The name Azalic is derived from Azal, a Persian cognate of Əngoil /ˈəngojl/, the legendary mother of the Azalic people (cognate of Ahalyā in Hindu mythology).
The Proto-Azalic Urheimat is believed to be Armenia and Azerbaijan.
Inspirations: Vietnamese, Armenian, literally read Irish
m n bh dh gh ᵹh p t c q ph th ch qh ṗ ṫ ċ q̇ s ṡ h l r y v
/m n bʰ dʰ gʰ gʷʰ p t k kʷ pʰ tʰ kʰ kʷʰ f θ x xw sʰ z h l r j w/
Nota Bene: The stops and vowels had a wide variety of dialectal realizations, as in Modern Armenian. Some Proto-Azalic dialects had realizations of the stops that are much closer to Sanskrit; this is reflected in loans from those dialects in English, like dream <- *troimə (pronounced /drəɨmə/ in the dialect).
Vowels: e i o u ə é í ó ú oe aw eo ou ieu ia ua /e i o u ə~ʌ e: i: o: u: oe əɨ eo əu iəu iə uə/ + offglides in -i; allophonic Open Syllable Lengthening
- oi > uə
- iH > i:
- ei > oə, sometimes iə
- ē > e:
- e, i > e, i
- uH > eo (u: in some words)
- u > u (needs umlaut)
- ou > əɨ
- eu > əɨ (iəu in some words)
- o > o (needs umlaut)
- oH, ô, eh2, eh3 > əu
- enC > oeC
- onC > əuC
- nC > eoC
h1oinos, dwoh1, treyes, kwetwores, penkwe, sweks, septm, oktōw, h₁néwn̥, deḱm -> xuən, təu, tʰriə~tʰre:, pʰoþur, pʰoəxw, seks, sefn, oxʰtəu, nəɨn, texn~te:n
huon, tou, thré, phoṫur, phoeq̇, secs, seṗn, ohtou, nawn, teċn/tén
h₃nómṇ > *nomə > L-MidE name > name
Proto-Azalic had a highly eroded case system. The notation (i) denotes "i-umlaut" or a j-offglide on the nucleus.
- dir. -0, (i)
- voc. (i), (i)
- obl. (i)~(i)-ə~ə, -su~-ṡu
- gen. -is, (i)-is~-ə
- lat. -ther, (no pl)
|qenə 'lady; wife'|
Adjectives were uninflected, because they were split off from adjective-noun compounds.
The conjunctive pronouns were used as pronominal subjects in unmarked sentences. The disjunctive pronouns were used as direct, indirect or prepositional objects and in sentences such as:
- It est mé "It's me".
- ne jú 'not you'
- Mé, iċ oil chuamə. 'Me, I'm going home.'
|1sg.||2 (number neutral)||3sg. proximal||1pl.||3pl; 3sg distal||interr.|
-eh2ti > -ə; -yeti, -eyeti > (i)-ə
The original PIE personal affixes were lost. When the subject was nominal singular, "he", "she" or "it", the suffix -se (from PIE *swe) was required for verbal agreement. The 2sg and 3sg distal pronouns were number neutral so they didn't take -se.
The different forms were:
- Imperative (source of English imperative): non-past without any endings
- Nonpast (the source of the English present): e-grade or otherwise the unmarked form of the verb
- Past: PIE reduplicated perfect or root aorist
- Irrealis (source of the English subjunctive, including were): sigmatic future.
- Stative (the source of the English past): a tenseless form like the Akkadian stative. Originally a deverbal noun; formed with the o-grade (deriving nouns in PIE) for strongs, -dh from -tús (with random voicing) for weaks, (i)-ə from -ih2 for semistrongs. It was not a true finite verb form so it didn't take -se.
- Some modal verbs in English, such as can, will, shall, may, must, ought, come from statives and thus are called stative-present verbs.
- Active participle: -ənt
- -ənt-qhe became the present progressive -ing in English.
- Passive participle (source of English past participle): zero-grade with -n from -nós, or -dh from -tós
Proto-Azalic had at least three distinct verb paradigms:
- The weak verbs became the English weaks
- The strong verbs became the non-class 7 strongs in English (e.g. bind)
- The semistrong verbs became the class 7 strongs such as fall, hold, grow, know
|Weak: luṗə 'love'||Strong: bhendh 'bind'||Semistrong: choldh 'grasp'|
|Irrealis||luṗəṡə(-se), luṗəh(-se)||bhendhəṡə(-se), bhendhəh(-se)||choldhəṡə(-se), choldhəh(-se)|
- SVO, VSO in questions or for emphasis
- Prepositions over postpositions
- Adjectives and genitives before nouns; relative clauses after nouns.