Adwan

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Adwan is the label used to refer not only to the constructed language itself, but also to its evolution throughout time. Conceived in 2010, as an exercise to understand better the nuance behind foreign language morphologies, Adwan has evolved from a boilerplate language meant to facilitate the learning of natural languages, to an actively engineered personal language.

Adwan also forms the ancestor for the languages of Myrh, groups of people inhabiting land only accessible during random natural phenomena.

Phonology

Orthography

Consonants

The consonants 'g', 'h', 'm' and 'n' are used with other a finite amount of other consonants to form further graphemes that represent distinct sounds. Moreover, consonant sound realizations change based on position in the syllable. Therefore, a consonant typically varies depending on whether it lies in the onset of a syllable or the coda. Moreover, for the semivowel consonants representing the sounds /j/ and /w/ are represented by their vowel forms 'i' and 'w' when preceding a vowel and after a consonant, and by 'gh' and 'mh' otherwise, respectively. When preceding 'g', the consonants 'm' and 'n' become nonsyllabic nasalized velar and palatal approximants /j̯̃/ and /ɰ̯̃/, respectively.


Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d, tʲ dʲ k g
Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s ʂ ʐ x
Approximant j w
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral fric. ɬ ɮ
Lateral app. l
  • Under gemination, /g/ undergoes lenition to /ɣ/ such that the segment /g.g/ -> /ɣː/, i.e., /gː/ does not occur.
  • There exists phonemic distinction between pure alveolar plosives /t, d/ and palatalized alveolar plosives /tʲ, dʲ/. However, the palatalized forms /tʲ, dʲ/ may be realized as the alveolar affricates [t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ]

Vowels

There are a number of 7 non-nasal, non-diphthong vowels in Adwan.

Front Central Back
Close i u
Near-close ɪ ʏ ~ ʊ
Mid e œ o
Open a


Furthermore, the following vowels can be "nasalized", in which a diphothong involving a nasal consonant is introduced. On introducing the nasal consonant, notice that the vowel pronunciation is also slightly changed.

I II
amg ɐ̃ɰ̯̃ ang æ̃j̯̃
emg ɛ̃ɰ̯̃ eng ɛ̃j̯̃
omg õɰ̯̃ ong õj̯̃
umg œ̃ɰ̯̃ ung œ̃j̯̃
wmg ũɰ̯̃ wng ũj̯̃
ymg ɪɰ̯̃ yng ɪj̯̃

Morphophonology

Morphology

Lexemes are given types, and are further distinguished amongst other lexeme types via different inflection paradigms. A lexeme typically consists of a root and an ending. A great deal of Adwan grammar may effectively be described using the correct operations of concatenation of strings (i.e., adding strings of letters to words) and vowel and consonant morphisms, in which parts of current endings are changed rather than having any new endings appended). Nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and determiners are declined according to four morphological cases and two numbers, while verbs are conjugated for person, number, tense, mood, aspect, and follow a pattern of conjugating pronouns in compound constructions. Nouns follow a relatively simple declension paradigm, while verb conjugations follow a more complex pattern of use. Adjectives have two separate declension paradigms and the distinction between the two paradigms plays a large role in further compound verb constructions. Furthermore, determiners share the same declension paradigm as verb participles used in certain constructions.

Nouns

Noun cases.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -a -amg
Accusative -w -e
Genitive -y -ygh
Instrumental -o -yng
Dative -u -ung
Locative -o -umg
Ablative -y -i
Oblique -oe -omh

Verbs

Coming soon

Present
Person Singular Plural
1 -um/em -amg/omg
2 -et/yt -utg/etg
3 -yr/ur -erg/yrg
4 -ys/us -eth/yth
Past

Notice that the past tense is formed by inserting a variable infix after the root of the verb but before the personal endings.

Person Singular Plural
1 -eghum/yghem -ocamg/wcomg
2 -yghet/ughyt -ecutg/ycetg
3 -ughyr/eghur -ycerg/ucyrg
4 -ughys/eghus -yceth/ucyth

Example texts

Other resources

[[Category:Template:Adwan]]