (because Talman langs don't make the distinction)
  • assimilation of cw, gw to c, g in syllables before c, g e.g. Ücwəgüsvaσ > Ücəgüsvaσ
  • i'ist = a name?

Some clusters such as t+s are broken up to təs.

Prefix sandhi rules

ladhfadh tidha'üs dhacwitj atsavochwe abchidf

Swuntsim gib

Ti'ə dhi'ə atsiσtovif o ti'iσ tühacw zichvidh tjəσ. Go tüasσaσe o tüdhi sfavats. Dhiσəf tü'üchw. Tüσaσe. Go tσüfi'fi'. Go dhiσ tədhəfüchs ogwə'. Go tüσaσe ogwə'.

Go avsvədhvədha' ogwə'. Avsvədhvədha' ogwə'. Go ti'e iσütσ vədha's ogwə' go əscupcup. Əscupcup. Fi gwədjəsədhəs gwədhəfü'ibəsjəs. Go dhay ti'ə tjotjosəs.

Tüasσaσe ti'ə yoyoavs 'o tüdhi' cif sfavats o ti'ə pədhhədhəv. Go ətəse. Go oe ti'iσ tσüsce ə ti'ə dhi'ə suaf, ti'ə di'ə tσfay'. tu'a go əsjavoicw ogwə' ə ti'iσ voəsuadhf i tə viatsəs süfifis ogwə'.

Go oeəf ti sətjites fə'o cwi sətəses. Go σü'ətσaf ogwə'. Σüvəvocwaf ogwə' fə'o ti'ə dhi'ə tjit σcütsidh ə ti'ə dhi'ə sə'eütsidh ə Fcov. A cwədhi' təsəsσaσes əgwə. Tu'a go, go ətσtfaf ogwə' ti'ə stavs ogwə' o ti'ə dhadhatü.

Tu'a go tsüttəvəf 'ə təsi'ə' dhi'ə sσadhəy ti'ə vədha'əs əscupcup. Ütsüütsəf. "Dhəfuüs sif ti'ə dhvədha'. Go chu tsədhiσ cwi səschwacw. Go fi' gwəsəshayfs gwəchəσəσəs chətj ti'ə vədha's. Chuəf ogwə' ü'ətσ. Ucwitsf ogwə' tə stavs ogwə' savgwasəs ogwə'.

Tu'a go hüyütsütəf ti'ə dhi'ə tsədhiσ vədha's ogwə' əscupcup. Cwədhadhəf ti'ə dhətjü' sitsəvs i ti'ə sca'sjədhs. Tu'a go tüzace. Dhiσ dhay sühüs ti süzaces. Go zəceəf fə'o ti'ə tactavats, ti stactavats stütoəf. Go titjiv ftactütsidh. Titjivəf. Go əschətσədh ti'ə sitsəvs. Go σoe ftactütsidh go zace ftact. Zəce ftact go σtje fə'o ti'ə 'əsgwigwoc. Go tichidh ti'ə sitsəvs üσəcw. Go atsəts o ti'iσ. Go σache. Go cov.

ceəf ti'ə yoyoavs. Tüsas'avgwas. Go fi'oüsvitəvəf go gwətjtəvaf. Cwədhtəvaf ftjadh cwi süchwəs, ftjadh cwi süchwəs. Ücwətəvaf gücwitəs. Go gwətəva'. Go gwəpəcw o ti stuəf. Tu'a go atsəts. Fi'əf gwəso'uüs ogwə'. Chuəf ogwə' ügwətjəv. Go chwi gwədhəchcwəfs ogwə' o ti'iσ dhəfüfs.

Numbers

Talman Swuntsim has a set of base 10 numerals inherited from Sacred Swuntsim. Unlike in Sacred Swuntsim, however, base 12 is usually used.

Numbers inflect for animacy, but only the first word in the whole numeral inflects: Number words beginning with sjü '1' inflect that word. Number words beginning with a number word other than 1 use ts- for animates. For example:

  • tsfisj 'two people'
  • a vo sdüch əσü '13 women' (Note singular form əσü is used for 'woman', not the plural tsəσü.)
  • fisj vo fisdüch viway '26 names'

The numbers: 0 ξoi 1 a (an.), sjü (inan; default) 2 fisj 3 iyəv 4 uzoc 5 tu 6 tjayəzj 7 vutjo 8 gwivə 9 aay 10 cwidh 11 səyeu 12 sdüch 13 sjüv vo sdüch 14 fisj vo sdüch 24 fisdüch 36 iyəvdüch 144. cme < cmen

Diachronical sketch

  • m n > v dh
  • sm sn > zv zd
  • b d > b d
  • g > gh > compensatory lengthening

Getting the aesthetic

  • > w when not word initial.
  • sb sd > zv zd
  • > f
  • ʔC > C: (geminate)
  • /ʔb ʔd/ > /b d/
  • Usacsj əsocwəv əzəpətj ef tüdjo = the living fish swims in water
  • əmam = mother; əpap = father
  • tüdjo = water
  • tjvic = house
  • üvC > uuC
  • yʔ, wʔ > y, w

Orthography

Talman Swuntsim is usually written in the Windermere script. Words from Sacred Swuntsim are written in the original Swuntsim orthography.

Phonology

Consonants

Like many Tsimulh languages, Swuntsim has no liquids in native words. However, liquids can occur in loaned vocabulary.

Swuntsim consonants
Labial Dental Palatal Velar Laryngeal Glottal
central lateral plain lab'zed
Nasal m m (n n) (ŋ ŋ)
Stop tenuis p p t t c k cw ' ʔ
voiced b b d d g g gw
Fricative voiceless f f s s σ ɬ sj ʃ ch χ chw χʷ h h
voiced v v dh ð
z z
zj ʒ
Affricate tenuis ts ts ξ tj
voiced dj
Approximant (r r) y j w w (l ɴ̆)

gw, chw become g, ch before rounded vowels /y u o/.

r, l, m, n, ŋ are mainly used in loanwords. m is found in a limited number of native words.

Geminates are allowed and are rendered by doubling (for digraphs, doubling the first consonant).

Some speakers in Skella may use intrusive L [ɴ̆~ʁ] as in non-nasal Skellan accents to prevent hiatuses.

Vowels

i ü u e ə o a /i ü u e ə o a/

Stress

Stress is not fixed, but will always fall on one of the two last syllables.

Morphology

Modern Swuntsim has lost the Proto-Tsimulh noun class system, which was still active in Sacred Swuntsim. Pronouns and verbs only agree in animacy and number.

Nouns

The genitive is marked with -s, but -əs after coronal fricatives: stsaσ 'a forest or similar collection' > stsaσəs 'of a forest'. It's a clitic, not a suffix.

-s- is often inserted between nouns in compounds.

Nouns with unmarked plurals and marked singulars are common. The singulative is marked with gü- in this case.

Original noun class prefixes:

  1. 'ə-, pl. cə-/c-
  2. u-, pl. də-/d-
  3. p-, pl. əpi-/əp-
  4. s-, pl. dus-
  5. s-, pl. pσə-/pσ-
  6. va-/və-, pl. əwə-/u-
  7. c-/tj-, pl. abi-/əb-
  8. sju-, pl. N-
  9. σi-/σ-, pl. wi-
  10. ti-/t-, no plural
  11. ti-, no plural
  12. pda-/pdə- (common for abstract nouns), no plural

Expected noun class affixes:

  1. 'ə-/0-, pl. tsə- = humans, spirits
  2. ü-, pl. də-/0- = animals and other things that move on their own
  3. p-, pl. əpi-/əp- = plants and mushrooms; things that grow
  4. s-, pl. düs- = collections or large things
    • 0-, pl. dü-
  5. s-, pl. pσə-/pσ- = roughly round, compact objects
  6. va-/v-/0-, pl. ü- = long objects; tools, instruments, devices
  7. tj-/k-, pl. vi-/əp- = places, locations, slots
  8. sj(ü)-, pl. 0- or dh- = various... including fluids (powder, water, liquids, fire, light, waves, wind, ...)
  9. σi-, pl. gwi- = time periods; events; things that are temporary (e.g. ice)
  10. t-, ti- = abstractions, manner, way, infinitives, verbal nouns (Class 10+11)
  11. pda- = -ness, -hood (Class 12)

Pronouns

  • co = I
  • fo = you (sg)
  • ot = we
  • tsü = you (pl)

Possessive pronouns

  • 1sg cwə-
  • 2sg fo-
  • 1pl gwə-
  • 2pl tsü-

Determiners

TODO: Separate forms for mass nouns

  • every, all: tsəcwach 'everyone, every (for animates)'; wəcwach 'all things (for inanimates)'; cwach 'everything; all (mass nouns)'
  • many: tsəzap 'many people'; wəzap 'many things'; zap 'much (mass nouns)'
  • few: tsədhuu 'few people'; wədhuu 'few things'; dhuu 'few (mass nouns)'
  • other: əchasj 'another person'; tsəchasj 'other people'; chasj 'other things'

Adjectives

Like in English, there is a class of adjectives, which denote relatively permanent states. Adjectives agree with the noun in animacy. and come after the noun.

Swuntsim has a class of adjectives (different from verbs):

  • Predicative: pəwayts o cütsi 'the tree is firm'
  • Attributive:
    • tjvits sj-cütsi 'firm house'
    • əsəye ə-cütsi 'firm spirit'

Verbs

The infinitive affix is t- for verb stems beginning with a vowel and ti- for verb stems beginning with a consonant.

Concord

The animate subject affix is ə- in the singular and tsə- in the plural. Verbs with inanimate subjects do not have any subject affix.

Personal affixes:

  • 1sg cwə-
  • 2sg fo-
  • 1pl gwə-
  • 2pl tsü-

Tense

Swuntsim has four tenses: present, past, perfect, and future. The auxiliary -tje is used for the future.

  • cwə-ts-dha'o 'I meet'
  • chə-cwə-dha'o 'I do not meet'
  • cwə-v-dha'o 'I met'
  • cwə-ya-dha'o 'I did not meet'
  • cwə-da-dha'o 'I have met'
  • cwə-day-dha'o 'I have not met'
  • hodha'o 'you (sg) meet'

etc.

  • cwətje tidha'o = I will meet

Mood

The imperative mood is formed as follows:

  • dha'o! = meet! (sg)
  • tsfdha'o! = meet! (pl)

Voice

Voices:

  • active
  • mediopassive: tσə-
  • applicative: gwiσ-
  • causative: u-

Some verbs are deponent (mediopassive for no reason)

Emphatic

One way to emphasize a verb is to place the emphatic clitic =tf after it.

Derivational morphology

  • -əσ = adverbializer
  • reduplication = verbalizer
  • sj- = transitivizer for verbs

Constructions

Modern Swuntsim is SVO and pro-drop:

Chə'əcwev təSfətsivəσ.
/χəˈʔəkʷev təsfəˈtsivəɬ/
chə-ʔə-cwev təSfətsiv-əσ
NEG.PRES-3SG.AN-say Swuntsim-ADV
He does not speak Swuntsim.
  • The copula is o.
  • The relativizer is i (from an interrogative *yi)
  • The complementizer is ti.

Adpositions consist of approximately equal number of prepositions and postpositions.

The constituent order is genitive-noun, noun-adjective, and noun-relative clause.

AdjN:

sjgwətjes zde
sj-gwətje-s s-de
SG.INAN-red-ATTR SG-flower
'red flower'

NGen:

tjway əd cwə'əmams
tj-way əd cwə-ʔəmam-s
SG-name SG-of 1SG-mother-GEN
'my mother's name'

NRel:

ətotj i agwiσcwəv'oəch tocadh
/ˈʔətotʃ i ʔagʷiɬkʷəvˈʔoəχ ˈtokað/
ə-totj i a-gwiσ-cwə-v-ʔoəch tocadh
SG-man REL 3SG.CL1-APPL-1SG-PAST-appoint yesterday
'the man I went out with yesterday'

VComp:

Cwəchsla' ti fəv'oəch s'a'adh ətotj tocadh
cwə-ch-sla' ti fə-v-'oəch s'a'adh ətotj tocadh
1SG-PRES-know COMP 2SG-PAST-appoint SG-man yesterday
'I know that you went out with the man yesterday'

Adpositions include:

  • ef = in
  • = accusative

"Have" construction

Swuntsim has no verb for "have"; instead the word djec 'with' is used.

co djec o tjvits
1SG with COP SG-house
"I have a house"

Vocabulary

Much of the vocabulary is native and inherited from Sacred Swuntsim - but there are a lot of reborrowings from Sacred Swuntsim. There are also loanwords from Anbirese, Windermere, and other Talman languages.