Alvinian (Алвини Език, Alvini Ezik) is a Southern Slavic language based on Old Slovene, which has been significantly influenced by Venetan, an Italo-Romance language spoken in North-Eastern Italy, and other Slavic languages, especially Serbian and Russian.
|Алвини Език, Alvini Ezik|
|Writing system||Latin, Cyrillic|
- 1 Alphabet
- 2 Grammar
- 2.1 Nouns
- 2.2 Adjectives
- 2.3 Pronouns
- 2.4 Verbs
Alvinian uses both Cyrillic and Latin script. The alphabets have an equal status, although latin is usually preferred in informal texts, while cyrillic is normally used in normative, scientific and official texts.
|А а||A a||/a/|
|Б б||B b||/b/|
|В в||V v||/v/|
|Г г||G g||/ɡ/|
|Д д||D d||/d/|
|Џ џ||Ğ ğ||/dʑ/|
|Е е||E e||/ɛ/ (stressed); /e/ (unstressed)|
|Ж ж||Ž ž||/ʐ/|
|З з||Z z||/z/|
|И и||I i||/i/|
|Ј ј||J j||/ʝ/|
|К к||K k||/k/|
|Л л||L l||/l/|
|Ԡ ԡ||L̆ l̆||/ʎ/|
|М м||M m||/m/|
|Н н||N n||/n/|
|Ԣ ԣ||Ň ň||/ɲ/|
|О о||O o||/ɔ/ (stressed); /о/ (unstressed)|
|П п||P p||/p/|
|Р р||R r||/ɾ/|
|С с||S s||/s/|
|Т т||T t||/t/|
|У у||U u||/u/|
|Ф ф||F f||/f/|
|Х х||H h||/x/|
|Ц ц||C c||/ts/|
|Ч ч||Č č||/tɕ/|
|Ш ш||Š š||/ʂ/|
|Һ һ||X x||/dz/|
|Я я||Ą ą||/ɔ̃/|
Alvinian inflects nouns for number (singular, dual, plural), gender (masculine, feminine, neuter) and case (nominative, genitive, accusative, dative). The declensions are divided into masculine, feminine and neuter.
|Masculine - Ušnik (Student)||Singular||Dual||Plural|
|Feminine - Niga (Book)||Singular||Dual||Plural|
|Neuter - Revo (Tree)||Singular||Dual||Plural|
Alvinian adjectives are inflected for number (singular, dual, plural), gender (masculine, feminine, neuter) and case (nominative, genitive, accusative, dative). There are three degrees of comparison: positive, comparative and superlative.
|Masculine - Zobri (Good)||Singular||Dual||Plural|
|Feminine - Zobra (Good)||Singular||Dual||Plural|
|Neuter - Zobro (Good)||Singular||Dual||Plural|
Comparative and Superlative
The Comparative is formed by attaching the prefix pre- to the positive form; the Superlative is formed by attaching the prefix naj- to the positive form. Both Comparative and Superlative adjectives are inflected according to the regular adjectival declension.
Zobri < Prezobri < Najzobri
When used as a predicative (the complement of the verb to be), the adjective adds the invariable suffix -om (masculine and neuter) and -oj (feminine) to the stem.
Zobr-i > Zobr-om
Zobr-a > Zobr-oj
Alvinian personal pronouns are inflected for number (singular, dual, plural), person, case (nominative, genitive, accusative, dative) and the 3rd persons are inflected also for gender (masculine/neuter, feminine).
|1S||2S||3S m,n||3S f||1D||2D||3D||1P||2P||3P m, f, n|
|Nom||Mi||Ti||El, Elo||Ela||Naj||Vaj||Laj||Ni||Vi||Eli, Ele, Elą|
Alvinian has a second serie of subject pronouns, which are clitic elements derived from full personal pronouns. These elements function only as markers of the agreement with the subject, and they are obligatorily realised together with the verb in a sentence. Subject Clitics are normally proclitic in declarative sentences (they come before the verb) and enclitic in interrogative sentences (they follow the verb). Subject Clitics are not inflected for case, since they always encode the relation of agreement with the subject, but they inflect for person, number (singular, dual, plural) and the 3rd persons are also inflected for gender (masculine, feminine, neuter).
Subject Clitics are also called subject doublers, since they have to be realised also in a sentence with an overt full pronominal subject or with an overt referential nominal subject.
|Subject Clitic + Verb||Full Pronoun + Subject Clitic + Verb||Referential Noun + Subject Clitic + Verb|
|Declarative||La že||Ela la že||Lara la že|
|Translation||She is||She she is||Lara she is|
Alvinian possessive pronouns are inflected for number (singular, dual, plural), gender (masculine, feminine, neuter) and case (nominative, genitive, accusative, dative). They are inflected according to the regular adjectival declension. They can be used as possessive adjectives as well.
|3||Sevi (m/n), Eni (f)||Lani||Leni|
Alvinian demonstrative pronouns are inflected for number (singular, dual, plural), gender (masculine, feminine, neuter) and case (nominative, genitive, accusative, dative). They are inflected according to the regular adjectival declension. They can be used as demonstrative adjectives as well.
Alvinian Present tense covers more or less the functions of English Present Simple and Present Continuous. Verbal morphology is very limited. Verbs in the present tense consist of a single form (the stem) which is combined with Subject Clitics in order to give rise to the full conjugation. Alvinian Aorist covers more or less the functions of English Past Simple and Past Perfect. The form consists of the stem of the verb with the addition of an -s morpheme at the end of it, and it has to be combined with Subject Clitics in order to give rise to the conjugation. The meaning of Alvinian Imperfect is that of a continuous or repeated action taking place in the past. The form consists of the stem of the verb with the addition of a -k morpheme at the end of it, and it has to be combined with Subject Clitics in order to give rise to the conjugation. Alvinian Future tense covers all the meanings of actions taking place in the future. The form consists of the stem of the verb with the addition of a -bo morpheme at the end of it, and it has to be combined with Subject Clitics in order to give rise to the conjugation.
|Verb "že" (to be)||Present||Aorist||Imperfect||Future|
|1S||Me že||Me žes||Me žek||Me žebo|
|2S||Te že||Te žes||Te žek||Te žebo|
|3Sm||El že||El žes||El žek||El žebo|
|3Sf||La že||La žes||La žek||La žebo|
|3Sn||Lo že||Lo žes||Lo žek||Lo žebo|
|1D||Na že||Na žes||Na žek||Na žebo|
|2D||Va že||Va žes||Va žek||Va žebo|
|3D||La že||La žes||La žek||La žebo|
|1P||Ne že||Ne žes||Ne žek||Ne žebo|
|2P||Ve že||Ve žes||Ve žek||Ve žebo|
|3Pm||Li že||Li žes||Li žek||Li žebo|
|3Pf||Le že||Le žes||Le žek||Le žebo|
|3Pn||Lą že||Lą žes||Lą žek||Lą žebo|
Just like finite verbs, conditional mood is realised by attaching the particle -bi'' at the end of the present stem. The negative conditional is formed by attaching the usual ni- before the verbal stem.
|Subject Clitic||Conditional||Negative conditional|
|Me, Te, El, La, Lo, Na, Va, La, Li, Le, Lą||Žebi||Nižebi|
Questions, Negation, Negative questions
In questions, the clitic + verb complex undergoes an inversion: the clitic, which is found in a proclitic position (before the verb) in declarative sentences, is found in an enclitic position (after the verb) in interrogative questions. The inversion takes places in all tenses. Some clitics (3sf, 3sn, the dual, 3p) don't change with inversion, but some others (1s, 2s, 3sm, 1p, 2p) lose their vowel. The negation is formed by attaching a ni- morpheme before the verbal stem. This negative particle is attached to all negative verbs in all tenses. In negative questions, the negative morpheme keeps the same position, while the clitic undergoes the same inversion phenomenon as their positive counterparts.
|Verb "že" (to be)||Declarative||Interrogative||Negative||Neg. Interr.|
|1S||Me že||Žem?||Me niže||Nižem?|
|2S||Te že||Žet?||Te niže||Nižet?|
|3Sm||El že||Žel?||El niže||Nižel?|
|3Sf||La že||Žela?||La niže||Nižela?|
|3Sn||Lo že||Želo?||Lo niže||Niželo?|
|1D||Na že||Žena?||Na niže||Nižena?|
|2D||Va že||Ževa?||Va niže||Niževa?|
|3D||La že||Žela?||La niže||Nižela?|
|1P||Ne že||Žen?||Ne niže||Nižen?|
|2P||Ve že||Žev?||Ve niže||Nižev?|
|3Pm||Li že||Želi?||Li niže||Niželi?|
|3Pf||Le že||Žele?||Le niže||Nižele?|
|3Pn||Lą že||Želą?||Lą niže||Niželą?|
Reflexivity in Alvinian is expressed with the Reflexive Clitic są. This clitic comes immediately after the Subject Clitic and it's written separately from the verb.
|Są vavere (to believe)||El są vavere (He believes)||El są vaveres (He believed)||El są nevavere ( He doesn't believe)||Są vaverel? (Does he believe?)|