Ufirlandisg

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Ufirlandisg/Lexicon

Ufirlandisg (Ufirlandisg: ufirlandisg māl [ˈʊfʲɛːɫantʲɪsk ˈmɑːɫ] "highland-ish"; from PGmc *ubiri-land-iskaz) is an alternate history Germanic language whose phonology is partly inspired by Mandarin, Burmese and RP. It is spoken in our world's Austria, and belongs to the Thedic branch of Germanic like its sister Thedish.

TODO

Let me try Sino-RP in Germanic.

Final -d, -d́ lenite to -:, -j > falling tone?

Final -t becomes glottal stop > rising tone

Phonology

Orthography

Consonants

Consonant phonemes
Labial Dental/Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
plain pal. plain pal.
Nasal m m n
Stop
/Affricate
tenuis b p d , z t̪s dr ź, ǵ g k
aspirated p pʲʰ t t̪ʰ tʲʰ tr tʂʰ tɕʰ c
Fricative f f s s sr ʂ ɕ h h
Approximant central w w wi ɥ r ɹ j j
lateral l l~ɫ

Ufirlandisg has an aspiration distinction in stops; however, the distinction is neutralized in word-final position.

Glottal reinforcement is used, as in RP.

When consonants written with an acute accent is followed by a vowel, the acute accent is replaced with an i (except with /i/ and /iː/).

  • Broad /l/ is only dark in coda position

Vowels

Vowel phonemes
Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i /i/, ü, ui /y/ ī /iː/, ǖ, uī /yː/ u /u/ ū /uː/
Close-mid e /ə/ ē /ɤː/
Mid (i)a, (ü)e, (u)e [æ~ɛ] (i)ā, (ü)ē, (u)ē [æː~ɛː] [ə] (u)ō /ɔː/
Open a /a/ ā /aː/

Semivowel onglides: ü u /ɥ w/

Diphthongs: ai au iu /aj aw jəw/

In unstressed syllables, the hard vowels a, e correspond to the soft vowels ie/üe, i.

Tone

Ufirlandisg, like Mandarin and Swedish, is a tonal language.

Prosody

Stress

Primary stress is word-initial except for certain prefixes. There is secondary stress in every compound word component.

Morphology

Nouns

Ufirlandisg nouns do not inflect by case. Plurals are most often formed by tone change: dal /tal1/ 'valley', dale /tal2/ 'valleys'. Sometimes they are formed with -r (which amounts to adding a word final schwa): name /nam2/ 'name', namer /namə/ 'names'.

Pronouns

case 1sg. 2sg. 3sg. 1pl. 2pl. 3pl. reflexive
'he' 'she' 'it'
nom. jac /jaʔ¹/ jūr /joː(ɹ)¹/ ir /ɛː(ɹ)¹/ /ɕɪj¹/ it /jɪʔ¹/ sum /sʊŋ¹/ jūr /joː(ɹ)¹/ niā /njɑː(ɹ)¹/ -
acc. mic /mɪʔ¹/ jou /jəʊ¹/ zina /tɕɪŋ²/ zije /tɕɪj²/ it /jɪʔ¹/ unś /ũːɕ¹/ jou /jəʊ¹/ ziā /tɕɑː(ɹ)¹/ sic /ɕɪʔ¹/
dat. mir /mjɛː(ɹ)¹/ jou /jəʊ¹/ zime /tɕɪŋ²/ ziarer /tɕɑː(ɹ)²/ zime /tɕɪŋ²/ unś /ũːɕ¹/ jou /jəʊ¹/ zim /tɕɪŋ¹/ sir /ɕɛː(ɹ)¹/
poss. mīn /mɪ̃j¹/ jour /jɛː(ɹ)¹, jə(ɹ)¹/ zias /tɕəs¹/ ziar /tɕɑː(ɹ)¹/ zias /tɕəs¹/ unsier /ũːɕə(ɹ)/ jour /jɛː(ɹ)¹, jə(ɹ)¹/ ziara /tɕɑː(ɹ)²/ sīn /ɕɪ̃j¹/

Adjectives

Most adjectives take -a (for hard stems) or -ie (for soft stems) if it is definite OR plural: cf.

  • se liawa watinı 'the lukewarm water'
  • liau watinı 'lukewarm water'
  • se watinı iś liau 'the water is lukewarm'
  • māra bāce 'big books'
  • se bāce ir māra 'the books are big'

The comparative and superlatives are formed by the suffixes -ier and -sd: suōt, suōtier, suōtsd 'sweet, sweeter, sweetest'.

There are a few irregular adjectives, which are listed in the table below.

Meaning Positive Comparative Superlative
"good" gād /kɑː²/ batier /patjə(ɹ)/ basd /paht¹/
"bad" druk /tʂʊʔ¹/ wirsier /ɥœːɕə(ɹ)/ wirsd /ɥœːht¹/
"many" miciel /mɪt͡ɕəɫ/ mēr /mɜː(ɹ)¹/ mēsd /mɤːht¹/

Verbs

Verbs have three paradigms: athematic stems, thematic a-stems and thematic i-stems.

Most verbs have three principal parts: the present stem (remove the -n from the infinitive), the past stem and the past participle. The past subjunctive always uses the past participle stem.

Thematic verbs

-en verbs

This is the most productive class of verbs.

maken 'to make'
tense jak/niā jūr/ir/sī/it/sum
present make [maʔ²] maked [maʔkʰə(ɹ)]
past indicative makedie [maʔkʰɪj] makedie [maʔkʰɪj]
imperative - mace! [maʔ²]
present participle makend [maʔkʰənʔ]
past participle makedie [maʔkʰɪj]

Also: liaufen [ljaʊfən] 'love', lirnen [ljɛːnən] 'learn'

-ien verbs
rēcen 'to reach'
tense jak/niā jūr/ir/sī/it/sum
present rēce [ɹɤːʔtʃ²] rēced [ɹɤːʔtʃʰə(ɹ)]
past indicative rēcedie [ɹɤːʔtʃʰɪj] rēcedie [ɹɤːʔtʃʰɪj]
imperative - rēce! [ɹɤːʔtʃ²]
present participle rēcend [ɹɤːʔtʃʰənʔ]
past participle rēcedie [ɹɤːʔtʃʰɪj]

Also: arbēdien 'work'; haurien 'hear'; lērien 'teach'; sagien 'say'; ertalien 'tell, recount'; ranien 'run (transitive), execute, set into motion'

Verbs like e.g. bringin, bragtie, bragt 'bring'; bugin, bugtie, bugt 'buy'; zancin, zagtie, zagt - 'think' form a small subclass of the -in verbs.

Athematic verbs

Weak
Strong class 1
bīten 'to bite'
tense jac/niā jūr/ir/sī/it/sum
present bīte /piːʔ²/ bīted /piːʔə(ɹ)/
past indicative bēt /pɤːʔ¹/ bēt /pɤːʔ¹/
past subjunctive biti /pɪʔɪ/ biti /pɪʔɪ/
imperative - bīt! /piːʔ²/
present participle bītend /piːʔənʔ/
past participle biten /pɪʔən/

Also: sgīnen, sgēn, sginen 'shine', drīfen, drēf, drifen 'drive', clīfen, clēf, clifen 'stick, cling', rīten, rēt, riten 'write'

Strong class 2
fliaugen 'to fly, flee'
tense jak/niā jūr/ir/sī/it/sum
present fliauge /tʃaʊs²/ fliauged /tʃaʊsə(ɹ)/
past indicative flaug /ˈkʰaʊs¹/ flaug /ˈkʰaʊs¹/
past subjunctive flugi /ˈkʰʊɹɪ/ flugi /ˈkʰʊɹɪ/
imperative - fliaug! /tʃaʊs²/
present participle fliaugend / /tʃaʊsənʔ/
past participle flugen /ˈkʰʊɹən/

Also: biauden, baud, buden 'offer, bid', biaugen, baug, bugen 'bow', fliaugen, , flugen 'fly', fliawen, flau, fluwen 'flee, escape', friausen, fraus, fruren 'freeze'

Strong class 3
binden 'to tie, to bind'
tense jac/niā jūr/ir/sī/it/sum
present bindie bindied
past indicative band band
past subjunctive bundi bundi
imperative - bind!
present participle bindend
past participle bunden

Also: bieginen, biegan, biegunen 'begin'; drincen, dranc, druncen 'drink'; finzen, fanz, funzen 'find'; grinden, grand, grunden 'grind'; rinen, ran, runen 'run'; sbringen, sbrang, sbrungen 'burst, explode'; simben, samb, sumben 'sing'; wierpen, warp, wurpen 'throw'; źrimben, zramb, zrumben 'press, force, push through'

Strong class 4

In Ufirlandisg, Proto-Germanic class 3b strong verbs have merged with class 4 strong verbs.

biaren 'to carry'
tense jac/niā jūr/ir/sī/it/sum
present biarie biaried
past indicative bar bar
past subjunctive buri buri
imperative - biar!
present participle biarend
past participle buren

Also: briaken, brak, bruken 'break', niamen, nam, numen 'take', piamen, pam, pumen 'come', sbriaken, sbrak, sbruken 'speak', sdialen, sdal, sdulen 'steal', hialpen, halp, hulpen 'help', driasg, drasg, drusgen 'thresh', sdiarf, sdarf, sdurfen 'die'

Strong class 5
giafen 'to give'
tense jac/niā jūr/ir/sī/it/sum
present giafie giafied
past indicative gaf gaf
past subjunctive giafi giafi
imperative - giaf!
present participle giafend
past participle giafen

Also: driapen, drap, driapen 'hit, meet', fergiaten, fergat, fergiaten 'forget', liasen, las, liaren 'read', siawen, saw, siawen 'see'. There are also the j-present verbs bidin, bad, biaden 'beg, pray', ligin, lag, liagen 'lie'

Strong class 6
grafen 'to dig'
tense jac/niā jūr/ir/sī/it/sum
present grafie grafied
past indicative grāf grāf
past subjunctive grafi grafi
imperative - graf!
present participle grafend
past participle grafen

Also: faren, fār, faren 'spread', slagen, slāg, slagen 'strike', sdanden, sdānd, sdanden 'stand', wagsen, wāgs, wagsen 'grow', wasgen, wāsg, wasgen 'wash', jaten, jāt, jaten 'eat' (reclassified from class 5)

Strong class 7

hēten, hīt, hīten - to be called

laupen, liaup, liaupen - to jump, leap

sdauten, sdiaut, sdiauten - to bump, collide, crash

hald, hiald, hialden - to hold

liāten, līt, liāten - to let

siān, siādie, siād - to sow (regularized)

Preterite-present verbs

witen 'to know'
witen 'to know'
tense jac/jūr/ir/sī/it/sum/niā
present indicative wōt
present subjunctive witi
past indicative wisdie
past subjunctive wisdi
imperative wit!
present participle witend
past participle wisd
cunen 'can, be able to'
cunen 'can'
tense jac/jūr/ir/sī/it/sum/niā
present indicative can
present subjunctive cuni
past indicative cundie
past subjunctive cundi

Similarly sgulen 'should', zurfen 'have to'.

magen 'may'

The present forms of this verb are derived from PGmc *maganą (~ Eng. may, might), and the past forms are from PGmc *mōtaną (~ Eng. must).

magen 'may'
tense jac/jūr/ir/sī/it/sum/niā
present indicative mag
present subjunctive magi
past indicative māsdie
past subjunctive māsdi

Other irregular verbs

wilen 'want to, will'
wilen 'want to, will'
tense jac/niā jūr/ir/sī/it/sum
present indicative wīd
present subjunctive wili wilid
past indicative wildie wildie
past subjunctive wildi wildi
biaun 'be'
biaun 'to be'
tense jac jūr ir/sī/it sum niā
present indicative im ired/ir irem/ir ir
present subjunctive sije sijed sijed sijed sije
past indicative was wiēra was wiēra wiēra
past subjunctive wiēri wiēri wiēri wiēri wiēri
imperative - biau! - - -
present participle wiesend
past participle wiēren
han 'have (auxiliary)'
han 'to have (auxiliary)'
tense jac/niā jūr/ir/sī/it/sum
present indicative ha had
present subjunctive hafi hafid
past indicative hadie hadie
past subjunctive hadi hadi
imperative - ha!
present participle hafind
past participle had
dān 'do'
dān 'to do'
tense jac/niā jūr/ir/sī/it/sum
present dād
past indicative diadie diadie
past subjunctive diadi diadi
imperative - dā!
present participle dānd
past participle dān
gān 'go'
gān 'to go'
tense jac/niā jūr/ir/sī/it/sum
present indicative gād
past indicative giang giang
past subjunctive giangi giangi
imperative - gā!
present participle gānd
past participle giangen

Also: fān - to get, to obtain

Derivational morphology

  • and-: 'de-, dis-'
  • bie-: "be-", forms applicatives
    • biecrīten 'complain about' < crīten 'complain'
    • bierīten 'describe' < rīten 'write'
    • biesingen 'praise' < singen 'sing'
  • -bier: '-able'
    • jatebier 'edible' < jaten 'to eat'
  • er-: telic, ~ German er-
  • fer-: "for-"
    • ferwundran 'surprise, amaze' < wunder 'wonder, miracle'
  • fur-: "fore-"
  • -ful: "-ful"
  • ge-
    • gebiaren 'give birth' < biaren 'bear, carry'
  • -hēd: -ness, -hood
  • -ig: forms adjectives from nouns
  • -laus: "-less"
  • -ling: "-ling"
  • -lik: "-ly"; forms adjectives from nouns
    • wurdlik 'literal' < wurd 'word'
  • mis-: "mis-"
  • -nes: forms nouns from verbs
  • -sam: "-some"
  • un-: "un-" (negation or opposite)
    • unrāwa 'unrest, unease'
  • -unga: forms nouns from verbs
    • hētiunga 'heating' < hētin 'to heat'

Prepositions

Like in German, prepositions govern certain defined cases and change meaning based on the case of the noun. Prepositions may govern the nominative (accusative for pronouns) or the genitive (dative for pronouns). Ordinals are formed with the suffix -za.

  • an = (+ acc) onto; (+ dat) on
  • fur = (+ acc) for; (+ dat) before
  • gagin = (+ acc) against
  • in = (+ acc) into; (+ dat) in
  • mid́ = (+ dat) with
  • ta = (+ dat) to, towards
  • tuigs (+ acc/dat for movement resp. location) between
  • ufir = (+ acc/dat for movement resp. location) across, over
  • undier = (+ acc/dat for movement resp. location) under, between, among
  • wizer = (+ acc) at, next to, by
  • zank = (+ dat) thanks to

Numbers

Base-120 system.

  • 1: ēn /ɤːn/ (ordinal ērsd)
  • 2: tuō /tʰwɔː/ (ordinal anzier)
  • 3: zrī /tsrʲiː/
  • 4: fiur /fʲʊr/
  • 5: finf /fʲinf/
  • 6: siags /ʃaks/
  • 7: süef /ʃɥœf/
  • 8: agta /ˈaːktʰa/
  • 9: niaun /nʲaun/
  • 10: tiaun /tʲʰaun/
  • 11: ēnlif
  • 12: tuōlif
  • 13: zrītiun
  • 14: fiurtiun
  • 15: finftiun
  • 16: siagstiun
  • 17: süeftiun
  • 18: agtiun
  • 19: niauntiun
  • 20: tuōntig
  • 30: zrītig
  • 40: fiurtig
  • 50: finftig
  • 60: siagstig
  • 70: süeftig
  • 80: agtig
  • 90: niauntig
  • 100: tiauntig
  • 110: ēnliftig
  • 120: hundrad
  • 14400: zūsand́

Syntax

Constituent order

Word order is SVO, and VO in imperatives. Questions may use a question particle jez at the end, but this is optional.

Sī iś mīn lēraŕ.
She is my teacher.
Giasdern jac giang bugin ubati.
Yesterday I went to buy fruit.
Nie wōt jūr zat jez?
Don't you know that?
Jat sīn krūtsakar!
Eat your vegetables!

Verbs are negated with nie placed before the verb:

Jac nie fersdanda huat sagid jūr.
I don't understand what you're saying.

Noun phrase

Both adjectives and genitives follow nouns.

Verb phrase

Sentence phrase

Dependent clauses

Example texts

Featured language banner

Zis sbriakmāl was ēns furrigtid.
/tɕɪs sprʲaʔmɑːɫ was ɤ̃ːs foːrɪjtɪj/
This language was once featured.
Zank zias miāt af fullikhēt, fīnhēt auk brūklikhēt, sum sdamnidie it ta furrigtin.
/tsãʔ tɕəs mjɑːʔ əʊ fʊlɪʔɤːʔ, fɪ̃jxɤːʔ aʊʔ bɹʊuʔlɪʔɤːʔ sʊŋ stamnɪj ɪʔ tə foːrɪjtɪŋ/
Thanks to its level of quality, plausibility and usage features, it has been voted as featured.

Phrasebook

  • Gād murgen! [kaːt ˈmʊrkɨn] - Good morning!
  • Gād dag! [kaːt tak] - Hello! Good day!
  • Gād üēfend! [kaːt ˈɥœːfɨnt] - Good evening!
  • Gād nātie! [kaːt ˈnaːtʰʲɛ] - Good night!
  • Wialkumen! [ˈɥœɫkʰʊmɨn] - Welcome!
  • Hēta jac... [ˈhɤːtʰa jak...] - My name is...
  • Zanke! [tsaŋkʰə] - Thank you!
  • Mir/Unś iś rǖ. [mʲɪr/ʊnʃ ɪʃ rʲyː] - I'm/We're sorry.
  • Nie sbriaka jac Ufirlandisg. - I don't speak Ufirlandisg.

Other resources