Albionian

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Albionian (ta Albenscina /ˈtʰə aɫəbɪnɕɪnə/ or tet jêzyc Albenscei /ˈtʰɪh 'jiəzɨk 'aɫəbɪnskəɪ/) is the only surviving Slavic language in its timeline. It is the main spoken language in Albion (Albeṅ /aɫəbɪɲ/, genitive Albni, Latin Albio; our Great Britain, excluding Northern Ireland) and in our Southern United States, the Caribbean, and Central and northern South America. In Albion itself it is usually called Slowienian slə-WEE-niən (ta Slowiênscina /tʰə ˈslɔβiənɕɪnə/) to acknowledge non-Slavic languages native to Albion. Compared to our Slavic, Albionian has many grammatical features that resulted from contact with Celtic, such as definite articles, compound tense forms, and head-initial VSO syntax.

Dialectal differences are immense within Albion. In fact there is more phonological and lexical variation than in the whole of our timeline's Slavic; thus a common joke saying goes that every language is a dialect of Albionian. The standard language is distinguished by a set of sound changes collectively known as the South Albionian Shifts, such as Common Slavic ť/c, ď/dz > th, ð.

Albionian is inspired by many different Slavic languages, and especially Czech (both Literary and Common) and Slovak. Non-Slavic inspirations include Welsh, Irish, Old English, Vietnamese, Danish and Portuguese.

Anthem: Ty naṡe zeme predảwnả (?)

Names for the language in our Slavlangs:

  • cs: Albenština
  • pl: Język ałbeński
  • ru: о́лобенский язык?

Todo

American Albionian has initial stress; British Albionian has penult stress?


  • the big Celtic things are: unaspirated-aspirated with some preaspiration, θ ð corresponding pretty much 1-1 to Polish c dz, lack of metathesis and some Irish-inspired things you see like how cielweac is pronounced /tʃʰɛləβɪhk/; articles
  • sv, zv > scw, zgw
  • Initial stress, vowel reduction of short vowels, some umlaut to get ở, no yer-deletion if syllable is initial
  • Changes found in other Slavic languages like vowel length and relative lack of palatalization from Czech (especially Common Czech), PSlav v > /w/, as well as some /l/ > /w/ as in Ukrainian; some /g/ > /ɣ/, also reminiscent of Czech
  • the b~β~w allophony
  • Made some weird choices in verb forms, like generalizing the PSlav 1st person *-xǔ in imperfect and aorist to all past forms, getting 1sg -ns in present from -m azǔ/-ǫ azǔ
  • Goworins o tei milơsti al o tei nenảwisti.
  • Ci charnỉṡ ty to dlamnie?
  • Miluyêm my jei, toż ċtỉm my jeo prỉchod.
  • Sort out -e vs -ia vs -iả
    • a after soft > e or ia?
    • ĭja > ia or iả?

History

Slavic speakers are known to have lived in the British Isles since the 7th century; they were among the peoples who fled the Riphic Invasion of the 6th century that swept continental Europe. The first surviving complete sentence in Albionian is Ze pomoȝom as ti neſt tam to bermiem "Let me help you carry the load there", from the 13th century, which shows the retention of nasal vowels and the lenition of Proto-Slavic /g/ ("pomogom" < pomogǫ) characteristic of Albionian.

One of the most influential texts in the literary language is the Breintow Bible (ta Bỉble Breintowscả), a 16th century Protestant Bible translation from the original languages, originally titled Ta Bi¿ble ſquynta¿, riêca¿nth tet Testament Starây a tet Nowây (modern spelling Ta Bỉble Scwyntả, riêcảnth tet Testament Starei a tet Nowei [tɐ ˈpeɪblɪ ˈskwɨntʰɔː, ˈriəkʰɔːnθ tʰɪ ˈzɔ:βɪh ˈstarɪj ɨ tʰɪ ˈnɔβɪj] 'The Holy Bible, that is to say the Old and New Testaments'). [Shakespeare figure] was the second major influence of early Modern Albionian. Later writers were also important in establishing the norms of literary Albionian.

Albionian vocabulary is about as purist as German; however, over the years, Albionian has absorbed loans from Latin, Greek, Brythonic, Irish and Judeo-Gaelic, and recently English (which is not a British Isles language in this timeline).

Worldbuilding

The official name of Albion is the Republic of Albion (ta Respublica Albenscả).

Religion

Though Albionian culture is traditionally Protestant, today's Albion is one of the world's least religious societies.

In Albionian-speaking America, religiosity inversely correlates with social class and racial/ethnic hierarchy and religion thus remains a thorny political problem for left-of-center politics.

British phonology

Consonants

Standard Albionian in Albion has a slightly larger-than-average consonant inventory of about 27 consonants.

(Albionian orthography is fairly deep; the orthographic values in the table shouldn't be taken completely at face value.)

→ PoA
↓ Manner
Labial Dental/Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ṅ, ni /ɲ/ ng /ŋ/
Plosive unaspirated b /p/ d /t/ ( /tʃ/) ḋ, di /c/ g /k/
aspirated p /pʰ/ t /tʰ/ ċ, ci /tʃʰ/ ṫ, ti /cʰ/ c, (k) /kʰ/
voiced [b] [d] [dʒ] [ɟ]
Spirant unvoiced f /f/ th /θ/ ch, (h) /χ/
voiced w, (v) /β/ ð /ð/ [ɣ]
Non-spirant unvoiced s /s/ /ʃ/ sċ, sci /ɕː/ -t etc. /h/
voiced z /z/ ż, zż /ʒ/
Resonant -w, -g etc. /w/ l /l/ r /ɾ/ j, -i, -g etc. /j/ [ɤ̃ˤʶ]

As in most other Slavic languages, but:

  • Voiced and voiceless stops have shifted to unaspirated and aspirated, as in Icelandic
    • /sk sc st sp/ are spelled sc sṫ/sti st sp.
    • preaspiration of postvocalic aspirated stops in coda or before a consonant; in natural speech, -t weakens all the way to [h] in this environment, as in scweatlo [ˈskwɛːh(t)ɫʊ~ˈskwɛːɬˠːʊ] 'light'. Thus some analyze /h/ as a phonemic consonant appearing in clusters such as /hp hl/ and word-finally. However, the 2nd person plural verb ending -t is always pronounced as [tʰ].
    • Word-final c is never preaspirated.
    • Consonant assimilations:
      • unaspirated stops voice before or after any voiced sound (vowel, resonant or voiced fricative)
  • c h/ch g w ng = /kʰ χ k b~β~w ŋ/ (however there's also soft c which is written "ci" or "ċ")
    • w has many allophones:
      • [w] or [ʍ] when it follows a consonant, according as whether the consonant is aspirated or not: scweat [skwɛ:h] 'world', cweat [kʰʍɛ:h] 'flower'.
      • [w] when not before a vowel: e.g. staw [staw] '(flowery) state, condition', o wṡich wảs [ɔwˈʃɪχʍɔ:s] 'about all of you'.
      • [b] word-initially before a vowel and after /n/: wecier [ˈbɛtʃʰɪɾ] 'evening', invencia [ˈɪmbɨntʃə] 'invention (musical form)'.
      • When not after a vowel but before a consonant, it becomes [ʍ] or silent: wṡescy lidia /ʍʃɛskɪ lɪdʲə~ʃɛskɪ lɪdʲə/ 'all people'.
      • w as [v~f] is a feature of some dialects.
    • /nk/ assimilates to /ŋk/ (cf. Czech).
    • g is lenited to [:] after a, [w] after back monophthongs, and [j] after front monophthongs, and zero after diphthongs such as ê ô ei eu ou: For example: rog [ɾɔw] 'horn; corner', beag [pɛːj] 'running; race course', sảg [sɔ:w] 'ledge', teuga [tʰɛwə] 'honey' (term of affection for spouse; a doublet of tônga [tʰuəŋə] 'desire').
  • ċ/ci ḋ/di ṫ/ti ṅ/ni ṡ sċ/sci ż/zż /tʃ~ts dʲ tʲ nʲ ʃ ɕ ʒ/
    • The letter ṙ for formerly palatalized /r/ was used inconsistently in Early Modern Albionian and quickly fell out of use. It is thought to have represented a voiceless /r/ or a trilled /r/.
  • th ð = /θ ð/ in Standard Albionian. Nonstandard dialects have various realizations for these sounds, such as [f v], [ts dz], slit fricatives or retroflexes.
  • /l/ is velarized before back vowels /a o u ɨ/. It is vocalized to a nasalized pharyngealized uvular approximant in coda: postel 'bed' [pʰɔstɪɤ̃ˤʶ].
  • Voiced fricatives are not devoiced at ends of words.

h q v x ph are used in Latin and Greek loanwords; they're pronounced the same as native ch cw w cs f. For example: humanismus, qualita, variant, existowaṫ, philosophia [ˈχʊmənʲɪsmʊs, ˈkʰwalɪtʰə, ˈbaɾjənt, ˈɛksɪstoʊhtʲ, ˈfɪɫʊsʊfɪə]. /kʰ/ before i is spelled k, for example kinetica [ˈkʰɪnɪtʰʲɪkʰə] 'kinetics'.

Pleophony

CVrC, CVlC is pronounced as CVrəC, CVləC; cf. Irish and Russian. e.g. smyrt 'death' = /ˈsmɨɾəh/, galwa 'head' = /ˈkaɫəβə/, derwo 'tree' = /ˈtɛɾəβʊ/, welkei 'big' = /ˈbɛɫəkʰɪj/.

-w in word-final -rw and -lw is vocalized to [ʊ] and -g in word-final -rg and -lg becomes [χ]. For example: pozdarw [ˈpʰɔzdərʊ] 'greeting; regards (when signing a letter)'; dảrg /ˈtaːɾəχ/ 'of roads'.

Vowels

Counting length and diphthongs but not counting vowels with final glides, Standard Albionian has 15 vowels.

a e i y o u ơ (ag) ả ẻ ea ỉ ỏ/og ở/uyê ủ/ù ê/iê ô eu/eo/ẻo ỉo ei/eg ơg = (unreduced) /a ɛ ɪ ɨ ɔ u œ aː ɔ: ɛː jɛː iː ow œː uː iə uə ɛw iw ɛj œj/

  • cy gy are pronounced /kʰɪ kɪ/, not /kʰɨ kɨ/.
  • In Early Modern Albionian, ea was used for the short vowel /æ~ɛɑ/, the unlengthened reflex of Proto-Slavic *ě (yat). Today, it is pronounced as palatalizing long /ɛː/ when not reduced: eat wy /ˈjɛːtʰ ʍɨ/ 'y'all (familiar) eat'. After alveolar sibilants /θ ð s z ʃ ʒ/ it becomes /ɛː/
  • In EMAlb, ê iê ô uyê = /eə jeə oə yə/.

Stress and tone

Stress is always initial. Stød is phonemic.

Intonation

Similar to Czech.

American phonology

Consonants

→ PoA
↓ Manner
Labial Dental/Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ṅ, ni /ɲ/ ng /ŋ:/
Plosive voiced b /b/ d /d/ ( /dʐ/) ḋ, di /dʑ/ g /g/
voiceless p /p/ t /t/ ċ, ci /tʂ/ ṫ, ti /tɕ/ c, (k) /k/
Spirant unvoiced f /f/ th /θ/ ch, (h) /h/
voiced w, (v) /ʋ/ ð /ð/ [ɣ]
Non-spirant unvoiced s /s/ /ʂ/ sċ, sci /ɕː/
voiced z /z/ ż, zż /ʐ/
Resonant -g, -l /w/ l /ɫ~l/ r /ɾ/ j, -i, -g etc. /j/

Homorganic nasals before consonants become nasal vowels.

  • /θ ð/ = [f v], [t d] or [s z] is a characteristic of working-class accents.

Vowels

a(S)/ả(L) e(S)/ẻ(L) i(S)/ỉ(L) y(S)/ỷ(L) o(S)/ỏ(L) u(S)/ủ(L) ơ(S)/ở(L)/uyê(L) ea(S)/ê(L)/iê(L) ô eu/eo/ẻo ỉo = (unreduced) /a ɛ ɪ ɨ ɔ u œ iə uə ɛw iw ɛj œj/

Note: S and L = short and long for purposes of assigning syllable weights.

Vowel reduction

Short vowels are reduced in unstressed syllables.

  • /a/ reduces to /ə/
  • /ɨ/ reduces to /ɘ/ (but cy becomes /kʰɪ/)
  • /ɛ/ reduces to non-palatalizing /ɪ/
  • /jɛː ɪ/ reduces to palatalizing /ɪ/
  • /ɔ/ reduces to /ʊ/
  • /œ ʊ/ reduces to /ʏ/

TODO: long vowels

  • /ɛɪ/ reduces to /i:/

Pleophony

Pleophony holds exactly as in British Albionian; pleophony is applied after stress is assigned using the weight rule.

Stress

  • last long syllable (CV: or CVC) among the last 3 syllables is stressed; final consonants are ignored.
  • if there's no long syllable in the last 3 syllables then penult stress

Long syllable means long vowel OR closed.

Intonation

Similar to Brazilian Portuguese

Accents and dialects

Dialects

In Albion, the relationship between Albionian dialects and Standard Albionian is like the relationship between German dialects and Standard German. Traditionally, nonstandard dialects are used in local everyday speech and Standard Albionian is used in writing, formal or religious contexts or in contexts where speakers from different backgrounds need to understand each other. Today, regional dialects are under pressure due to modern societal conditions, such as public education and mass media. Some Albion dialects even have retroflex stops and resonants /ɳ ɭ ʈ ɖ/.

American Albionian is much more uniform and closer to the standard, with comparatively minor regional differences in accent and vocabulary.


Various dialectal isoglosses:

  • /dl/ (Standard) ~ /ɾl/ ~ /ɭ/ ~ /l/
    • 'soap': meidlo/mýdlo (Southern to Midlands) ~ mýrlo/mýḷo (Midlands) ~ mylo (Northern England)

Writing

Albionian uses the Latin alphabet, and the orthography has been significantly influenced by Latin and Romance languages. Palatalization is indicated with a dot diacritic when the consonant is not followed by a vowel. Example: weac ['bɛk] 'age', weaċnei ['bɛtʃnɛɪ] 'eternal'. Certain letters can take a palatalizing i which works much like in Italian and Polish: cia, nia, tia, dia, scia, cie, nie, tie, die, scie, ci, ni, ti, di, sci, etc. are read as ċ ṅ ṫ ḋ sċ + ia, e, ê, i, ỉ.

The orthography is based on the relatively conservative southern dialect of ___ of the 15th and 16th centuries, but the pronunciation of the standard koine has absorbed influences from other dialects, such as liquid pleophony from the Gaelic-influenced northern dialects. The underdot diacritic indicates the stød in dictionaries.

Morphology

Nouns (Substantỉva)

Like our Slavic, Albionian has masculine, feminine and neuter genders, and has the same gender markers as our Slavic. (For forms for enbies, see Albionian/Nonbinary forms).

Modern Standard Albionian nouns and adjectives have retained four of the seven Proto-Slavic cases: nominative (nominatỉv), dative (datỉv), genitive (genitỉv) and locative (locatỉv). (Dialects differ in the number of cases; some conservative dialects retain all 7 Proto-Slavic cases, while some dialects, particularly in the New World, have lost case entirely.) The nominative is used for both subjects and direct objects; the dative fills the role of dative nouns and after some prepositions in our Slavic languages. The instrumental is semi-productive in forming adverbs and expressions, e.g. prawdô 'really'; beagem 'during'; wuzglyndem 'owing to, in view of'; pomơthỉ 'with, using'; yneimi slowy 'in other words'. Modern Colloquial Albionian (i.e. the uniformized register spoken by young cosmopolitans) is in the process of losing the locative, replacing it with the dative.

The instrumental has been replaced with the dative in the following way:

  • Instruments use the preposition se + dative (just like the comitative).
  • After prepositions where our Slavic languages use the instrumental, such as nad 'above'.
  • Predicate nouns and adjectives that denote becoming or change of state.

Some nouns have different stems for zero and nonzero endings: den 'day (nom.)' > dnia 'days (nom.)'; cuyêṅ 'horse (nom.)' > cơnia 'horses (nom.)'.

Some hard stem declensions

wylc (m.) = wolf galwa (f.) = head perdseada (m.) = chairman slowo (n.) = word
singular plural singular plural singular plural singular plural
Nominative wylc wylcy* galwa galwy perdseada perdseady* slowo slowa
Genitive wylca wylcow galwy galw perdseady perdseadow slowa slow
Dative wylcu, wylcui wylcum galwe galwum perdseadu, perdseadui perdseadum slowe slowum
Locative wylcu, wylcui wylcach galwe galwach perdseadu, perdseadui perdseadach slowe slowach

* Sometimes -owia for humans.

Some wylc nouns drop intervening e or y (from PS hard and soft yer respectively) when adding endings: pys 'dog' > gen. psa; cơthec 'kitten' > gen. cơthca.

In wylc nouns, -u is used for nouns ending in velars and -e for others.

The ending -e in the above declensions causes second palatalization: n ng t c d g ch become ṅ nð ṫ th ḋ ð s, for example:

  • stảrna 'side' > na tei stảrnie 'on the side'
  • dảrga 'road' > na tei dảrðe 'on the road'
  • tônga 'desire' > se tônðe 'with desire'
  • ucitelca 'teacher (f.)' > tei ucitelthe 'to/for the teacher'

Some soft-stem declensions

Some nouns like list 'leaf' and cơst 'bone' end in a hard consonant in the nominative.

môż (m.) = man
list (m.) = 'leaf'
cơst (f.) = bone zeme (f.) = earth syrthe (n.) = heart zdởniê (n.) = fact
singular plural singular plural singular plural singular plural singular plural
Nominative môż
list
môżowia, môża
listia
cơst cơsti zeme zemi syrthe syrtha zdởniê zdởnia
Genitive môża
listia
môżỉ
listỉ
cơsti cơstỉ zemi zemỉ syrtha syrth zdởnia zdơṅ
Dative môżi
listi
môżim
listim
cơsti cơstum zemi zemim syrthi syrthim zdởnỉ zdởnim
Locative môżi
listi
môżich
listich
cơsti cơstach zemi zemich syrthi syrthich zdởnỉ zdởnich

-ê nouns

ymê (n.) = name zgwêrê (n.) = animal
singular plural singular plural
Nominative ymê ymyna zgwêrê zgwêrynta
Genitive ymynia ymyn zgwêryntia zgwêrynt
Dative ymyni ymynum zgwêrynti zgwêryntum
Locative ymyni ymynach zgwêrynti zgwêryntach

Nouns with pseudo-duals

oco (n.) = eye ucho (n.) = ear runca (f.) = hand, arm
singular plural singular plural singular plural
Nominative oco ơci ucho uṡi runca runthe
Genitive oca ơcỉ ucha uṡỉ runcy runthỉ
Dative othe ơcim uṡe uṡim runthe runcum
Locative othe ơcich uṡe uṡich runthe runcach

Miscellaneous

cielweac (m.) = human, person
singular plural
Nominative cielweac lidia
Genitive cielweaca lidỉ
Dative cielweacu lidum
Locative cielweacu lidach
ởteth (m.) = father
singular plural
Nominative ởteth ởthy
Genitive ởtha ởthow
Dative ởthu ởthum
Locative ởthe ởthach

vocative (archaic): ởcie!

slużineth (m.) = child
singular plural
Nominative slużineth deati
Genitive slużintha deatỉ
Dative slużinthu deatum
Locative slużinthe deatach

vocative (literary): deatco!

Loan declension

Masculine and neuter words from Latin, Greek and Lithuanian remove their original nominative singular endings when declined.

  • Second-declension nouns follow the wylc declension: for example, socialismus 'socialism', mỷthos 'myth', Mindaugas 'Mindaugas (Lithuanian name)'.
  • There is a tendency to keep nominative and oblique stems separate where the original languages do; this includes nouns such as thema, themata, thematu, thematu.
  • Second-declension words in -um or -on follow the slowo or syrthe declension: for example, practicum 'internship'; critẻrion 'criterion'.
  • Nouns in -ẻ (for example, Athẻnẻ 'Athena') decline as feminine -e nouns; -ia nouns are a declension class of their own.
  • More unusual declensions are normatively treated as having one of the regular native declensions. The plural of ẻthos is ẻthosy; using forms such as ẻthy would be hypercorrect.

Newer foreign -u names decline like slowo and -i names decline like -e nouns (allowed by Albionian vowel reduction). Female names ending in a consonant decline like cơst: Ester becomes Esteri in the non-nominative cases. Names that don't fit into native patterns are indeclinable, and simply add the definite article: the female name Hanako becomes ta Hanako. The definite article declines when the name needs to be declined: ty walsy tei Hanako 'Hanako's hair'.

mỷthos (m.) = myth practicum (n.) = internship critẻrion (n.) = criterion geometria (f.) = geometry
singular plural singular plural singular plural singular plural
Nominative mỷthos mỷthy practicum practica critẻrion critẻria geometria geometrii
Genitive mỷtha mỷthow practica practic critẻria critẻriỉ geometrii geometriỉ
Dative mỷthu mỷthum practicu practicum critẻrii/-e critẻriim geometrie geometriim
Locative mỷthu mỷthach practicu practicach critẻrii/-e critẻriach geometrie geometriach

Pluralia tantum

Neuter pluralia tantum in -a, such as ủsta 'mouth', warta 'door', nebesa 'sky', slowesa 'speech, words' (as opposed to slowa which is used for individual words), data, agenda, propaganda are colloquially often feminine singular.

Articles (Articuly)

Like Irish and Welsh, Albionian has a definite article but no indefinite article; żảba means 'a frog', and ta żảba means 'the frog'.

tet 'the; that'
m. sg. f. sg. n. sg. plural
Nominative tet* ta to ty** (m/f), ta (n)
Genitive teo tei teo teach
Dative tom tei tom team
Locative tom tei tom teach

* /tʰɪ/ before z ż; /tʰɪh/ otherwise

** The article and demonstrative ty is pronounced /tʰɨ/; the second-person pronoun ty is pronounced /tɨ/.

Prepositions (Preposicii)

Prepositions have meanings similar to their cognates in our Slavic languages: na, o(b), od, u (+gen), cu (+dat), do (+gen), wu, po, za, se (+dat), bez (+gen), dla (+gen), perz, pri, nad, pod, perd, ... The prepositions na, nad, o, po, pod, za, pers, perd, pri, wu take the nominative/accusative when they denote motion, and the locative or dative when they denote location (depending on the preposition; the dative is used where our Slavic languages would use the instrumental). Unlike in our Slavic languages, there's no difference between comitative and instrumental; the preposition is used for both.

Possession is indicated using the preposition u, as in Russian.

Preposition + pronoun combinations

If the prepositional object is a pronoun, the preposition + pronoun is written and pronounced as one word: Bunde wecierca u Catheriny, ci poidem my cunỉ cil ne? /pʊndɨ bɛtʃʰɪɾkʰə ʊ ˈkʰaθɨɾɪnɨ, tʃɪ ˈpɔɪdɨm mɨ ˈkʰʊnʲiː tʃɪw nɛ/ 'There's a party at Catherina's, are we going [to her house] or not?'. If a preposition combines with a personal pronoun, -e- may be added between the preposition and the pronoun: for example: nademnô, nadetô, podemnô, podetwô, yzemnie, yzetwe, yzese, semnô, stô.

o is ob before a vowel.

Preposition + article contractions

o, pri, na, cu, wu, po, za, se + tom > om, prim, nam, cum, wum, pom, zam, stom

Adjectives (Adjectỉva)

Hard stems:

dobrei 'good'
m. sg. f. sg. n. sg. plural
Nominative dobrei dobrả dobrẻ dobrê (m/f), dobrả (n)
Genitive dobrẻo dobrei dobrẻo dobreich
Dative dobrẻm dobrei dobrẻm dobreim
Locative dobrẻm dobrei dobrẻm dobreich

Soft stems:

ostatnỉ 'remaining'
m. sg. f. sg. n. sg. plural
Nominative ostatnỉ ostatniả ostatniê ostatniê (m/f), ostatniả (n)
Genitive ostatnỉo ostatniei ostatnỉo ostatnỉch
Dative ostatnỉm ostatniei ostatnỉm ostatnỉm
Locative ostatnỉm ostatniei ostatnỉm ostatnỉch

Possessive adjectives

In colloquial language, only nouns denoting family members have possessive adjective forms.

ởtyth 'father' > ởthow, -owa, -owo 'father's'

matca 'mother' > matcin, -ina, -ino

For example: ởthow lewr /œ:θoʊ lɛʊr/ 'father's book'

Inherited possessive adjectives are also used in formal language to denote concepts named after people (like German -sche); e.g. scusitelnơst Beizowa 'Bayesian probability'.

Verbs (Verba)

Verbs retain relics of the Proto-Slavic aspectual distinction, but they're expressed a bit differently than in other Slavic languages: imperfective/perfective behaves more like principal parts of a single verb. There are a number of analytic tenses like in modern Celtic languages, but often only one of the two aspects allow the constructions.

The conditional form is a bit unusual from the perspective of our Slavic; it continues the PS 1sg -xŭ imperfective and aorist form, analogized to other persons and numbers. It corresponds to the L-participle + by construction in Russian, Polish, etc.. There is no distinction between present and past conditional, unlike in English; the Albionian conditional makes an aspect distinction rather than a tense one.

  • present habitual: imperfective
  • present progressive: imperfective
  • present perfect: perfective
  • past imperfect: imperfective
  • past progressive: imperfective
  • preterite: perfective
  • future imperfective: imperfective (formed with a (fused) auxiliary)
  • future perfective: perfective (formed like present)
  • conditional can be either

Verbs are negated using the circumfix ne VERB als (etym. *ne ... wals 'not a hair of'), or colloquially, often just with VERB als. A direct object of a negated verb, as well as any direct object of any lexical verb, is required to be in the genitive: Cdoż sparuyê eaðen mynso? Ne sparuyêns als eaðenia mynsa. [kʰtoʃ 'spaɾœ: 'jɛðɪnʲiə 'mɨnsʊ || nɪ 'spaɾœ:ns əws 'jɛðɪnʲə 'mɨnsə] (also eaðeniê mynsa in more informal contexts) = 'Who condones eating meat? I don't condone eating meat.'

3pl forms of verbs are only used with the plural pronoun fyṡ (from older ...nt wyṡ 'they all...'). plural nouns and demonstratives take the 3sg form.

Special emphatic forms exist in the first person: sensto 'it's me'. Sens asto is prescriptively incorrect, but is commonly used.

Grayed-out forms are used in formal or literary language.

-aṫ

dealaṫ, zdealaṫ 'to do'
tense 1sg 2sg fam. 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl impersonal
present dealảns dealảṡ ty dealả dealảm my dealảt wy dealản dealả-sê
present prog. sens na dealơnỉ si ty na dealơnỉ les ton na dealơnỉ smy na dealơnỉ stwy na dealơnỉ len fyṡ na dealơnỉ dealảmo
past dealal sens, dealalans dealal(a)s ty dealal on, ona; dealal(a/o) NOUN dealali smy dealali stwy dealali fyṡ dealalo-sê
conditional dealảchs dealach ty dealach dealachum my dealach wy, dealachet wy, dealast wy dealach fyṡ, dealaṡin fyṡ dealach-sê
imperative - dealei! - dealeim! dealeite! - -
present participle dealảnthei
past participle dealanei
verbnoun dealơniê

-eaṫ

wideaṫ, uwideaṫ 'to see'
tense 1sg 2sg fam. 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl impersonal
present wiðuns widiêṡ ty widiê widiêm my widiêt wy wiðôn widiê-sê
present prog. sens na wiðenỉ si ty na wiðenỉ les ton na wiðenỉ smy na wiðenỉ stwy na wiðenỉ len fyṡ na wiðenỉ wiðemo
past wideal sens, widealans wideal(a)s ty wideal on(a/o); wideal(a/o) NOUN wideali smy wideali stwy wideali fyṡ widealo-sê
conditional widiêchs wideach ty wideach wideachum my wideach wy, wideachet wy, wideast wy wideach fyṡ, wideaṡin fyṡ wideach-sê
imperative - wið! - wiðem! wiðete! -
present participle wiðônthei
past participle wiðenei
verbnoun wiðeniê

-iṫ

nosiṫ 'to carry by foot (multidirectional); to wear; counterpart of nesṫ'
tense 1sg 2sg fam. 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl impersonal
present noṡins nosỉṡ ty nosỉ nosỉm my nosỉt wy noṡên nosỉ-sê
present prog. sens na noṡenỉ si ty na noṡenỉ les ton na noṡenỉ smy na noṡenỉ stwy na noṡenỉ len fyṡ na noṡenỉ noṡimo
past nosil sens, nosilans nosil(a)s ty nosil on(a/o); nosil(a/o) NOUN nosili smy nosili stwy nosili fyṡ nosilo-sê
conditional nosỉchs nosich ty nosich nosichum my nosich wy, nosichet wy, nosist wy nosi fyṡ, nosiṡin fyṡ nosich-sê
imperative - nos! - nosem! noste! - -
present participle noṡênthei
past participle noṡenei
verbnoun noṡeniê

Changes in 1sg and 3pl present-system, participle and verbnoun forms: m p b n d t z s st > mj pj bj ṅ ð th ż ṡ sċ

  • lomiṫ "to split (impf)" > lomins, lomieniê
  • topiṫ "to heat (impf)" > topins, topieniê
  • slabiṫ "to weaken (impf)" > slabins, slabieniê
  • platiṫ "to pay (impf)" > plathins, platheniê
  • rodiṫ-sê "to be born (pf)" > roðins-sê, roðeniê
  • zmeaniṫ "to change (pf)" > zmeanins, zmeanieniê
  • rozcaziṫ "to decompose (pf)" > rozcażins, rozcażeniê
  • zcusiṫ "to try (pf)" > zcuṡins, zcuṡeniê
  • odpustiṫ "to forgive (pf)" > odpuscins, odpuscieniê

-owaṫ, -nơnṫ

The -owaṫ /-oʊtʲ/ verbs are from PSlav -ovati verbs, the perfective counterpart is -nơnṫ from -nǫti.

beseadowaṫ 'gather (imperfective)'
tense 1sg 2sg fam. 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl impersonal
present beseaduyêns beseaduyêṡ ty beseaduyê beseaduyêm my beseaduyêt wy beseaduyên beseaduyê-sê
present prog. sens na beseadowanỉ si ty na beseadowanỉ les ton na beseadowanỉ smy na beseadowanỉ stwy na beseadowanỉ len fyṡ na beseadowanỉ beseaduyêmo
past beseadowal sens, beseadowalans beseadowal(a)s ty beseadowal on(a/o); beseadowal(a/o) NOUN beseadowali smy beseadowali stwy beseadowali fyṡ beseadowalo-sê
conditional beseadỏchs beseadoch ty beseadoch beseadochum my beseadoch wy, beseadochet wy, beseadost wy beseadoch fyṡ, beseadoṡin fyṡ beseadoch-sê
imperative - beseadui! - beseaduim! beseaduite! - -
present participle beseaduyênthei
past participle beseadowanei
verbnoun beseadowaniê


beseadnơnṫ 'gather (perfective)'
tense 1sg 2sg fam. 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl impersonal
future perfective beseadnuns beseadneṡ ty beseadne beseadnem my beseadnet wy beseadnôn beseadne-sê
present perf. sens po beseadnuntỉ si ty po beseadnuntỉ les ton po beseadnuntỉ smy po beseadnuntỉ stwy po beseadnuntỉ len fyṡ po beseadnuntỉ beseadnunto
preterite beseadnôl sens, beseadnôlans beseadnôl(a)s ty beseadnôl on(a/o), beseadnôl(a/o) NOUN beseadnôli smy beseadnôli stwy beseadnôli fyṡ beseadnôlo-sê
preterite beseadnôchs beseadnuch ty beseadnuch beseadnuchum my beseadnuch wy, beseadnuchet wy, beseadnust wy beseadnuch fyṡ, beseadnôṡin fyṡ beseadnuch-sê
imperative - beseadni! - beseadnim! beseadnite! - -
past participle beseadnuntei
verbnoun beseadnuntiê

-ṫ

dẻrt 'to tear'

present: druns, dreṡ ty, dre, drem my, dret wy, drôn

past: derl

conditional analytic: deroch

past participle: derto

verbnoun: dertiê

d/t-stems go like this:

cỉst, precỉst 'to read' (from a combination of *čisti and *čitati):

present: cituns, citeṡ ty, cite ton, citem my, citet wy, citôn

past: citl

conditional analytic: citoch

past participle: citeno

verbnoun: citeniê

nẻst 'to carry (unidirectional)':

present: nesuns, neseṡ ty, nese ton, nesem my, neset wy, nesôn fyṡ

past: nesl(a/o/i)

conditional analytic: nesoch

past participle: neseno

verbnoun: neseniê

imperative: nes! nesem! nesete!

iêsṫ, sêsṫ 'to eat' is irregular:

present: iêns, eaṡ ty, ea ton, eam my, eat wy, eaðôn

past: eadl(a/o/i)

conditional analytic: eadeach

past participle: eaðeno

verbnoun: eaðeniê

-th

bẻrth, lẻth, mởth, biêth, riêth, liênth, pẻth, pônth, tẻth, tiênth, stẻrth, stỉth, strỉth, tẻlth, wẻlth, wẻrth, wyrth, żẻth

From PS *-ťi verbs. Two subtypes: the *gti verbs and the *kti verbs.

bẻrth 'to guard'
tense 1sg 2sg fam. 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl impersonal
future perfective berguns berżeṡ ty berże berżem my berżet wy bergôn fyṡ berże-sê
present perf. sens na berżenỉ si ty na berżenỉ les ton na berżenỉ smy na berżenỉ stwy na berżenỉ len fyṡ na berżenỉ bergomo
past bergl sens, berglans bergl(a)s ty bergl on(a/o), bergl(a/o) NOUN bergli smy bergli stwy bergli fyṡ berglo-sê
conditional bergochs bergoch ty bergoch on(a/o) bergochum my bergoch wy, bergochet wy, bergost wy bergoch fyṡ, bergoṡin fyṡ bergoch-sê
imperative - berð! - berðem! berðete! - -
past participle berżenei
verbnoun berżeniê


riêth 'say (perfective)'
tense 1sg 2sg fam. 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl impersonal
future perfective reacuns reaċeṡ ty reaċe reaċem my reaċet wy reacôn fyṡ reaċe-sê
present perf. sens po reaċenỉ si ty po reaċenỉ les ton po reaċenỉ smy po reaċenỉ stwy po reaċenỉ len fyṡ po reaċenỉ reaċeno
past reacl sens, reaclans reacl(a)s ty reacl on(a/o), reacl(a/o) NOUN reacli smy reacli stwy reacli fyṡ reaclo-sê
conditional reacochs reacoch ty reacoch reacochum my reacoch wy, reacochet wy, reacost wy reacoch fyṡ, reacoṡin fyṡ reacoch-sê
imperative - reath! - reathem! reathete! - -
past participle reaċenei
verbnoun reaċeniê

beiṫ 'to be'

beiṫ 'to be'
tense 1sg 2sg fam. 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl impersonal
present sens si ty les smy stwy len, lesun les-sê
habitual beiwảns beiwảṡ ty beiwả beiwảm my beiwảt wy beiwản fyṡ beiwả-sê
present prog. sens na bytỉ si ty na bytỉ les ton na bytỉ smy na bytỉ stwy na bytỉ len fyṡ na bytỉ sôntho
past byl sens, bylans byl(a)s ty byl on(a/o); byl(a/o) NOUN byli smy byli stwy byli fyṡ bylo-sê
conditional beichs bych ty, byṡ ty bych, by bychum my bych wy, bychet wy, byst wy bych fyṡ, by fyṡ, byṡin fyṡ bych-sê
future bunduns bundeṡ ty bunde bundem my bundet wy bundôn fyṡ bunde-sê
imperative - bônḋ! - bôndiem! bônḋte! - -
present participle sônthei
verbnoun bytiê

Verbs of motion

  • to go by foot: ỉsṫ (uni); chodiṫ (multi)
  • to go by vehicle: eachaṫ (uni); eazdiṫ (multi)
  • to carry (by foot): nẻsṫ (uni); nosiṫ (multi)
  • to carry (by vehicle): wẻzṫ (uni); woziṫ (multi)
  • to run: biêth (uni); biêgaṫ (multi)
  • to swim: pleuṫ (uni); plewaṫ (multi)
  • to fly: leateaṫ (uni); liêtaṫ (multi)
  • to lead: wẻsṫ (uni); wodiṫ (multi)
  • to climb: liêzṫ (uni); laziṫ (multi)
  • to chase: gnaṫ (uni); ganiaṫ (multi)

Pronouns (Pronỏmina)

case 1sg. 2sg. (Albion; familiar) 3sg. 1pl. 2pl. (familiar; also sg. in America) 3pl. refl.
m. f. n.
nom. (emphatic) asṫ, -sṫ tyṫ (t)onṫ (t)onaṫ (t)onoṫ (an.), toṫ (inan.) myṫ wyṫ fyṡṫ, tyṡṫ -
acc. miê, mnie, -mnie (prep) tiê, tybe, -twe (prep) jei, -niei (prep.) ji, -ni (prep.) to nảs wảs je, -nie (prep.) sê, -sê (prep)
gen. men, -mnie (prep) teb, -twe (prep) jeo, -nieo (prep.) jỉ, -nỉ (prep.) teo nảs wảs jich, -nich (prep.) seb, -sê (prep)
dat. mi, mnô, -mnô (prep) ti, tô, -tô (prep) jem, mu, -niem (prep.) jỉ, -nỉ (prep.) tom nảm wảm jim, -nim (prep.) si, sô, -sô (prep)
loc. -mnie -twe -niem -nỉ -tom -nảs -wảs -nich (prep.) -sê
poss. môi tôi jeo jỉ teo nảṡ wảṡ jich sôi; walsnei

The nominative forms ton etc. are used after verb forms ending in a vowel. Otherwise on etc. are used.

The form fyṡ is from *vьśi 'all'. tyṡ and tyṡto are literary variants of fyṡ, fyṡto.

The form waṡca (pl. waṡcy; treated as a feminine noun, because it comes from waṡa lảsca 'your grace') are the standard polite forms in Albion. American Albionian uses wy for singular and plural familiar, wảsca for both singular and plural of neutral familiarity in the Americas, and tet pan, ta pani (pl. ty panowia, ty pani) are very polite.

Possessive pronouns

môi 'my'
m. sg. f. sg. n. sg. plural
Nominative môi mả mẻ (m/f), mả (n)
Genitive mẻo mei mẻo meich
Dative mẻm mei mẻm meim
Locative mẻm mei mẻm meich
tôi 'thy'
m. sg. f. sg. n. sg. plural
Nominative tôi twả twẻ twê (m/f), twả (n)
Genitive twẻo twei twẻo tweich
Dative twẻm twei twẻm tweim
Locative twẻm twei twẻm tweich

sôi is similar to tôi but with s- where tw- is used.

nảṡ 'our'
m. sg. f. sg. n. sg. plural
Nominative nảṡ naṡe naṡe naṡi (m/f), naṡe (n)
Genitive naṡeo naṡỉ naṡeo naṡich
Dative naṡem naṡỉ naṡem naṡim
Locative naṡem naṡỉ naṡem naṡich

wảṡ is similar.

Uses of sảm

Declension of sảm
m. sg. f. sg. n. sg. plural
Nominative sảm sama samo samy (m/f); sama (n)
Genitive samẻo samei samẻo sameich
Dative samẻm samei samẻm sameim
Locative samẻm samei samẻm sameich

tet sảm is a 3rd person pronoun in formal or literary language. They work like the German anaphoric use of dieser and are usually used to refer to the latest noun that has been used.

When sảm is used in X sảm (where sảm agrees with the gender and number of X), it is an intensifier, meaniing "X himself/herself" or "the very X". Similarly, sê sảm (where sảm agrees with the subject) is an emphasized reflexive pronoun.

Demonstratives

  • person: cto, tet/ta, tamtet/tamta, nict, niecto, wṡect/cażdei
  • thing: tho, to, tamto, nith, nietho, wṡeth
  • modifier: acei/cterei, tacei, tamtacei, żảden, niejacei, wṡes(e)c/cażdei
  • when: cdy, nyn, tom, nicdy, niecdy, wṡewynth
  • where: cde, tu/tunde, tam, nicde, niecde, wṡecde
  • whither; cam, sem, tam, nicam, niecam, wṡecam
wṡestec 'all'
m. sg. f. sg. n. sg. plural
Nominative wṡestec wṡesca wṡesco wṡescy (m/f), wṡesca (n)
Genitive wṡeo wṡỉ wṡeo wṡich
Dative wṡem wṡỉ wṡem wṡim
Locative wṡem wṡỉ wṡem wṡich

acei 'what kind of, what (used to ask what X, given that it's an X)' tacei 'such, like that', cterei 'which (which item in a predetermined set of options)' decline as ordinary adjectives. The relativizer taceiż declines as tacei + ż.

Numerals (Numerảlia)

(colloquially those are just called cỉsla)

0. nula; nultei

1. aden /'adɪn/; pyrwei '1st'

2. dwa /twa/; drugei '2nd'

3. tri /tʰrɪ/; tretỉ '3rd'

4. ciri /'tʃʰɪrɪ/; ċcwyrtei

5. piênt /pʰiənt/; piêntei

6. ṡest /ʃɛst/; ṡestei

7. sedem /'sɛdɪm/; sedmei

8. ơsem /'œsɪm/; ơsmei

9. dewynt /'tɛβɨnt/; dewyntei

10. desynt /'tɛsɨnt/; desyntei

11.. 19: adnảst, dwanảst, trinảst, cirnảst, piêntnảst, ṡestnảst, sedemnảst, ơsemnảst, dewntnảst /'adnɔ:st, 'twanɔ:st, .../; adnảstei, dwanảstei, ...

20: dwadesti /'twadɨstɪ/; dwadestei

21... 29: dwadesti aden, ..., dwadesti dewynt

30, 40, ... 90: tridesta, cirdesta, piêndesynt, ṡesdesynt, sedemdesynt, ơsemdesynt, dewndesynt /'tʰrɪdɨstə, .../; tridestei, ..., piêndesyntei, ...

100: sto /'stɔ/; stotei

200: dwestie

300, ..., 900: trista, ċirista, piêntset, ṡestset, sedemset, ơsemset, dewntset

1000: tysênth /tʰɨsiənθ/

Small numerals decline as follows:

aden '1'
m. f. n.
Nominative aden adna adno
Genitive adnẻo adnei adnẻo
Dative adnẻm adnei adnẻm
Locative adnẻm adnei adnẻm

dwa '2'
m. f. n.
Nominative dwa dwe dwe
Genitive dwei dwei dwei
Dative dweam dweam dweam
Locative dwei dwei dwei

Oba 'both' declines the same way.

tri '3' and ciri '4'
tri '3' ciri '4'
Nominative tri ciri
Genitive trỉ cirỉ
Dative trim cirum
Locative trich cirach


Nouns following numbers five and above require the genitive case, in contexts that require the nominative case.

Conjunctions (Conjunccii)

  • y(l), a(l) = 'and'
    • Though y and a had different meanings up to EMAlb, the choice between y and a is purely phonetically determined in the modern language. a(l) is used after /i: ɪ ɨ/, y(l) otherwise. The -l (from *li) is used iff a vowel follows.
  • ci, libo, alibo = 'or'
    • alib = (literary) 'or'
  • ale = 'but'
  • aċcol tac = 'however'
  • estli = 'because'
  • zaċ 'why?'
  • nebo(ṫ), bowiêṡ(ṫ), nebowiêṡ(ṫ) = 'because'; can't be used at the beginning of the sentence
  • reacỉ że = (formal) 'because'
  • dôwodem, że = (formal) 'because'
  • zato(ż) 'that's why'
  • abo(ṫ) = (literary) 'for'
  • 'so that'
  • achż (literary) 'in order that'
  • cdyż 'when'
  • bônḋ... ci... = 'either... or'
  • ne telco... ale pac... = 'not only... but also...'
  • niż = 'than'
  • choṫ, chotiaż, aċcol = 'although'

Syntax

Strict VSO; other aspects of syntax more SAE

Left-conjunct agreement

"There is" and "to have"

In the past tense, the verb bylo agrees with the gender of the (first) subject in affirmatives but defaults to masculine singular when negated:

  • Byla żena y piênt deatỉ unie. = He had a wife and five children.
  • Ne byl als teo lewra semnô. = I didn't have the book with me.

To like

Lib X.DAT Y = X likes Y

e.g. Lib mi led vanillowei. = I like vanilla ice cream.

Nỉst lib mi... = I don't like...

'To hate' simply uses the regular verb nenảwideaṫ.

Relative clauses

To form a relative clause, usually the relativizer cde (indeclinable) is used after the noun phrase. Formal or literary writing may use the relativizer taceiż (< tacei, że 'such that'), which declines but is not a proper relative pronoun; it agrees with the case of the head in the matrix clause (cf. Arabic allaðī). In both cases, a resumptive pronoun is used when the head is not a subject or a direct object in the relative clause:

Byla owtha, tacảż ne byl als wolny unỉ
be.PST-3SG.F sheep-NOM.SG, REL.NOM.SG.F NEG be.PST.3SG.M NEG wool-GEN.SG by-(RES)3SG.F.GEN
There was a sheep which had no wool

Vocabulary

Celtic loans

For Germanic words in our Slavic, Albionian uses Celtic or Latin words instead:

  • tet briêntin (PCeltic *brigant-) = king
  • tet towsảc (*tovĭsakŭ, from PCeltic *towissākos) = prince (all senses)
  • tet lewr (from Latin liber) = book
  • to melco = Borrowing from Proto-English?

Early Modern Albionian

Early Modern Albionian has the following features:

Morphology

  • Instrumental and vocative cases
  • Pseudo-dual dative and instrumental endings in -ma: walsneima dweama ơcima 'with one's own two eyes'
  • Possessive adjectives in -ow or -in more widespread (ty marchogowia Arthyrowy 'Arthur's knights', modern ty marchogowia Arthyra)
  • Use of the transgressive (the dealảnth and zdealaw forms) of verbs in main-clause progressive and perfect tenses and in subordinate time clauses. In Modern Albionian these are replaced with analytic constructions using verbnouns: na dealơnỉ 'doing' (lit. on doing) and po zdealơnỉ 'having done' (lit. after doing).
  • Infinitives in -ti or -thi (e.g. dealati, riêthi)
  • Pro-drop when the subject is not 3rd person
  • 3sg, 2pl and 3pl present and future perfective forms in -t, -te and -nt (e.g. dealảt, dealảte, dealảnt, sometimes for more archaic effect dealaït, dealaïte, dealaïnt); the 3pl form is always used with a plural subject. The -t and -nt affixes were artificially preserved in early liturgical use of the language, possibly out of conscious imitation of Latin; even as early as Bỉble Breintowscả they were out of use in daily speech.
  • 3rd person pronoun forms without t-: on, ona, ono.
  • ne used without als.
  • est and sônt/sunt are used for 3sg and 3pl present of beit (The modern forms les and lesun are from gleḋ est 'here is' and gleḋ sunt.)
  • definite articles in genitive phrases: a genitive phrase of the form X DEF.GEN Y.GEN is implied to be definite. On the other hand, Modern Albionian usually requires X to take the definite article as well.
  • The use of -li on verbs for interrogatives: znảṡli? 'dost thou know?'
  • -mu is sometimes used instead of -m for dative singular masculine and neuter adjectives and pronouns: spiêweite jemu piêsyṅ nowả 'sing unto him a new song'.
  • Adjectives may come before nouns.

Syntax

Since Literary Albionian developed after the VSO word order was stabilized, EMAlb had a vast array of syntactic particles for changing the word order from the default VSO one. To change the word order like Greek, Latin and Hebrew could, one had to rely on particles to front parts of sentences to make them the topic or the focus; such particles and constructions are very common in the Breintow Bible, for example. In contrast, Modern Albionian tends to use a fixed VSO order and use intonation or the Old Czech style -ṫ affix from the ethical dative -ti for emphasis (which ironically went obsolete in Czech).

Early Modern Albionian had particles like "est ... -ż" or -stiż from the cleft construction for focus or -ti from the ethical dative usage of ti cribbed from Greek and Latin, "tycum + GEN" or "sam + NOUN" for topicalization. There were complicated combinations of those particles with other components of the sentence, creating new function words in the modern literary language. Emphasizing adjuncts and for objects/subjects might have demanded a different particle or construction.

For example, using a null prefix particle (instead of est or le) and the clitic -stiż puts a strong emphasis on a constituent (it doesn't indicate truth value):

Sprawedliwơsti, sprawedliwơsti-stiż presledowati bundeṡ. (Deut 16:20, BBR)
justice.DAT justice.DAT-STRONG_EMPH pursue-INF be.FUT-2SG
Justice, justice thou shalt pursue.

Today, Early Modern Albionian is primarily used to make something sound religious or poetic; later stages are used as models for dialogues in fantasy or historical fiction.

Sample texts (Breintowscả Bible)

Genesis 1:1-5

1. Wum nảcindle-ṫ stwơril Bôg ta nebesa y ta zeme.

2. A ta zeme-ṫ byla bezwidnả y pustả, y tma nad twởrỉ tei prepasti, y duch Boga oplewảnth nad teami wodami.

3. Y reacl Bôg, Bônḋ scweatlo, y bylo scweatlo.

4. Y wideal Bôg to scweatlo, [y] że [by to] dobrẻ; y rozdealil Bôg meði to scweatlo y ta tma.

5. Y nazwal Bôg to scweatlo dnem, a ta tma, nazwal on [ji] nơthỉ. Y byl wecier y bylo jitro, dyn pyrwei.

John 1:1-5

1. Wum nảcindle-ṫ bylo to Slowo, y to Slowo bylo pri Bogu, y to Slowo bylo Bôg.

2. To samo-ṫ bylo wum nảcindle pri Bogu.

3. Perzeniei-ż ucinieny sunt wṡescy weathi; y beznie nỉst ucinieno nith, tho że ucinieno est.

4. Wuniei-ṫ byl tet żiwot; a tet żiwot, byl on scweatlo teach lidỉ.

5. Y to scweatlo-ṫ scwiêtỉt wu teach tymnơstach, ale ta tma-ṫ ne poiôla jeo.

John 3:16

Abo tac-ż milowal Bôg tet scweat, yż dal on sôi adnoroðenei Syn, achż cażdei, ctoż wearỉt wuṅ, ne zagynuch on, ale naideach on żiwot weaċnei.

Sample texts

Schleicher

Ta owtha y ty cơnia

Byla owtha, tacảż ne byl als wolny unỉ, yl uwideal ona tri cơnia: aden na tyngơnỉ wôz tiêżcei, aden na nesenỉ noṡe welcả, yl aden na nesenỉ cielweac borzo. Reacla ta owtha team cơnim: "Bolỉ mẻ syrthe, cdy widiêns cielweac na eazdienỉ na cơnia." Odpoweadeali ty cơnia: "Sluchei, owtha! Bolỉ naṡe syrthe, cdy widiêm my to: bere cielweac, tet gospodin, ta wylna tei owthy a dealả ton odeða teplả yznỉ. Y nỉst als wylny u tei owthy." Po uslyṡenỉ to, nabeagla ta owtha do teo pola.

UDHR

Rodỉ-sê wṡescy lidia wơlneim y sobie arwneim wu sei dôstoinơsti a seich prảwach. Lesun tyṡ nadảrenê s' arzumu y prawoznởnỉ, tedy les dolg nanim ciniṫ aden wuzglyndem teo drugẻo wu duchu teo bratrstwa.

Heart Sutra

Sủtra syrthi

Le toto-ż slyṡel sens. Byl raz tet Wuzneslei, na raze se mnogeim neiwyżṡỉm bòŧisaddwum y mnichum, na wyrchu tei gory Ǥrŧragùda, wu blỉże measta Ràđżraǥrha. Sedeal tet Wuzneslei stảrnô, podnuren wu samàŧi; y tet Awalògidèṡwara ċtigodnei rosyrthowal on nad tei Brađżṅàbàramidà glumbocei.

[...]

ÒM ǤADÈ ǤADÈ BARAǤADÈ BARASAṂǤADÈ ɃÒŦI SWÀHÀ

American Albionian: [tʰɔtʰʊʃ 'slɪʃɪɤ̃ˤʶsɪns | pɪɤ̃ʶ rəs tʰɪ 'ʍʊznɪsli: | 'nærəzɪ sɪ 'mnɔwi:m 'nɛjβɪʃʃi:m 'pɔwtʰisadwʏm ɪ 'mɲɪχʏm | nə 'bɪrəχʏ ti: 'kɔrɪ 'kɪɾɪdrəgu:də | bu 'pli:ʒɪ 'mjɛ:stə 'rɑ:dʒrəgɪrɪχə | 'sɛdʲɪɤ̃ʶ tʰɪh 'ʍʊznɪsli: 'stɑ:rənu: 'zænʏrɪm bʊ 'sæmɑ:tʰɪ | ɪ tʰɪh 'æβəɫowgɪdɛ:ʃʍəɾə 'tʃtɪjʊdni: 'rɔsɪɾɪθʊwɤ̃lˤʶ ʊn bʊ ti: 'pɾædʒɲɑ:bɑ:ɾəmɪdɑ: 'kɫʊmbʊki:]

From Máj (K. H. Mácha)

Mai

Máj
Byl pozdní večer – první máj –
večerní máj – byl lásky čas.
Hrdliččin zval ku lásce hlas,
kde borový zaváněl háj.
O lásce šeptal tichý mech;
květoucí strom lhal lásky žel,
svou lásku slavík růži pěl,
růžinu jevil vonný vzdech.
Jezero hladké v křovích stinných
zvučelo temně tajný bol,
břeh je objímal kol a kol;
a slunce jasná světů jiných
bloudila blankytnými pásky,
planoucí tam co slzy lásky.

May (tr. Edith Pargeter)
Late evening, on the first of May—
The twilit May—the time of love.
Meltingly called the turtle-dove,
Where rich and sweet pinewoods lay.
Whispered of love the mosses frail,
The flowering tree as sweetly lied,
The rose's fragrant sigh replied
To love-songs of the nightingale.
In shadowy woods the burnished lake
Darkly complained a secret pain,
By circling shores embraced again;
And heaven's clear sun leaned down to take
A road astray in azure deeps,
Like burning tears the lover weeps.