Difference between revisions of "Azalic"

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***a Lushootseed/Celtic-like language
 
***a Lushootseed/Celtic-like language
 
**[[Đâu-Gequơxex]]
 
**[[Đâu-Gequơxex]]
**[[Chuaimisc]]
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**[[Khuamisht]]
 
**something with ejectives
 
**something with ejectives
  

Revision as of 17:09, 13 September 2019

Azalic/Lexicon

Azalic (Togarmite: lysėnėþil Azalijel; Proto-Azalic: Əngoilin voiq̇) is an imagined Indo-European branch, intended to serve as an alternate possible diachronics of the English language.

The name Azalic is derived from Azal, a Persian cognate of Əngoil /ˈəngojl/, the legendary mother of the Azalic people (cognate of Ahalyā in Hindu mythology).

Urheimat

The Proto-Azalic Urheimat is believed to be Armenia and Azerbaijan.

Family tree

Phonology

Inspirations: Vietnamese, Armenian, literally read Irish

m n bh dh gh ᵹh p t c q ph th ch qh ṗ ṫ ċ q̇ s ṡ h l r y v

/m n bʰ dʰ gʰ gʷʰ p t k kʷ pʰ tʰ kʰ kʷʰ f θ x xw s z h l r j w/

Nota Bene: The stops and vowels had a wide variety of dialectal realizations, as in Modern Armenian. Some Proto-Azalic dialects had realizations of the stops that are much closer to Sanskrit; this is reflected in loans from those dialects in English, like dream <- *troimə (pronounced /drəɨmə/ in the dialect).

Vowels: e i o u ə é í ó ú oe aw eo ou ieu ia ua /e i o u ə e: i: o: u: oe əɨ eo əu iəu iə uə/ + offglides in -i; allophonic Open Syllable Lengthening


Reflexes:

  • oi > uə
  • iH > i:
  • ei > oə, sometimes iə
  • ē > e:
  • e, i > e, i
  • uH > u:
  • u > u (needs umlaut)
  • ou > əɨ
  • eu > əɨ (iəu in some words)
  • o > o (needs umlaut)
  • oH, ô, eh2, eh3 > əu
  • enC > oeC
  • onC > əuC
  • nC > eoC

h1oinos, dwoh1, treyes, kwetwores, penkwe, sweks, septm, oktōw, h₁néwn̥, deḱm -> xuən, təu, tʰriə~tʰre:, pʰoþur, pʰoəxw, seks, sefn, oxʰtəu, nəɨn, texn~te:n

huon, tou, thré, phoṫur, phoeq̇, secs, seṗn, ohtou, nawn, teċn/tén

h₃nómṇ > *nomə > L-MidE name > name

Morphology

Nouns

Proto-Azalic had a highly eroded case system. The notation (i) denotes "i-umlaut" or a j-offglide on the nucleus.

  • dir. -0, (i)
  • voc. (i), (i)
  • obl. (i)~(i)-ə~ə, -su~-ṡu
  • gen. -is, (i)-is~-ə
  • lat. -ther, (no pl)


vəlqh 'wolf'
Case Singular Plural
Nominative vəlqh vəilqh
Vocative vəilqh vəilqh
Genitive vəlqhəis vəilqhis, vəlqhə
Oblique vəilqhə vəilqhsu
Lative vəlqhthir -


qenə 'lady; wife'
Case Singular Plural
Nominative qenə qenəh
Vocative qenə qenəh
Genitive qenəis qenə
Oblique qenə qenəṡu
Lative qenəthir -


ghous 'goose'
Case Singular Plural
Nominative ghous ghouis
Vocative ghouis ghouis
Genitive ghousəis ghouisis, ghousə
Oblique ghouis ghoussu
Lative ghousthir -

Adjectives

Adjectives were uninflected, because they were split off from adjective-noun compounds.

Pronouns

The conjunctive pronouns were used as pronominal subjects in unmarked sentences. The disjunctive pronouns were used as direct, indirect or prepositional objects and in sentences such as:

  • It est mé "It's me".
  • ne jú 'not you'
  • Mé, iċ oil chuamə. 'Me, I'm going home.'
1sg. 2 (number neutral) 3sg. proximal 1pl. 3pl; 3sg distal
(unmarked) rude 'he' 'she' 'it'
Conjunctive júh ṫú cheh it, 't wia ṫoeh
Disjunctive ṫé chem chéh it, 't əs ṫem
Possessive moenə jurə ṫoenə chessə chéṡə essə eosərə ṫoerə

Verbs

-eh2ti > -ə; -yeti, -eyeti > (i)-ə

The original PIE personal affixes were lost. When the subject was nominal singular, "he", "she" or "it", the suffix -se (from PIE *swe) was required for verbal agreement. The 2sg and 3sg distal pronouns were number neutral so they didn't take -se.

The different forms were:

  • Imperative (source of English imperative): non-past without any endings
  • Nonpast (the source of the English present): e-grade or otherwise the unmarked form of the verb
  • Past: PIE reduplicated perfect or root aorist
  • Irrealis (source of the English subjunctive, including were): sigmatic future.
  • Stative (the source of the English past): a tenseless form like the Akkadian stative. Originally a deverbal noun; formed with the o-grade (deriving nouns in PIE) for strongs, -dh from -tús (with random voicing) for weaks, (i)-ə from -ih2 for semistrongs. It was not a true finite verb form so it didn't take -se.
    • Some modal verbs in English, such as can, will, shall, may, must, ought, come from statives and thus are called stative-present verbs.
  • Active participle: -ənt
    • -ənt-qhe became the present progressive -ing in English.
  • Passive participle (source of English past participle): zero-grade with -n from -nós, or -dh from -tós

Proto-Azalic had at least three distinct verb paradigms:

  • The weak verbs became the English weaks
  • The strong verbs became the non-class 7 strongs in English (e.g. bind)
  • The semistrong verbs became the class 7 strongs such as fall, hold, grow, know
Verb conjugation
Weak: luṗə 'love' Strong: bhendh 'bind' Semistrong: choldh 'grasp'
Imperative luṗə bhendh choldh
Nonpast luṗə(-se) bhendh(-se) choldh(-se)
Past leluṗə(-se) bhəndh(-se) cechəldh(-se)
Irrealis luṗəṡə(-se), luṗəh(-se) bhendhəṡə(-se), bhendhəh(-se) choldhəṡə(-se), choldhəh(-se)
Stative luṗədh bhondh choildhə
Active part. luṗənt bhəndhənt choldhənt
Passive part. luṗədh bhəndhən choldhən

Syntax

Constituent order

  • SVO, VSO in questions or for emphasis
  • Prepositions over postpositions
  • Adjectives and genitives before nouns; relative clauses after nouns.