|Anbirjeong, kaz Anbirjeong|
Official language in
|Andaegor, Anbir, Musun, Anbir Sjeoreong (in the USB)|
Anbirese (n gaz Anbirjeong /ən gaz anbirjəŋ/) is a major Talmic language descended from Tigol, inspired by Sino-Korean, Swedish, and Welsh. It is noted for its split-ergativity, like its close relative Ciètian. Anbirese is the official language of the Talman countries Anbir and Musun and of former colonies in Cualuav including Andaegor (from Tigol Aunḋ-Áeċur /ăŭnd aeguɾ/ 'sun's perch', a legendary landmass beyond the western Talman Ocean), a large country to the south of Fyxoom, and Txapoalli; it is the second-largest Talmic language, after Eevo, in terms of number of speakers. Like with German, there is a Standard Anbirese and various regiolects.
Thanks in large part to the printing press, Modern Anbirese rapidly gained prominence over a larger area in Northern Talma and came to serve as a lingua franca for northern mainland Talma and parts of Etalocin. Today, Anbirese still enjoys a certain status as a "cultured" language and is one of the most widely taught foreign languages in the Bitaletan world. Anbirese is somewhat mutually intelligible with Ciètian (like German and Dutch).
- 1 External history
- 2 Todo
- 3 Phonology
- 4 Dialectology
- 5 Orthography
- 6 Vocabulary
- 7 Morphology
- 7.1 Mutations
- 7.2 Nouns
- 7.3 Adjectives
- 7.4 Verbs
- 7.5 Copula
- 7.6 Pronouns
- 7.7 Prepositions
- 7.8 Conjunctions
- 7.9 Numerals
- 7.10 Derivational morphology
- 8 Syntax
- 9 Sample texts
The idea of Anbirese began as "Tsjoen", before I decided to make it a Tigolic language. The grammar is heavily based on my first Tiogall draft and Irish.
- Tigol ct /kʰtʰ/ (from PTal xt/xθ) should become tt /tʰ:/ > /t/ because Norse
- Turkish style evidentiality?
- past participle is unmarked, preterite is hearsay
- Inalienable v. alienable possession (genitive/prefixes for inalienable, an equivalent of "shel" for alienable)
- ot, od > at, ad
- Numbers: kjam, tjeodeor, nask, tyb, solj, stam, rvaz, laz, paerp, ngjor, jachim, knae
- scaimh 'mountain' > skeγ
- obey < TELIC + 'listen' (like in Þiús'k)
- Conjunctions that take pronominal suffixes, like Arabic ʔinna and ʔanna
- Swadesh list
- Tigol > Anbirese sound changes
- a verbalizer like -ować
- urjeon = to do much
- Used as an auxiliary (like Hebrew hirba): Urjeoni u ṡavri /üɾʲəni ü avɾi/ = he forgives often
- Verb prefixes:
- ar-: on, at > ar-
- (deut.) as-: telic > ys-
- (prot.) de-, (deut.) do-: in, at > dze-, do-
- é-: with, co- > e-
- fin-/sin- = well, thoroughly > fin-
- for-: causative, through > for-
- (prot.) ful-, (deut.) fol-: around, back > fl-
- imm-: immediately > im-, m-, n-, ŋ-
- (prot.) gel-, (deut.) gol-: up, out > gol-
- ro-: down > ro-
- sol-: a causative > sol-
- (prot.) su-, (deut.) so-: towards > su-
- (prot.) sur-, (deut.) sor-: back > sor-
- (prot.) u(cc)-, (deut.) oc-: from > oc-
- a e i o u > eo jeo je u eu
- ai ei oi ui > ae ji oe i
- á éa í(o) ó ú > a je ji o u
- ái éi ói úi éu > ai je oi ui jo
- eá eó eói iú iúi > ja jo joi ju jui
- ae ao aoi > e eu eui
- ia ua uai > ja veo vae
Old Anbirese and Old Ciètian both underwent the so-called Anbirese spirantization of Tigol aspirated stops: p ṗ t ṫ c ċ /pʰ bʰ tʰ dʰ kʰ gʰ/ > OAnb /f v θ ð x ɣ/. Modern Anbirese subsequently shifted /θ/ to unaspirated t /t/, /t/ (from Tigol d) to θ /tʰ/, /ð/ to z /z/, and deleted /ɣ/.
Anbirese has about 33 consonants:
- /k g x ŋ/
- /tɕ d͡ʑ tɕʰ ɲ/
- /t d tʰ z (ʑ) n/
- /p b f v m/
- /pʲ bʲ fʲ vʲ mʲ/
- /s ɕ ɧ h/
- /ɾ ɾʲ ɹ j ɴ̆/ [w]
Anbirese has phonetic palatalization, indicated by writing Cj. Anbirese makes a distinction between palatalized consonants (written Cj) and iotated consonants (written Clj):
- mjeg /mʲeg/ = to cover (cognate to Eevo mee 'to hide'); mljeg /mʲjeg/ = to sell (cognate to Eevo mleend 'shop')
- sjeong 'sky', sljeong 'blossom, bloom'
[w] is an allophone of hard /v/ after consonants.
/t d tʰ s z n/ are dental(ized).
- k χ ng /k x ŋ/
- kj χj ngj /tɕ ɕ ɲ/
- t θ n /t tʰ n/
- tj θj nj /tɕ tɕʰ ɲ/
- c cj /ts tɕ/
- p f m /p f m/
- pj fj mj /pʲ fʲ mʲ/
- s sj/stj/skj h /s ɧ h/
- r l lj j /r ɴ̆ l j/
At word-final position, the voicing distinction in unaspirated plosives is lost, and unaspirated plosives are unreleased.
- g γ /g Ø/
- gj γj /d͡ʑ j/
- d z /d z/
- dj zj /d͡ʑ ɹ/
- dz dzj /dz d͡ʑ/
- b v /b v/
- bj vj /bʲ vʲ/
- ng ngh /ŋ ŋʰ/
- nj nhj /ɲ ɲʰ/
- n nh /n nʰ/
- m mh mj mhj /m mʰ mʲ mʲʰ/
Anbirese has 3 types of mutations: lenition, eclipsis, and h-prothesis.
Null-initial words may get h-prothesis after certain words.
*The clusters written sp, st, sk do not mutate.
Anbirese has 7 vowel phonemes. eu /ɨ/ may be treated as a hard counterpart of i /i/: mi ni pi ti ci ki bi di gi fi vi are read as mji nji pji tji cji kji bji dji gji fji vji. si zi li are an exception: they're pronounced [ɕi ʑi ɲi].
|Close||i /i/||u /ü/||eu [ɨ]||o /o~u/|
|Mid||ae, e /e̞/||oe /ø~œ/||eo [ə]||eo /ʌ~ɔ/|
Stress is weak to nonexistent in Modern Anbirese.
Standard Anbirese is not tonal; it has an intonation like Seoul Korean.
Anbirese is primarily spoken in Anbir, Musun and in overseas Anbirese-speaking countries.
Anbir has more dialectal diversity. Some dialects still use the preterite conjugation inherited from Tigol instead of the participle form
Like other Talmic languages, Anbirese is written in the Talmic alphabet.
Like Ciètian, Anbirese has lenition and nasal mutation.
Like its close relative Ciètian, Anbirese has three genders for nouns (masculine, feminine, and neuter). Standard Anbirese has nominative and genitive cases, but many Anbirese dialects have lost all inflection.
Regardless of gender and number, the definite article is
- eo before nasals and resonants (except /j/): eo mar [ə̀ mǎɾ] 'the tree'
- n before other consonants (where it is pronounced /ɨn/) and before vowels (where it is pronounced /n/): n cheozir [ɨn xə̀ʑîɾ] 'the flower'; n abeoz [n‿àbə̂z] 'the book'
The above rule operates after the word is mutated for number/gender marking.
TODO: definite article mutations by gender
A common way to pluralize nouns is by tone change. This is the default paradigm for loans.
- mar /mǎɾ/ [mǎɾ] = a tree
- már /máɾ/ [mâɾ] = trees
However, many plurals use suffixes or other changes:
- íms /íms/ [îms] = a loved one
- imseot /ǐmsət/ [ìmsə̂t] = loved ones (some dialects use ímseot)
Musunese Anbirese always uses -eot for the plural.
Predicate adjectives are uninflected. Attributive adjectives agree with nouns in gender and number by mutations.
Adverbs derived from adjectives are unchanged (as in German).
|eclipsis||lenition||no mut.||no mut.||no mut.||eclipsis|
|Example||eo nalb nhjangeoban
/ə nawp ɲʰaŋəban/
'the interesting shop'
|n gaz zjangeoban
/ŋ gaz ɹaŋəban/
'the interesting language'
|n cheozir tjangeoban
/ŋ xəʑiɾ tɕaŋəban/
'the interesting flower'
|n θálb tjangeoban
/n tʰǎwp tɕaŋəban/
'the interesting shops'
|n káz tjangeoban
/ŋ k⁼ǎz tɕaŋəban/
'the interesting languages'
|eo nghéozir nhjangeoban|
/ə ŋʰɔ̌ʑiɾ ɲʰaŋəban/
'the interesting flowers'
- Comparative: tjangeobanteo = more interesting
- Superlative: tjangeobaneob = most interesting
Finite verb inflection
All forms of an Anbirese verb are formed from four principal parts:
- the present absolute stem
- the imperative stem
- the past stem
- the bare infinitive stem
The forms of an Anbirese verb are the following:
- Present tense: PRESENT + -i, negative θri + IMPERATIVE
- Subjunctive (after preverbs): also IMPERATIVE
- Future tense: aeb + IMPERATIVE
- Past tense: PAST + -i; induces split-ergativity
- Imperative: IMPERATIVE
- -eod infinitive: PRESENT + -eod
- bare infinitive: INFINITIVE
There is no aspect distinction.
- The -eod infinitive is used with some modal verbs.
- with djeobjeol, indicates purpose: "in order to VERB"
- with ok 'from', indicates stopping, avoiding, or preventing from VERBing
- with ast 'without', indicates "without VERBing" [Dialects may use the -a infinitive]
- The bare infinitive is mainly used to construct various deranked clauses, like the Biblical Hebrew infinite construct:
- with djeo 'in', indicates "while the action is taking place" or, when possessed, "while POSSESSOR is VERBing"
- with eor 'on', indicates "upon/as soon as the action is taking place" or, when possessed, "upon the POSSESSOR's VERBing"
- with nae 'by', indicates that the verb's action serves a reason or purpose clause: "by VERBing" or "because of VERBing"
- with ok 'from', indicates being "beyond VERBing, or preventing from VERBing", or when possessed, "beyond the POSSESSOR's VERBing"
- Lae mi kai ok neo soela djeo doreuk χjang. (be.PRES this much from my do.VN in try one) = This is too much for me to do all at once.
- with the accusative marker ljeo, indicates a complement clause. There are two possible syntaxes for the ljeo-complement clause:
- ljeo + SUBJECT + a + VERB-a
- ljeo + VERB + SUBJECT (possessed verbal noun)
- It is also used to form the infinitive absolute.
Anbirese has split-ergativity: past tense verbs display ergative alignment, and non-past tense verbs have accusative alignment.
That is, the subject is marked with the preposition u for transitive verbs, and is unmarked for intransitive verbs. In the case of transitive verbs, the ergative marking occurs regardless of whether or not there is a direct object. When a direct object is present, the word order becomes VOS.
As in Germanic, some Anbirese verbs form the past tense and the -eod infinitive by using ablaut.
Something complicated like Irish
na, skid, ang, i, jeo, pe, tid, skid, tar = I, you, he, she, it, we (exc), we (inc), you, they
There is also an archaic 2nd person singular pronoun fjeor 'thou'.
Prepositions inflect for person as in most Talmic languages.
- ljeo = accusative (ljeo + eo/n > ljeon) (only used with definite nouns in modern Anbirese: Aeli na ljeon skuir/lje/ljeo Heojad)
- ljeona, ljeok, ljang, lje, ljeoz, ljab, ljeof, ljeok, ljur
- djeo = in (djeo + eo/n > djeon)
- djeona, djeok, djang, di, djeoz, djab, djeof, djeok, djur
- rjeo = of
- (possessed forms are used for emaphsis)
- nae = with (inst.)
- naemna, naebeok, naebang, naepi, naebeoz, naeb, naebeof, naebeok, naebur
- ae = to, for (ae + eo/n > aen)
- aemna, aebeok, aebang, aepi, aebeoz, aeb, aebeof, aebeok, aebur
- ljang = around, about
- ljangna, ljangeok, ljang, ljanki, ljangeoz, ljangab, ljangeof, ljangeok, ljangur
- eor = at
- eorna, eoreok, orang, eri, eoreoz, eorab, eoreof, eoreok, eorur
- hjel = like
- hjelna, hjeleok, hjelang, hjeli, hjeleoz, hjelab, hjeleof, hjeleok, hjerur
- θrjeo = with (comitative)
- θrina, θrik, θrjang, θri, θriz, θrib, θrif, θrik, θrjur
- eor oed = against
- ok = from (ok + eo/n > on)
- ona, okeok, okang, eki, okeoz, okab, okeof, okeok, okur
- eok = and
- lu = xor
1-10 = chjang, tjedeor, nask, tob, sol, stang, rvaz, laz, paer, ngjor
11, 12, ... = jagjeong, xnae, nask ljang ngjor, tob ljang ngjor, etc.
chjameor, rjebjeor, naskeor, tobeor, soljeor, stangeor, rvazeor, lazeor, paerpeor, ngjoreor, jagjeor, xnaeëor, nask ljang ngjor-eor, etc.
- -a = verbalizer
- ba- = sub-
- -eod = nominalizer
- -jeond/-eond = nominalizer
- -eog = nominalizer
- -leon = nominalizer of adjectives
- mi- = mis-, pseudo-
- ing- = verbalizer (Wdm.)
- bin- = nominalizer (Wdm.)
- More: Anbirese/Syntax
- N jangtal mokstin: Djeon hslakeort farsngoein eo tartsor. Toglaïn eom ngad djeo lib un san mje, eok aesjeong e eor fjen djeon daki sjeo ndoreukeond nknjet.
- /n‿jaŋtʰal mokst⁼in | dʑən hʟak⁼ərt farsŋœin ə t⁼arts⁼ur | tʰuglain ün zan mje ʟib ɔm ŋad əs ɛɧɔŋ e əɾ fjen dʑən datɕ⁼i ɧə nuɾükənd ŋnjet/
- the story so_far: in-DEF beginning create-PST DEF universe. anger-PAST person/PL many ADV greatly ERG-DEF thing this, and meet/PST it at eye/PL in-DEF wideness as decision bad.
- The story so far: In the beginning the universe was created. This has made many people very angry and been widely regarded as a bad move.
- Darkjeori ba h-eom djeo hsjeok eos blje naen fraechleod eos naen meorjeond. Oskjeonin har naen mabrin eos naen stvarnga, eos pjeol eorur, djeo skrateon djeo ljesvar n jezeokleon aeb h-eosrag.
- /daɾtɕəɾi ba hɔm dʑə ɧɔk əs bje nen fɾexləd əs nen mɔɾʲənd. uɧənin har nen mabɾin əs nen stwaɾŋa, əs pʲɔl ɔɾüɾ dʑə skɾatən dʑə jeswaɾ njezəkʟən eb hɔsɾag/
- be_born-PRES all human PRED free and same INST-DEF dignity and INST-DEF right/PL. endow-PAST 3PL INST-DEF reason and INST-DEF conscience, and part on-3PL ADV mutual in spirit DEF brotherhood LJEO act.
- All humans are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.