|Much of Txapoalli|
|Linguistic classification:||One of Tricin's primary language families|
The Tsimulh languages (Eevo: bo brits Tsimys, Windermere: fi imcduay Tsimăł, from Sacred Swuntsim tsiməσ, 'tribe', pl. of ʔiməσ 'tribesman') form the largest language family in Txapoalli. The proto-language is Proto-Tsimulh, whose aesthetics is inspired by Old Chinese and the Salish languages.
- -s: past tense, genitive
- -əσ: some adjectival suffix
- -iyad = augmentative
- relativizer/relative forms for verbs
- m n > Sf. v dh? (-tsiv in Swuntsim ~ Tsimulh?)
- N.tugəŋ = water (as a liquid) - Sf. tüdjo
- k.tugəŋ = body of water - Sf. tjtüdjo
- Work on Talman Swuntsim first
- Some Tsimulh langs should gain liquids only to lose them again
- Might not have ejectives
There are estimated to be over 1,400 Tsimulh languages, making it the second largest family in Tricin.
The four most well-known Tsimulh languages are Hetomic, Idosian, Swuntsim and Pelhyys. The others are spoken by small minorities.
Somewhere in Txapoalli
Most notably, Proto-Tsimulh had no liquids.
i u e a /i u ə a/
Proto-Tsimulh and Tsimulh languages are almost exclusively prefixing.
Proto-Tsimulh had a noun class system like the Bantu languages. There were 12 noun classes, which are numbered as follows:
- ʔə́-, pl. cə́- = humans, spirits
- bú-, pl. də́- = animals and other things (such as weather phenomena and organs) that sense or move on their own
- pà-, pl. pí- = most plants and mushrooms; things that grow, food
- sə̀-, pl. sì- = collections or large things
- sù-, pl. σə́- = roughly round, compact objects
- má-, pl. wə́- = long objects; tools, instruments, devices, food item
- kə̀-, pl. bí- = places, locations, slots
- gú-, pl. nə̀- = various... including fluids (powder, water, liquids, fire, light, waves, wind, ...)
- σí-, pl. wí- = time periods; events; things that are temporary (e.g. ice)
- tì- = abstractions, manner, way
- t’ímə̀- = infinitives, verbal nouns
- pə̀dá- = -ness, -hood
In Proto-Tsimulh, verbs and determiners agreed with their head nouns in number and noun class. The descendant Tsimulh languages can be divided into 5 types depending on the type of agreement system they have:
- Type A: Traditional, strictly formal (e.g. Sacred Swuntsim)
- Type B: Traditional with general animate concords (e.g. Hetmic; Pelhyys)
- Type C: Animacy-based SG/PL-marking (e.g. Talman Swuntsim)
- Type D: SG/PL-marking only (e.g. Idosian)
- Type E: No concords at all (e.g. [retroflexy tsimulh language])
Same as verbal concord affixes with the addition of a buffer affix
Noun class prefixes
TODO: Some of the class markers should be different from class markers on nouns.
- I = kʷə-
- you (sg) = xʷə-
- we = wə-
- you (pl) = cu-
- Noun class prefixes: Same as nominal ones
Some verbal infix, like 〈n〉
- recent past
- remote past
- irrealis (can be used alone or with a modal particle in daughter languages): dę-
The numerals 1-9 inflected for noun class; 10 and higher units did not.
maybe they'd have derivational prefixes that are a certain noun class like IE languages do