|Anbirjeong, kaz Anbirjeong|
Anbirese (n gaz Anbirjeong /ən gâz ánbirjəŋ/ [ànbírjəŋ]) is a major Talmic language descended from Tigol, inspired by Sino-Korean, Swedish, and Welsh. It is noted for its split-ergativity, like its close relative Ciètian with which it is mutually intelligible to some degree. On the planet of Tricin (Anbirese: n Smo /ə̀n smô/), it is an analogue of German in terms of influence. Anbirese is the official language of the Talman countries Anbir and Musun and of former colonies in Cualuav and Txapoalli; it is the second-largest Talmic language in terms of number of speakers. Like most modern Talmic languages, Anbirese is a descendant of Thensarian. Like with German, there is a Standard Anbirese and various regiolects.
Thanks in large part to the printing press, Modern Anbirese rapidly gained prominence over a larger area in Northern Talma and came to serve as a lingua franca for northern mainland Talma. Today, Anbirese still enjoys status as a "cultured" language and is one of the most widely taught foreign languages in the Bitaletan world.
- 1 External history
- 2 Todo
- 3 Phonology
- 4 Dialectology
- 5 Orthography
- 6 Vocabulary
- 7 Morphology
- 7.1 Mutations
- 7.2 Nouns
- 7.3 Adjectives
- 7.4 Verbs
- 7.5 Copula
- 7.6 Pronouns
- 7.7 Prepositions
- 7.8 Conjunctions
- 7.9 Numerals
- 7.10 Derivational morphology
- 8 Syntax
- 9 Sample texts
The idea of Anbirese began as "Tsjoen", before I decided to make it a Tigolic language. The grammar is heavily based on my first Tiogall draft.
- ot, od > vat, vada
- Numbers: kjam, tjeodeor, nask, tyb, solj, stam, rvaz, laz, paerp, ngjor, jachim, knae
- scaimh 'mountain' > skeγ
- obey < TELIC + 'listen' (like in Þiús'k)
- Conjunctions that take pronominal suffixes, like Arabic ʔinna and ʔanna (or maybe Bhlaoighne)
- Swadesh list
- Tigol > Anbirese sound changes
plus, Anbirese has "accusativus in infinitivo"!
le could be omitted before indefinite nouns in modern Anbirese
but Maith Sivy always used it
that's one way of distinguishing archaic from modern Anbirese
another could be the use of the pronoun 'fiar'
which in modern Anbirese was completely replaced with 'scid'
ca-ephyth = of that
ca-leth = that (acc.)
ca-dzeth = in that; there
ma-, ca-, ta-, m-compounds: this, that, what, which
in that house = ca-dzen souar
or "dze cin souar"
both are valid
the first being more archaic
a verbalizer like -ować
- Verb prefixes:
- ar-: on, at > ar-
- (deut.) as-: telic > ys-
- (prot.) de-, (deut.) do-: in, at > dze-, do-
- é-: with, co- > e-
- fin-/sin- = well, thoroughly > fin-
- for-: causative, through > for-
- (prot.) ful-, (deut.) fol-: around, back > fl-
- imm-: immediately > im-, m-, n-, ŋ-
- (prot.) gel-, (deut.) gol-: up, out > gol-
- ro-: down > ro-
- sol-: a causative > sol-
- (prot.) su-, (deut.) so-: towards > su-
- (prot.) sur-, (deut.) sor-: back > sor-
- (prot.) u(cc)-, (deut.) oc-: from > oc-
- a e i o u > eo jeo ji u u
- ai ei oi ui > ae ji oe i
- á éa í(o) ó ú > a je ji o ou
- ái éi ói úi éu > ai je oi ui jau
- eá eó eói iú iúi > ja jo joi ju jui
- ae ao aoi > e eu eui
- ia ua uai > ja veo vae
Anbirese has about 33 consonants:
- /k g x ŋ/
- /tɕ d͡ʑ tɕʰ ɲ/
- /t d tʰ z (ʑ) n/
- /p b f v m/
- /pʲ bʲ fʲ vʲ mʲ/
- /s ɕ ɧ h/
- /ɾ ɾʲ ɹ j ɴ̆/ [w]
Anbirese has phonetic palatalization, indicated by writing Cj. Anbirese makes a distinction between palatalized consonants (written Cj) and iotated consonants (written Clj): e.g. mjeg /mʲeg/ = to cover (cognate to Eevo mee 'to hide'); mljeg /mʲjeg/ = to sell (cognate to Eevo mleend 'shop').
[w] is an allophone of hard /v/ after consonants.
- k χ ng /k x ŋ/
- kj χj ngj /tɕ ɕ ɲ/
- t θ n /t tʰ n/
- tj θj nj /tɕ tɕʰ ɲ/
- c cj /ts tɕ/
- p f m /p f m/
- pj fj mj /pʲ fʲ mʲ/
- s sj/stj/skj h /s ɧ h/
- r l lj j /r ɴ̆ j j/
At word-final position, the voicing distinction in unaspirated plosives is lost, and unaspirated plosives are unreleased.
- g γ /g Ø/
- gj γj /d͡ʑ j/
- d z /d z/
- dj zj /d͡ʑ ɹ/
- dz dzj /dz d͡ʑ/
- b v /b v/
- bj vj /bʲ vʲ/
- ng ngh /ŋ ŋʰ/
- nj nhj /ɲ ɲʰ/
- n nh /n nʰ/
- m mh mj mhj /m mʰ mʲ mʲʰ/
Anbirese has 3 types of mutations: lenition, eclipsis, and h-prothesis.
Null-initial words may get h-prothesis after certain words.
*The clusters written sp, st, sk do not mutate.
Anbirese has 7 vowel phonemes. eu /ɨ/ may be treated as a hard counterpart of i /i/: mi ni pi ti ci ki bi di gi fi vi are read as mji nji pji tji cji kji bji dji gji fji vji. si zi are an exception: they're pronounced [ɕi ʑi].
|Close||i /i/||u /ü/||eu [ɨ]||o /o~u/|
|Mid||e /e~ɛ/||oe /ø~œ/||eo [ə]||eo /ʌ~ɔ/|
Stress is weak to nonexistent in Modern Anbirese.
Pitch accent is phonemic in Standard Anbirese, and often distinguishes different grammatical forms of the same word.
Each word has one of two possible pitch accents:
- High: high and level, falls off word-finally; unmarked
- Rising (or low, or peaking): starts low and rises, peaks at the second syllable; transcribed with an acute accent
- skaen /skên/ (high tone) = 'a friend (sg)'; n skaen /ən skên/ = 'the friend'
- skáen /skěn/ (rising tone) = 'friends (pl)'; n skáen /ən skěn/ = 'the friends'
- ael (high tone) = 'loves (present tense)'
- áel (rising tone) = 'loved (past tense)'
A handful of dialects lack pitch accent.
- General fall: declarative clauses
- General rise: dependent clauses
- Interrogative: interrogative clauses
Anbirese is primarily spoken in Anbir, Musun and in overseas Anbirese colonies such as Euldondjama.
Anbir has more dialectal diversity.
Musunese Anbir is similar to Standard Anbirese Anbirese, but has no pitch accent and uses more analytic constructions.
Like other Talmic languages, Anbirese is written in the Talmic alphabet.
Like Ciètian, Anbirese has lenition and nasal mutation.
Like its close relative Ciètian, Anbirese has three genders for nouns (masculine, feminine, and neuter). Unlike Ciètian, however, it has lost cases.
Regardless of gender and number, the definite article is
- eo before nasals and resonants (except /j/): eo mar [ə̀ mǎɾ] 'the tree'
- n before other consonants and before vowels: n χeozir [ə̀n xə̀ʑîɾ] 'the flower'; n abeot [nàbə̂t] 'the book'
The above rule operates after the word is mutated for number/gender marking.
TODO: definite article mutations by gender
|eclipsis||lenition||no mut.||no mut.||no mut.||eclipsis|
A common way to pluralize nouns is by tone change. This is the default paradigm for loans.
- mar /mǎɾ/ [mǎɾ] = a tree
- már /máɾ/ [mâɾ] = trees
However, many plurals use suffixes or other changes:
- íms /íms/ [îms] = a loved one
- imseot /ǐmsət/ [ìmsə̂t] = loved ones (some dialects use ímseot)
Musunese Anbirese always uses -eot for the plural.
Predicate adjectives are uninflected. Attributive adjectives agree with nouns in gender and number by mutations.
Adverbs derived from adjectives are unchanged (as in German).
|eclipsis||lenition||no mut.||no mut.||no mut.||eclipsis|
|Example||eo nalb nhjangeoban
/ə nawp ɲʰaŋəban/
'the interesting shop'
|n gaz zjangeoban
/ŋ gaz ɹaŋəban/
'the interesting language'
|n χeozir θjangeoban
/ŋ xəʑiɾ tɕʰaŋəban/
'the interesting flower'
|n tálb θjangeoban
/n t⁼ǎwp tɕʰaŋəban/
'the interesting shops'
|n káz θjangeoban
/ŋ k⁼ǎz tɕʰaŋəban/
'the interesting languages'
|eo nghéozir nhjangeoban|
/ə ŋʰɔ̌ʑiɾ ɲʰaŋəban/
'the interesting flowers'
- Comparative: θjangeobanteo = more interesting
- Superlative: θjangeobaneob = most interesting
Finite verb inflection
All forms of an Anbirese verb are formed from four principal parts:
- the present absolute stem
- the imperative stem
- the past stem
- the bare infinitive stem
The forms of an Anbirese verb are the following:
- Present tense: PRESENT + -ig, negative θri + IMPERATIVE
- Subjunctive (after preverbs): also IMPERATIVE
- Future tense: aeb + IMPERATIVE
- Past tense: PAST + -in; induces split-ergativity
- Imperative: IMPERATIVE
- -eod infinitive: PRESENT + -eod
- bare infinitive: INFINITIVE
There is no aspect distinction.
- The -eod infinitive is used with some modal verbs.
- with djeobjeol, indicates purpose: "in order to VERB"
- with ok 'from', indicates stopping, avoiding, or preventing from VERBing
- with ast 'without', indicates "without VERBing" [Dialects may use the -a infinitive]
- The bare infinitive is mainly used to construct deranked time clauses (like the Biblical Hebrew bi- + infinite construct), and also
- with djeo 'in', indicates "while the action is taking place" or, when possessed, "while POSSESSOR is VERBing"
- with eor 'on', indicates "upon/as soon as the action is taking place" or, when possessed, "upon the POSSESSOR's VERBing"
- with nae 'by', indicates that the verb's action serves a reason or purpose clause: "by VERBing" or "because of VERBing"
- with ok 'from', indicates being "beyond VERBing, or preventing from VERBing", or when possessed, "beyond the POSSESSOR's VERBing"
- Lae mi kai ok neo soela djeo doreuk χjang. (be.PRES this much from my do.VN in try one) = This is too much for me to do all at once.
- with the accusative marker ljeo, indicates a complement clause. There are two possible syntaxes for the ljeo-complement clause:
- ljeo + SUBJECT + seo/s + VERB-a
- ljeo + VERB + SUBJECT (possessed verbal noun)
- It is also used to form the infinitive absolute.
Anbirese has split-ergativity: past tense verbs display ergative alignment, and non-past tense verbs have accusative alignment.
That is, the subject is marked with the preposition u for transitive verbs, and is unmarked for intransitive verbs. In the case of transitive verbs, the ergative marking occurs regardless of whether or not there is a direct object.
As in Germanic, some Anbirese verbs form the past tense and the -eod infinitive by using ablaut.
Anbirese is zero copula in the present tense; ngu, si, jeo and tar can be used as present tense copulas.
The past tense copula is lazeon and the infinitive is faz.
na, skid, ngu, si, jeo, me, tid, skid, tar = I, you, he, she, it, we (exc), we (inc), you, they
There is also an archaic 2nd person singular pronoun fjeor 'thou'.
Prepositions inflect for person as in most Talmic languages.
- ljeo = accusative (ljeo + eo/n > ljeon) (only used with definite nouns in modern Anbirese)
- ljeona, ljeok, lju, li, ljeoz, ljam, ljeof, ljeok, ljur
- djeo = in (djeo + eo/n > djeon)
- djeona, djeok, dju, di, djeoz, djam, djeof, djeok, djur
- rjeo = of
- rjeona, rjeok, rju, ri, rjeoz, rjam, rjeof, rjeok, rjur
- nae = with (inst.)
- naemna, naebeok, naebu, naebi, naebeoz, naebam, naebeof, naebeok, naebur
- ae = to, for (ae + eo/n > aen)
- aemna, aebeok, aebu, aebi, aebeoz, aebam, aebeof, aebeok, aebur
- ljang = around, about
- ljangna, ljangeok, ljangu, ljangi, ljangeoz, ljangam, ljangeof, ljangeok, ljangur
- eor = at
- eorna, eoreok, oru, eri, eoreoz, eoram, eoreof, eoreok, eorur
- hjel = like
- hjelna, hjeleok, hjelu, hjeli, hjeleoz, hjelam, hjeleof, hjeleok, hjerur
- θri = with (comitative)
- eor oed = against
- ok = from (ok + eo/n > on)
- ona, okeok, oku, eki, okeoz, okam, okeof, okeok, okur
- eok = and
- nu = xor
1-10 = χjang, θjeodeor, nask, tob, solj, stang, rvaz, laz, paerp, ngjor
11, 12, ... = jagjeong, χnae, nask ljang ngjor, tob ljang ngjor, etc.
χjameor, rjebjeor, naskeor, tobeor, soljeor, stangeor, rvazeor, lazeor, paerpeor, ngjoreor, jagjeor, χnaeëor, nask ljang ngjor-eor, etc.
- -a = verbalizer
- ba- = sub-
- -eod = nominalizer
- -jeond/-eond = nominalizer
- -eog = nominalizer
- -leon = nominalizer of adjectives
- mi- = mis-, pseudo-
- ing- = verbalizer (Wdm.)
- bin- = nominalizer (Wdm.)
- More: Anbirese/Syntax
- N jangθal mokstin: Djeon hslakeort farsngoein eo tartsor. Θoglaïn un san mje lib eom ngvad eok sjeong e eor fjen djeon dtaki sjeot ntoreuk nknjet.
- /n‿jaŋtʰal mokst⁼in | dʑən hʟak⁼ərt farsŋœin ə t⁼arts⁼ur | tʰuglain ün zan mje ʟib ɔm ŋwad ək ɧɔŋ e əɾ fjen dʑən datɕ⁼i ɧət nuɾük ŋnjet/
- the story so_far: in-DEF beginning create-PST DEF universe. anger-PAST ERG-DEF thing this very person/PL many and meet/PST it at eye/PL in-DEF wideness as turn bad.
- The story so far: In the beginning the universe was created. This has made many people very angry and been widely regarded as a bad move.
- Darkjeorig ba h-eom djeo hsjeok eok blje naen fraeχleod eok naen méorjeond. Oskjeonin har naen masrin eok naen stvarnga, eok pjeozjeo eorur djeo skrateon djeo ljesvar n jezeokleon a heosrag.
- /daɾtɕəɾig ba hɔm dʑə ɧɔk ək bje nen fɾexləd ək nen mɔɾʲənd. uɕtɕənin har nen masɾin ək nen stwaɾŋa, ək pʲɔɹə ɔɾüɾ dʑə skɾatən dʑə jeswaɾ njezəkʟən a hɔsɾag/
- be_born-PRES all human PRED free and same INST-DEF dignity and INST-DEF right/PL. endow-PAST 3PL INST-DEF reason and INST-DEF conscience, and part on-3PL ADV mutual in spirit DEF brotherhood A act.
- All humans are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.