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Togarmite/Swadesh list
דף זה בעברית
Pronunciation /θegamiθ/
Setting Lõis's Levant, North Africa, Ethiopia, and Mexico
Language family
Writing system 토갊글 (a form of linear Hangul)

Togarmite (Þėgamiþ /θegamiθ/ or yn lysėn Þėgami) is a "stem-Canaanite" Semitic language. It is inspired by Hebrew, Lithuanian, Germanic languages (particularly Icelandic) and Alashian, another stem-Canaanite conlang.

Modern Togarmite retains the Semitic root-and-pattern morphology of Old Togarmite, but has undergone some phonological and grammatical restructuring, taking features of the Turkey-Northern Levant-Iranian sprachbund, in common with L-Persian, Padmanābha and English:

  • Grimm's law: The Old Togarmite aspirated stops φ θ χ (from Proto-Semitic *p t k) generally become spirants /f θ x/.
  • loss of grammatical gender
  • loss of the passive binyanim
  • loss of the suffix conjugation except in a few verbs
  • the use of the w-form (inherited from the Old Togarmite waw-consecutive) for the present progressive, mirroring English -ing < PIE *-nd-kwe
  • the development of a productive concatenative verb paradigm used to form verbs from other words, analogous to Germanic weak verbs


  • Gzarot
  • Syntax
  • Declensions
  • A bit more arabic isoglosses
  • Prepositional pronouns
  • more binyanim like safȝel, þafȝel, asøfȝel, þasøfȝel and þystyfȝel?


The Old Togarmite name for the language, Θėgammīθ, is thought to have been borrowed from a pre-Togarmite source *Tāgarma. The name Togarmah from the same source is also attested in the Hebrew Bible. (The Greeks and the Romans called the Togarmite people Θηγαρμικοί and Thegarmici respectively.) The name of the language shows the Togarmite shift of Proto-Semitic ā to ė /e:/, mirroring the Canaanite shift ā > ō occuring in its close relative Hebrew.



Togarmite has 23 consonants, 22 of them inherited from Proto-Semitic. It gained /p/ during the Old Togarmite stage by adapting loans from Greek, Aramaic and Persian, e.g. parkes 'to act', from Ancient Greek praxis. It also merged Old Togarmite ħ /ħ/ and h /h/ into h /h/.

  • m n /m n/
  • p t c k ' /p t ts k ʔ/
  • b d g /b d g/
  • f þ s š x h /f θ s ʃ x h/
  • w z ž ȝ /v z ʒ ɣ/
  • l r j /l r j/


Modern Togarmite has 9 vowels in stressed syllables.

a e ė i o ø u y /ɑ ɛ e i o ø u (ə)/

ei au /ai øy/


Stress is always weakly initial. Prepositions in prepositional phrases are also stressed.


In addition to the Hebrew and Avestan alphabets, Togarmite uses an abugida (a form of linear Hangul) based on the Phoenician alphabet, called yn albėþ (after the first 2 letters).

The abjadi letter names: al, bėþ, gam, dal, hė, wau, zėn, žėn, tėþ, jød, xaf, lam, mėm, nun, ȝėn, fė, pė, cad, køf, rėš, sin, šin, þau


Ethiopian dialect

some different vocab e.g. þėþ instead of wyhėb for 'give', døbrėn instead of þėma for 'topic'

some words can have different meanings in Ethiopian and Levantine leading to some funny misunderstandings

phonological differences ("ear" -> ødny)

a e ė i o ø u y [a e̞ ɛi i ɔ ɵ u (ə)]
ei au [ɒi ø:~øo]

a broad Ethiopian accent in Togarmite has random variation in some words like heno, šamo, šydo etc are pronounced hena, šama, šyda

-an -> -en is common in a broad Ethiopian accent (darxan -> darxen); this should typically happen only with agentives, otherwise møsaxen / møsaxan would be mixed up (that would be one of the telltale signs of a non-Ethiopian faking an accent)

Indian dialect

a e ė i o ø u y /a: e~ɪ ɛ: i o: ʊ u: ə/
ei au /ai ɔ:/

New World dialect

a e ė i o ø u y /a e ɪə i o ø u ə/ ei au /ɛi ɔu/



Modern Togarmite pronouns work very similarly to English pronouns. The accusative pronouns derive from inflected foms of Old Togarmite ʔiθ (emphasis particle and accusative, related to Hebrew et and Arabic iyya-). The possessive pronouns are derived from inflected forms of Old Togarmite la-. Other inflected prepositions don't survive, except in fixed expressions such as slėm ȝlėxøm 'hello (formal)' (lit. peace be upon you).

I thou (m.) thou (f.) he she it we you (pl.) you (polite) they
Nominative/Conjunctive nėx hu hi že nan aþøm bløtfy høm
Objective/Disjunctive þi þax þex þau þa þež þanė þaxøm (iþ) bløtfy þaum
Possessive li lax lex lau la lež lanė laxøm lid bløtfy laum
Reflexive/Intensive afi afax afex afau afa afež afnė afxøm afaum

The plural pronouns aþøm and høm can be used as gender-neutral pronouns in the singular, like English they.


who? what? which? where? whither? whence? when? how? why? how much?
this žinė (sg); elinė (pl) heno me hė ȝeþo hėx šøm; me hė xėrab
that ži (sg); eli (pl) šam šamo me šam
what man ma ėjo ein eino men ein møran xeix lama xma, marby
all; every xøl byšar; xølhad xøl dbar xøl xølein xøleino me xølein xølam xølad darxy - -
any nux byšar nux dbar nux nuxein nuxeino me nuxein xølam nux darxy my nux sebt -
some bil byšar bil dbar bil bilein bileino me bilein ly zman; bil zman bil darxy my bil sebt -
none lėm byšar lėm dbar lėm lėmein lėmeino me lėmein lėfȝam lėm darxy my lėm sebt -

Demonstratives come before nouns as in Arabic.

  • žinė beiþ 'this house'
  • eli kawi 'those lines'


In some ways declension has simplified: Like Cubrite, Modern Togarmite has lost grammatical gender. The construct state has been lost, and the Old Togarmite definite state ʔan- has been reanalyzed as a separate definite article yn.

However, declension has become more complicated in other ways. For example, Modern Togarmite has innovated more declension paradigms.

Regular declension

Most nouns have a regular plural in -i, from a conflation of Middle Togarmite absolute -in and construct .

Example: ȝėlam 'world'

ȝėlam 'world'
singular plural
indefinite ȝėlam ȝėlami
lysėn 'language'
singular plural
indefinite lysėn lysėni


These nouns come from CVCC nouns in Proto-Semitic and thus are related to segolates in Hebrew.

xalb 'dog'
singular plural
indefinite xalb xlabi

Nisba nouns

An important declension class is comprised of nouns with the nisba suffix -i:

þėgami 'Togarmite'
singular plural
indefinite þėgami þėgamije

Singulative-collective nouns

These nouns have a marked singular in -t.

šeȝart '(strand of) hair'
singular plural
indefinite šeȝart šeȝar

Former feminines

This class consists of nouns that were feminine in Old Togarmite, which typically end in -t or and take a plural in -ėþ:

friþ 'fruit'
singular plural
indefinite friþ frijėþ
galt 'door' (altered from *dalt)
singular plural
indefinite galt glatėþ
þyxþøbt 'document'
singular plural
indefinite þyxþøbt þyxþøbėþ

-a nouns

These are mainly Greek words:

apoloža 'excuse (pretext)'
singular plural
indefinite apoloža apoložes

Greek ending in -ma can have a plural in -mata:

þėma 'topic'
singular plural
indefinite þėma þėmes / þėmata

By analogy, even native words ending in -a are declined this way:

heta 'sin'
singular plural
indefinite heta hetes


Adjectives do not decline.


Adjectives have a comparative form in yn- and a superlative in xøl-:

  • yn-gdėl = bigger
  • xølgdėl = biggest

A dedicated particle šøm is used for 'than'.


TODO: an n-stem binyan?

  • Past = (eroded) suffix conjugation that became analogized with the prefix present
    • The y- prefix is not used when the verb is negated: nėx yxėþøb 'I write', nėx lė xėþøb 'I don't write'.
  • Present = from the Proto-Semitic L-stem, via analogy
  • Imperative
    • The imperative is negated with alt: Xþøb! 'write!', Alt xþøb! 'don't write!'
  • w-form = w + stem from the 3ms suffix conjugation in the f3øl binyan, past tense but with w- for the prefix in other binyanim
  • Infinitive
  • Participles

The suffix conjugation does not survive unlike in most other Semitic languages, except in certain irregular verbs like hwė 'to be'.

The citation form is the 2nd person singular imperative.


Modern Togarmite inherits all 7 binyanim of Old Togarmite. The þy- of Binyan 6 (þyfaȝel) verbs has become a productive derivational prefix, however, so some analyze Binyan 6 as a result of þy- added to faȝel verbs, rather than as a binyan in its own right.

Binyan 1: fȝøl

This binyan can take -ø- (e.g. xþøb 'to write'), -e- (sen 'to sleep') or -a- (tȝam 'to choose') as the theme vowel.

Binyan 1 conjugation: xþøb 'write'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx yxþøb aþ/eþ yxþøb hu/hi xþøb nan xþøb aþøm xþøb høm xþøb
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wyxþab fit wyxþab fė wyxþab finė wyxþab fitøm wyxþab fu wyxþab
present nėx yxėþøb aþ/eþ yxėþøb hu/hi xėþøb nan xėþøb aþøm xėþøb høm xėþøb
present progressive nėx še wyxþab aþ/eþ še wyxþab hu/hi še wyxþab nan še wyxþab aþøm šu wyxþab høm šu wyxþab
present subjunctive nėx yxþøban aþ/eþ yxþøban hu/hi xþøban nan xþøban aþøm xþøban høm xþøban
future ėbe xþėb tėbe xþėb jėbe xþėb nėbe xþėb tėbu xþėb jėbu xþėb
perfect li xþub lax/lex xþub lau/la xþub lanė xþub laxøm xþub laum xþub
imperative xþøb!
active participle xėþeb
passive participle xþub
w-form wyxþab
infinitive xþėb
Binyan 1 conjugation: num 'sleep'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx ynum aþ/eþ ynum hu/hi num nan num aþøm num høm num
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wynaum fit wynaum fė wynaum finė wynaum fitøm wynaum fu wynaum
present nėx ynėwøm aþ/eþ ynėwøm hu/hi nėwøm nan nėwøm aþøm nėwøm høm nėwøm
present progressive nėx še wynaum aþ/eþ še wynaum hu/hi še wynaum nan še wynaum aþøm šu wynaum høm šu wynaum
present subjunctive nėx ynuman aþ/eþ ynuman hu/hi numan nan numan aþøm numan høm numan
future ėbe nwėm tėbe nwėm jėbe nwėm nėbe nwėm tėbu nwėm jėbu nwėm
perfect li num lax/lex num lau/la num lanė num laxøm num laum num
imperative num!
active participle nėwem
passive participle num
w-form wynaum
infinitive nwėm

Binyan 2: faȝel

This binyan comes from the Proto-Semitic D-stem (related to Hebrew pi33el and Arabic fa33ala)

Binyan 2 conjugation: saxen 'inhabit'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx ysaxen aþ/eþ ysaxen hu/hi saxen nan saxen aþøm saxen høm saxen
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wysaxen fit wysaxen fė wysaxen finė wysaxen fitøm wysaxen fu wysaxen
present nėx ysxėxen aþ/eþ ysxėxen hu/hi sxėxen nan sxėxen aþøm sxėxen høm sxėxen
present progressive nėx še wysaxen aþ/eþ še wysaxen hu/hi še wysaxen nan še wysaxen aþøm šu wysaxen høm šu wysaxen
present subjunctive ani ysaxenan aþ/eþ ysaxenan hu/hi saxenan nan saxenan aþøm saxenan høm saxenan
future ėbe saxun tėbe saxun jėbe saxun nėbe saxun tėbu saxun jėbu saxun
perfect li møsaxan lax/lex møsaxan lau/la møsaxan lanė møsaxan laxøm møsaxan laum møsaxan
imperative saxen!
active participle møsaxen
passive participle møsaxan
w-form wysaxen
infinitive saxun

For 4-letter verbs such as parkes 'to act', the present tense is formed with the stem -C₁C₂ėC₃eC₄, like nėx yprėkes 'I act'.

Binyan 3: afȝel

This binyan comes from the Proto-Semitic Š-stems thus corresponds to Hebrew hif3il and Arabic ʔaf3ala.

Binyan 3 conjugation: ažxer 'remind'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx ažxer aþ/eþ ažxer hu/hi ažxer nan ažxer aþøm ažxer høm ažxer
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wažxer fit wažxer fė wažxer finė wažxer fitøm wažxer fu wažxer
present nėx ažėxer aþ/eþ ažėxer hu/hi ažėxer nan ažėxer aþøm ažėxeru høm ažėxeru
present progressive nėx še wažxer aþ/eþ še wažxer hu/hi še wažxer nan še wažxer aþøm šu wažxer høm šu wažxer
present subjunctive nėx ažxeran aþ/eþ ažxeran hu/hi ažxeran nan ažxeran aþøm ažxeran høm ažxeran
future ėbe hažxur tėbe hažxur jėbe hažxur nėbe hažxur tėbu hažxur jėbu hažxur
perfect li mažxar lax/lex mažxar lau/la mažxar lanė mažxar laxøm mažxar laum mažxar
imperative ažxer!
active participle mažxer
passive participle mažxar
w-form wažxer
infinitive ažxur

Binyan 4: yftyȝel

This binyan comes from the Proto-Semitic t-stem and shares similarities with the Hebrew binyan hitpa33el and Arabic ifta3ala. It is characterized by the þ- prefix that comes from the *t infix.


  • reflexive
  • reciprocal

The prefix þ metathesizes with C1 when

  • C1 = f x s š c h z ž ȝ: þf þx þs þš þh þz þž þȝ > ft xt st št ct ht zd žd ȝd
  • C1 = d t þ: þd þt þþ > d t þ
Binyan 4 conjugation: hyþlymed 'find one's way around'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx yþlymed aþ/eþ yþlymed hu/hi þlymed nan þlymed aþøm þlymed høm þlymed
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wyþlymed fit wyþlymed fė wyþlymed finė wyþlymed fitøm wyþlymed fu wyþlymed
present nėx yþlėmed aþ/eþ yþlėmed hu/hi þlėmed nan þlėmed aþøm þlėmed høm þlėmed
present progressive nėx še wyþlymed aþ/eþ še wyþlymed hu/hi še wyþlymed nan še wyþlymed aþøm šu wyþlymed høm šu wyþlymed
present subjunctive nėx yþlymedan aþ/eþ yþlymedan hu/hi þlymedan nan þlymedan aþøm þlymedan høm þlymedan
future ėbe hyþlymud tėbe hyþlymud jėbe hyþlymud nėbe hyþlymud tėbu hyþlymud jėbu hyþlymud
perfect li møþlymad lax/lex møþlymad lau/la møþlymad lanė møþlymad laxøm møþlymad laum møþlymad
imperative yþlymed!
active participle møþlymed
passive participle møþlymad
w-form wyþlymėd
infinitive hyþlymud

Binyan 5: eþyfȝel

This binyan comes from the Nt-stem, with the mediopassive n- marker and the reflexive/reciprocal t-marker: the stem comes from *intap3il. cf. Hebrew nitpa33el, a variant of the hitpa33el binyan and the Arabic infa3ala binyan.

Binyan 5 conjugation: eþygdel 'grow up'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx eþygdel aþ/eþ eþygdel hu/hi eþygdel nan eþygdel aþøm eþygdelu høm eþygdelu
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti weþygdel fit weþygdel fė weþygdel finė weþygdel fitøm weþygdel fu waþygdel
present nėx eþygėdel aþ/eþ eþygėdel hu/hi eþygėdel nan eþygėdel aþøm eþygėdelu høm eþygėdelu
present progressive nėx še weþygdel aþ/eþ še weþygdel hu/hi še weþygdel nan še weþygdel aþøm šu weþygdel høm šu weþygdel
present subjunctive nėx eþygdelan aþ/eþ eþygdelan hu/hi eþygdelan nan eþygdelan aþøm eþygdelan høm eþygdelan
future ėbe heþygdul tėbe heþygdul jėbe heþygdul nėbe heþygdul tėbu heþygdul jėbu heþygdul
perfect li meþygdal lax/lex meþygdal lau/la meþygdal lanė meþygdal laxøm meþygdal laum meþygdal
imperative - heþygdel! - - heþygdelu! -
active participle meþygdel
passive participle meþygdal
w-form waþygdel
infinitive heþygdul

Binyan 6: þyfaȝel and the prefix þy-

This binyan comes from the tD-stem (t- with geminate stem) and corresponds directly to the Arabic binyan tafa33ala.

The main meanings of this binyan are:

  • reciprocal or back-and-forth action
  • reaction/back, again, re-: the most productive modern meaning
    • þynawer 'to reflect', from naur 'light'
    • þyparkes 'to react', from parkis 'action'
    • þysalem 'to repay', from √s-l-m 'peace, whole'
    • þyȝanė 'to satisfy', from √ȝ-n-j 'distress, need'; probably influenced by a now obsolete meaning 'to answer' of the same root
  • unpredictable change in meaning

The resemblance of this binyan to the very common faȝel binyan has led to the þy- prefix becoming productive, with some semantic overlap with the prefix re- in English.

Binyan 6 conjugation: þydares 'teach'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx yþydares aþ/eþ yþydares hu/hi þydares nan þydares aþøm þydares høm þydares
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wyþydares fit wyþydares fė wyþydares finė wyþydares fitøm wyþydares fu wyþydares
present nėx yþydrėres aþ/eþ yþydrėres hu/hi þydrėres nan þydrėres aþøm þydrėres høm þydrėres
present progressive nėx še wyþydares aþ/eþ še wyþydares hu/hi še wyþydares nan še wyþydares aþøm šu wyþydares høm šu wyþydares
present subjunctive nėx yþydaresan aþ/eþ yþydaresan hu/hi þydaresan nan þydaresan aþøm þydaresun høm þydaresun
future ėbe þydarus tėbe þydarus jėbe þydarus nėbe þydarus tėbu þydarus jėbu þydarus
perfect li møþydaras lax/lex møþydaras lau/la møþydaras lanė møþydaras laxøm møþydaras laum møþydaras
imperative þydares!
active participle møþydares
passive participle møþydaras
w-form wyþydares
infinitive þydarus

Binyan 7: styfȝel

This binyan comes from the Št-stem and is directly related to the binyan istaf3ala in Arabic and the very rare binyan hishtaf3el in Biblical Hebrew. Binyan 7 tends to form verbs involving conscious decision.

Binyan 7 conjugation: stytȝem 'try out'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx ystytȝem aþ/eþ ystytȝem hu/hi stytȝem nan stytȝem aþøm stytȝem høm stytȝem
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wystytȝem fit wystytȝem fė wystytȝem finė wystytȝem fitøm wystytȝem fu wystytȝem
present nėx ystytėȝem aþ/eþ ystytėȝem hu/hi stytėȝem nan stytėȝem aþøm stytėȝem høm stytėȝem
present progressive nėx še wystytȝem aþ/eþ še wystytȝem hu/hi še wystytȝem nan še wystytȝem aþøm šu wystytȝem høm šu wystytȝem
present subjunctive nėx ystytȝeman aþ/eþ ystytȝeman hu/hi stytȝeman nan stytȝeman aþøm stytȝemun jystytȝemun
future ėbe stytȝum tėbe stytȝum jėbe stytȝum nėbe stytȝum tėbu stytȝum jėbu stytȝum
perfect li møstytȝam lax/lex møstytȝam lau/la møstytȝam lanė møstytȝam laxøm møstytȝam laum møstytȝam
imperative - stytȝem! - - stytȝemu! -
active participle møstytȝem
passive participle møstytȝam
w-form wystytȝem
infinitive stytȝum

Concatenative verbs

The concatenative paradigm, analogous to Germanic weak verbs, is formed by adding prefixes and suffixes, without changing the stem. The past and imperative forms are formed by adding -i or -ji to the noun, when no other suffix is added.

It is used for recent loan verbs like maksimezi 'to maximize', but can also be used to derive verbs from native nouns:

  • mydrasi 'to school' (from mydras 'school')
  • þaxili 'to consume' (from þaxil 'consumption', itself from the root √ʔ-x-l 'to eat')
  • žaxoji 'to entitle, to allow' (from žaxo 'right')
  • ȝeini 'to eye' (from ȝein 'eye')

The endings are mainly derived from Middle Togarmite forms of 3-y verbs.

  • [STEM]-i = active
  • þy-[STEM]-i = re-
  • mø- = active participle
  • -ėþ = infinitive
Weak verb conjugation: mydrasi 'to school'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx ymydrasi aþ/eþ ymydrasi hu/hi mydrasi nan mydrasi aþøm mydrasi høm mydrasi
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wymydrasi fit wymydrasi fė wymydrasi finė wymydrasi fitøm wymydrasi fu wymydrasi
present nėx ymydrasė aþ/eþ ymydrasė hu/hi mydrasė nan mydrasė aþøm mydrasė høm mydrasė
present progressive yše wymydrasi tyše wymydrasi jyše wymydrasi nyše wymydrasi tyšu wymydrasi jyšu wymydrasi
present subjunctive nėx ymydrasan aþ/eþ ymydrasan hu/hi mydrasan nan mydrasan aþøm mydrasun høm mydrasun
future ėbe mydrasėþ tėbe mydrasėþ jėbe mydrasėþ nėbe mydrasėþ tėbu mydrasėþ jėbu mydrasėþ
perfect li mømydrasa lax/lex mømydrasa lau/la mømydrasa lanė mømydrasa laxøm mømydrasa laum mømydrasa
imperative mydrasi!
active participle mømydrasė
passive participle mømydrasa
w-form wymydrasi
infinitive mydrasėþ

fe 'to be'

The verb fe 'to be' is perhaps the most irregular verb of the language; it displays suppletion and it uses the Proto-Semitic suffix conjugation in the past tense.

fe 'to be'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional fiti fit finė fitøm fu
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wyfė fit wyfė fė wyfė finė wyfė fitøm wyfė fu wyfė
present nėx še (or nėx) aþ/eþ še (or aþ/eþ) hu/hi še (or hu/hi) nan še (or nan) aþøm šu (or aþøm) høm šu (or høm)
present progressive yše wyfė tyše wyfė jyše wyfė nyše wyfė tyšu wyfė jyšu wyfė
present subjunctive yfijan tyfijan jyfijan nyfijan tyfijun jyfijun
future ėbe fėþ tėbe fėþ jėbe fėþ nėbe fėþ tėbu fėþ jėbu fėþ
imperative fe!
active participle hėwi
passive participle fuj
w-form wyfė
infinitive fėþ

xėl 'can'

xėl 'can'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nex yxel aþ/eþ yxel hu/hi xel nan xel aþøm xel høm xel
past subjunctive fiti wėxel fit wėxel fė wėxel finė wėxel fitøm wėxel fu wėxel
present wyxėlti wyxėlt wyxėl wyxėlnė wyxėltøm wyxėlu
present subjunctive nėx yxelan aþ/eþ yxelan hu/hi xelan nan xelan aþøm xelun høm xelun
future ėbe xėl tėbe xėl jėbe xėl nėbe xėl tėbu xėl jėbu xėl
active participle -
passive participle fuj wėxel
w-form wėxel
infinitive xėl

høbė 'should; ought'

høba 'should; ought'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
present nėx høbė aþ/eþ høbė hu/hi høbė nan høbu aþøm høbu høm høbu

ryšė 'to like'

ryšė 'to like'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional yrši tyrši jyrši nyršu tyršu jyršu
past subjunctive hwiti wyrši hwit wyrši hwė wyrši hwinė wyrši hwitøm wyrši hwu wyrši
present nėx ryšė aþ/eþ ryšė hu/hi ryšė nan ryšu aþøm ryšu høm ryšu
future ėbe ryšėþ tėbe ryšėþ jėbe ryšėþ nėbe ryšėþ tėbu ryšėþ jėbu ryšėþ
w-form wyrši
active participle rėši
passive participle myršuj
infinitive ryšėþ

hysėr 'to want'

hysėr 'to want'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional ehsør tehsør jehsør nehsru tehsru jehsru
past subjunctive hwiti wasar hwit wasar hwė wasar hwinė wasar hwitøm wasar hwu wasar
present nėx hėser aþ/eþ hėser hu/hi hėser nan hėseri aþøm hėseri høm hėseri
future ėbe hysėr tėbe hysėr jėbe hysėr nėbe hysėr tėbu hysėr jėbu hysėr
w-form wasar
active participle hėser
passive participle hysur
infinitive hysėr


Main article: Togarmite/Gzarot

In Semitic languages, gzarot (Hebrew גְּזָרוֹת‎, sg. gizra גִּזְרָה 'figure, form, pattern') are variations of an inflectional (especially verbal) paradigm that are determined by the choice of consonants in the consonantal root. Thus, a paradigm has not only a regular gizra but various irregular ones, which occur most commonly when

  • the consonantal root contains a "guttural" (ʔ ȝ h) or a semivowel (j w);
  • the consonantal root contains a n, since nC tends to assimilate into CC
  • the consonantal root has 2 letters.

Because Togarmite only uses the prefix conjugation, modern Togarmite gzarot are in some ways less bad than Hebrew gzarot; most of the irregularities occur in binyan fȝøl. However, there are often so many irregularities even within each gizra, and cases of analogy between verbs of different gzarot, that the concept of gzarot in Modern Togarmite has been questioned: in Togarmite, a "gizra" just describes general tendencies of verbs with a certain root consonant.


Some prepositions:

  • in 'in' [from PSem *ina]
  • ly (l before V) 'of (possessive)'
  • by (b before V) 'by, at'
  • šyde 'out of' (from *śadiy-ah 'to the field')
  • me (men before V) 'from'
  • ȝem 'with'
  • ȝal 'on'
  • lid 'to' (from *la-yad 'to the hand of')
  • ȝbar 'over'
  • þaþ 'under'
  • arþo 'down' (from *ʔarþ-ah "earthward")
  • darxan 'along'

Syntax of prepositions



0: cefry
1: yhad
2: šnein / attributive šnė
3: šlėš (animate šlėšt)
4: yrbaȝ (animate yrbaȝt)
5: hymes (animate hymest)
6: setš (animate setšt)
7: sabȝy (animate sabȝyt)
8: smėni (animate šmėnt)
9: þesȝy (animate þesȝyt)
10: ȝašry (animate ȝašryt)
11: ȝašry yhad
12: ȝašry šnein
20: ȝešrin
30: šlėšin
40: yrbȝin
50: hymsin
60: setšin
70: sybȝin
80: šmėnin
90: þesȝin
100: me'yþ
101: me'yþ yhad
200: meþein
300: šlėš me'yþ
400: yrbaȝ me'yþ
1000: alfy
2000: alfein
3000: šlėš alf
1000000: alfun
10^9: bėþfun
10^12: gamfun

Plural numerals usually take plural nouns. They used to take singular nouns, however this is considered archaic.

Numbers ending in digits "3" through "9" (thus ending in šlėš through þesȝy), or "10" (thus ending in ȝašry), have two forms depending on the animacy of the noun: hymes myrþemi 'five abacuses', but hymest ahwėþ 'five sisters'. The animate forms come from the masculine forms (reverse polarity) marked with *-t in Proto-Semitic.


Ordinals are formed using the pattern CCuC; as in English, "1st" and "2nd" are irregular, from elatives *ʔaʕlay- 'topmost' and *ʔaʕqab- 'the immediately following' respectively. In compound numerals, the last number word is inflected to the ordinal form.

  • 1st = olė
  • 2nd = okab
  • 3rd = šluš
  • 4th = rbuȝ
  • 5th = hmus
  • 6th = stuš
  • 7th = sbuȝ
  • 8th = smun
  • 9th = þsuȝ
  • 10th = ȝšur
  • 11th = ȝašry-olė
  • 12th = ȝašry-okab
  • 13th = ȝašry-šluš



Fractional numerals are formed with the segolate pattern CøCCy (pl. CøCaCi). Compound numerals can be inflected as well, like in the case of ordinal numerals. The analogized form øhdy is used for numerals ending in "1".

  • half = gøb (from *gunb- 'side')
  • 3rd = šølšy
  • 4th = røbȝy
  • 11th = ȝašry-øhdy

To express "m/n", Togarmite uses "m nths": "2/3" is šnė šølaši.


Faulty accusative marker

The faulty accusative marker is used. It behaves like the MSA accusative case and the Welsh soft mutation for direct objects: when there is a constituent separating the verb or predicate from a second constituent, comes between the two constituents regardless of whether the second constituent is actually a direct object. Example:

  • Halex wyfė li šlėšt xlabi, wy ȝeþo lėš li nux. = I used to have three dogs, and now I don't have any.
  • Yn dėrest li ryšė li ȝyšėþ rab þamuni beiþ. = My teacher wants me to do a lot of homework.


Yes-no questions require the question marker ha to be placed at the beginning of the sentence.

What-questions have a syntax similar to English.


The word is used to indicate existence. It is also used with the preposition ly 'to' or the possessive pronouns to indicate possession. The negative of is lėš.

  • Lėš mykėm ėn xøl bašar šaš. = There is no place where everyone is happy.
  • Ha iš lex zman? = Do you (f. sg.) have time?

Conditional clauses

  • "if" = em
  • "then" =

Relative clauses

The relative pronoun žė is used for both relative and complement clauses. It may takes prepositional cases, just like English relative pronouns. The word žė is from PSem *ðā, the accusative singular form of the demonstrative *ðū; cf. Biblical Hebrew זו zu, Aramaic די .

For relative clauses whose heads are prepositional objects in the relative clause, there are two strategies like in English:

  • In informal Togarmite, the relativizer is treated as a resumptive pronoun which takes the preposition, like English which: yn gabry lid žė nėx ohab yn mauhab, lit. 'the man to which I gave the gift'. This syntax arose from the influence of surrounding languages like English.
  • In formal Togarmite, the preposition goes to the end of the clause: yn gabry žė nėx ohab yn mauhab lid lit. 'the man which I gave the gift to'. This syntax arose from the native Semitic construction which used a resumptive pronoun on the preposition: after the resumptive pronoun lost the stress, the preposition lost its pronominal suffix and moved to the end of the clause.
  • A combination of both strategies can be used: yn gabry lid žė nėx ohab yn mauhab lid, lit. 'The man to which I gave the gift to'.


Noun and adjective patterns

  • CaCCy(þ), CeCCy(þ), CøCCy(þ) = segolates
  • CyCiC = adjective; -able
  • CyCuC = adjective; color
  • CyCėC = some adjectives
  • CyCaCt, CyCeCt, CyCøCt
  • CaCøCt = describes a condition
  • CyCeCCaC = diminutive
  • myCCaC(t), meCCaC(t), myCCėC: noun, often denoting place
  • maCCaCt = causative version of myCCaC(t)
  • myCCeC(t) = instrument
  • maCCeCt = causative version of myCCeC(t)
  • þyCCuC, þyCCiC, þyCCėC = action or process
  • þyCCaCt = (hypothetical cognate of Hebrew tiCCóCet) = system of things
  • CaCėC = agentive
    • CaCaCt = feminine agentive (not always used)
    • or CaCėC?
  • CaCCan = agentive; -an is an agentive
  • CaCCėn, CeCCėn, and CøCCėn = nouns, often an augmentative


  • -an = forms agentives and adjectives
  • -in = collectives
    • lamusin 'charity'
  • -uþ = abstract noun
  • -i = forms adjectives
  • -iþ = forms adverbs
  • i- = non-, un-
    • ibyšari 'incorporeal'
    • iwøxli 'impossible'
  • tarmy- = pre-, not yet
    • tarmy-mynaša 'never married'
  • -yr = someone who is characterized by X (from English)
    • wduȝyr 'know-it-all', from wduȝ 'knowledgeable'
  • -ri = -ry (from English)
    • kdėsri = excessive piousness or asceticism, from kdės 'holy'
    • xyl'anri = double standard or hypocrisy, from the agentive xyl'an 'hypocrite' of √x-l-ʔ 'double'
  • afto- = self-
  • e- = a- (from ʔiC-, an assimilated form of the OTog preposition ʔin 'in'); these adjectives can usually only be predicative
    • e'est 'ablaze'
    • edarxy 'away'
    • eþal 'galore' (lit. a-mound)
    • emein 'drowned, lost forever', lit. awater
  • -byl = -able (from English -able and native abȝel 'to be able to')


some phrases in Togarmite:

  • Slėm! - Hello! / Goodbye!
  • Slėm ȝlėxøm! - Hello! (formal)
  • Leilt tėb! / Num tėbyn! - Good night! / Sleep well!
  • Jaum tėb! - Good day!
  • Exarus! / Exarus þax/þex/þaxøm! - Thanks!
  • Ȝem ryšan - Please / You're welcome
  • Þryhef þi - Excuse me, Pardon
  • Nėx še nyhum - I'm sorry
  • Ma še sem lax/lex/laxøm? - What's your name?
  • Sem li še [name] - My name is [name]
  • Xeix ėmar iþ [thing] in Þėgamiþ? - How do you say [thing] in Togarmite?
  • H' aþ/eþ/aþøm dbėber [language]? - Do you speak [language]?
  • Ȝem ryšan, mør ži šėnėn - Please say it again
  • Hė lax/lex/laxøm - Here you go! (i.e. I just granted your request) (the source of the English expression is misinterpreted Togarmite)
    • Note: In Ethiopia it's spelled without the space.
  • Yn ryhaft li še myli clėfi - My hovercraft is full of eels

Sample texts

Lysėn þėgami, lysėn þlul

  • Yhad arþ, rab arþi; yhad galt, rab galti!
  • Jaumyn nėx še wyxþab, amsyn nėx yxþøb; jaumyn nėx še wytȝam, amsyn nėx ytȝøm!

A biology abstract

Nan mėdød yn þyglim efkarjotek meþycrer lyn wrišt TSP3 in Bruxorjon sponerču. TSP3 þycfėfen kinas kabelan rėxes ly prøtezenjon, mømykėma byn mikrospørelata køtoknėji ly'n ribosøm posatedek, wy xahus ly TSP3 še ryhibyn ma'man ly fėþ yn mykėr ly karčin køboþrøtek. In žinė þyxþøbt nan stydrex weþysmes þybhin xyli-ȝywur Rɪᴄᴇʀ-Jᴀʟɪɴꜱᴋɪ, žė ryxės TSP3 lid yn ȝaxuban føloxrøpsenas kėrė (p = 0.856) fy øpotreløma ly køt Bruxorjon byri møran eþy'yfusi adenotoksen šu nymux. Ly žinė þymacu jėbu fėþ ramuzi mø'abjunė lid yn drės ly desklørøma sømbrøxi.

We measure the nucleating eukaryotic folding of the TSP3 gene in Bruchorium sponercii. TSP3 encodes a protezine-binding receptor kinase located at the cytotubular microsporellata of the quanticular ribosome, and malfunction of TSP3 is commonly believed to be the source of cybothrotic cancer. In this paper we prove using a Rɪᴇᴛᴢᴇʀ-Yᴀʟɪɴꜱᴋʏ double-blind test that TSP3 binding to the phyllochrypsinase inhibitor occurs (p = 0.856) in the hypotrellome of a healthy Bruchorium cell when adenotoxin concentrations are low. This research will have significant implications for the study of symbrychous descloroma.

Newton's laws of motion

I: Dbar šėbøþ by demi, o by ȝyþėk enomorf, lulė ydraȝ prėkes ȝal þež.

I: An object stays at rest, or at a constant speed, unless a force acts on it.

II: Yn šanuj fy þyȝþik ly byšar še myþxøni lid yn øþisi møþyfacar ȝal yn byšar; w' yn šanuj kėrė darxan yn kau þykin žė ži øþisi še møþyfacar ȝal.

II: The change in the momentum of a body is proportional to the force applied to the body; and the change occurs along the straight line on which that force is applied.

III: Iš ly xøl parkis iþ þyparkis is w' anteþet.

III: Every action has an equal and opposite reaction.

O how quickly the sculpture of life

A Henosis Ousias poem?

O! Xma hyfiziþ yn myklaȝ ly heiwėþ
Šaber in temaša zytarter!
Yn mygiluþ ly'n malx ȝal yn þrøn lau
Še xliliþ gyruf edarx by gali jam.
Aþøm žė jėþ mømancabta hė,
Ȝabry hen Elėh aþøm lawani ȝal yn arþ.
Xøl lanė mødajan ȝal yn parkisi lanė;
Hamnė wyhėb lid yn ȝni, w' agaþeržijėþ lid hawdud.

O how quickly the sculpture of life
Shattered into tiny fragments!
The splendor of the king on his throne
Is completely swept away by sea-waves.
Ye who come hither stationed here,
By the grace of God ye are guests on earth.
All of us are judged according to our actions;
Let us give to the needy, and do charity towards one another.

Warming Up To You

Weþyhmem lid þax
Xenax tėbe wymauþ in xlėþ,
Nėx yrþybec fy hamimuþ lax,
Yn hamimuþ žė azė'en yn hakranuþ,
Yn ȝyli ly'n wedȝy;
Yn gant žė lax sþul in žinė rybuȝ admyþ
Wy tėbe nyžėr lid dwari.

Stairway To Heaven

Maȝlyþ lid yn Symeiniþ
Iš bolt žė še yšur
Xøl žė nėher še žahab
Wy hi še wykna maȝlyþ lid yn symeiniþ


Xøl ynėsi še mewøladi hyruri w' isi in akšoprepja wy žyxawi. Høm še møþyhanani ȝym ložeki wy synidisi wy høbu ly parkus lid hawdud in ruh l'ahwuþ.